Experiment Approaches to Foods
Experiment Approaches to Foods HNF 300
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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jace Gleason on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 300 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/207277/hnf-300-michigan-state-university in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
MILK Milk Cre am I COMPOSITION A Lipids a N E 03 0 Classi ed by lipid levels a Whole milk b Lowfat c 2 d Skim Milk fat Form of lipids in milk TG s 9 CHO s Lactose Proteins Casein and Whey Proteins Where proteins are found a Curd b Whey 2 Types of proteins a Casein 1 Three main forms 2 Sensitive to Isoelectric point is 3 Not very sensitive to 4 Sensitive to enzyme 5 Levels 6 Found in the form of a K casein found where b Kcasein function c Other forms found where d Appearance of milk b Whey proteins D lactalbumin and D lactoglobulin 1 heat sensitive denature 2 oating skin on 3 cooked avor due to II PROCESSING A Pasteurization 1 heat treatment to 2 Normal pasteurization 145F 30 minutes 160F for 15 seconds HTST 3 Ultra High Temperature 280F 2 seconds STERILE 03 Homo genization Milk treated mechanically to 0 Evaporated Milk U Sweetened Condensed Milk P1 Buttermilk 7391 Butter churned milk Q Cream F Drying Instant III FERMENTATION l Cultured buttermilk 2 Yogurt 3 Acidophilus milk 4 Sour Cream N 18 fat cream bacterial culture 5 Cheesenatural Cheese production involves formation of a curd and removal of a lot of water a Formed by Acid b Formed by acid rennin 1 Bacterial culture produces 2 This gets casein close to its 3 Then proteolytic enzyme is added to form curd 0 Cheese Formation k casein 9 parakcasein Ca H 9 Steps d Aging or Cheese Ripening 959 6 Processed Cheese a b e Types 1 Cheese Food 2 Cheese Spread 3 Club Cheese 7 Low fat cheeses III Preparation A Heat 1 Heating milk a b Dimension of Baking Bakery Ingredients our liquids salt sugar fat eggs leavening agents IFDFNPFDNT l FLOUR A Types 1 Hard wheat a b c 2 Soft wheat a b c B Milling see book Chapt 16 C WHEAT Kernel 1 Bran 2 Endosperm starch granules in a protein matrix 3 Germ Fat portion ofwheat D Composition of Flour 1 Proteins KEY a Minor role 2 a D amylase b D amylase c lipoxidase b Major Role 1 Speci c gluten proteins Term Gluten means a Gliadin shape characteristic shorter mw b Glutenin shape characteristic long high mw 2 Gluten a Bonds in gluten b Gluten Development 1 Sugar 2 Fat lt 2 l Flour Composition continued Carbohydrate a Cellulose b Pentosans 0 Starch Gelatinization E Examples of Flour TYPES 1 All purpose flour 2 Cake Flour 3 Bread Flour 4 Pastry Flour 5 Self Rising Flour 6 Durum Flour 7 Whole Wheat Flour 8 Modi ed Wheat Flour Retail aBeaching b Maturing agents 1 2 3 9 Rye Flour ll Liquid supplies water Bakery Ingredients cont A Function 1 hydrates 2 solvent 3 steam 4 leavening reactions from leavening agent B May supply 1 Acids 2 Flavor 3 Fat gt w gt l A A 01 O l 0 m l A A Salt Bakery Function 1 2 3 Non Bakery Function 1 2 Sugar Types of sugars Granulated cane or beet Powdered confectionery pulverized granulated sugar anticaking agent added corn starch Raw sugar not fully re ned 97 pure sucrose nonsugar impurities Brown sugar granulated sugar molasseslike syrup 24 H20 9196 sucrose Glucose sold as dextrose less sweet than sucrose Maltose starch fermented with enzymes used for color and avor Lactose milk sugar participates with protein Maillard RX Invert sugar resist crystallization form when sugar is heat with water acid orjust invertase enzyme glucose fructose mix uid Types of Syrups Molasses 80 solids 5075 of which is sucrose or invert sugar 20 water byproduct of sugar re ning 3 grades available contains some minerals and other nonsugar material Maple syrup sap of maple trees boiled down 50 gal 9 1 gal Honey mostly fructose absorbs moisture lots ofinvert sugars Corn Syrup acid hydrolysis of corn starch 5 High fructose corn syrup enzyme hydrolysis of corn starch C Artificial Sweeteners A0 l 01 Saccharin break down bitter with heat Aspartame break down with heat AcesulfameK Sunette no break down with heat but use with some sugar Sugar cont Sucralose SPLENDA Made from sugar 600 times as sweet Used in wide range of foods including baked Very stable D Functions of Sugar in Baked Products 1 tenderize 2 hygroscopic 3 avor 4 volume a b 5 color reactions called 6 coagulation temperature 7 delays 8 yeast V FAT Fuction in Baked Goods A Flavor B Color C Tenderness D FlakinessSheeting 1 Plastic fats 2 Flakiness 3 Sheeting 4 Texture a type of fat b emulsifiers present or not 5 heat transfer medium fat is a good conductor of heat VI Eggs A Flavor B Color C Volume D Structure 1 2 3 E Emulsi er VII Leavening Agents Three Major A 002 Producing 1 Baking powders Acid salt Nabicarb ller starch 2 002 a Retail 1 Name 2 When 002 production 3 Problem b No longer retail 1 Made up of 2 When 002 production NOTE TOO MUCH BAKING POWDER MAKES PRODUCES COARSE AND SLIGHTLY HARSH TEXTURE 2 Other CHEMICAL CO2 PRODUCING a Sodium bicarbonate acid ingredients B BIOLOGICAL SOURCE OF CO2 Yeast 1 Types a Active Dry Yeast b QuickRise Active Dry Yeast c Compressed Yeast 2 Fermentation 002 production a reaction S cerevisiae glucose 23 2 CszoH 002 it b Yeast food c Enzymes in yeast d Salt effect e pH effect f Sour dough bread LIPIDS FATS AND OILS I Introduction A Principle uses of fats in food preparation bP N B De nition Group of organic substances covering a variety of compounds which are insoluble in water nonpolar and soluble in organic solvents such as ether and chlorform Lipids include II Composition Comparison to carbohydrates A Glycerol backbone esterified with fatty acids fa l Glycerol backbone remains the same but the fat characteristics change with the different types of fa s that combine with it 2 Fatty Acids smallest is largest commonly found in foods is B Physical Characteristics related to applications in foods Fats that are hard at room temperature have a high melting point and when they are liquid at room temperature they have a low melting point oils 1 Melting points solid fat 7 a The longer the fatty acids of the lipid the the melting point b The greater the unsaturation in the fatty acids the lower the melting point c The most common fa s on lipids are C 160 C 161 C 180 C 181 C 18 2 C 183 d Con guration Cis versus Trans e Shorter fa s and avorodor 2 Crystal Size a Four Forms of Crystals in Fats C Chemical Characteristics Deterioration 1 Rancidity caused by either oxidation or hydrolysis a Hydrolytic Rancidity high heat Reaction b Hydrolytic Rancidity fat splitting enzymes lipases Reaction Example 2 Oxidative Rancidity a Unsaturated fatty acids can undergo this reaction Involves formation and breakdown of Break down products are Chemical Reactions cont b Reactions see text book p 285286 Initiation Propagation Termination c Prevention of oxidative rancidity 1 2 3 4 Antioxidants a How they function b Composition c Examples D Food Applications 1 Frying high heat a Changes in fat 2 3 4 Lowering of smoke point a Reaction b Smoke points of different fatsoils are different c Use of fats oils will affect smoke point d Fats oils with higher smoke points are for deep fat frying e Factors that lower smoke point are b Fat Absorption 1 Ingredient affect 2 Temperature affect 3 Surface area affect 4 Recommendations for use of fats oils for frying Food Applications cont 2 Shortening Power what is it What is shortening FL 0quotm E Processing Fats 1 Refining 2 Rendering 3 Hydrogenationwhat is it What changes does it produce 4 Winterizing 5 Tempering Bloom is 7391 N E 4 V39 Choosing Fats see book Oils Spreads a butter b clari ed butter 0 margarine 1 soft or tub 2 low or nonfat ShorteningSolid fats lard shortening beef tallow Substituting Fats a Butter for margarine b Shortening for margarine butter 0 Oils Fat Substitutes see page 306 text Simplesse NLite Stellar Oatrim AVicol Trailblazer Olestra Olean FAKE FATS SUCROSE POLYESTER P amp G Sucrose tail OLESTRA not digested not absorbed No kcals available to body for absorption of fat soluble vitamins Can be heated SIMPLESSE Egg white and milk Monsanto 12 kcal per gram Cannot be heated use in frozen desserts FDA approved LITESSE CHO sugar alcohol P zerJapanese l kcal per gram bulking agent Not FDA approved Caprenin P amp G Glycerol and 3 med chain FA 5 kcal gram Substitute for cocoa butter in chocolate Not FDA approved TRAILBLAZER Kraft GF Egg white and milk protein Different process than Simplesse Used in frozen products salad dressings and margarine FDA approval not needed EGGS I STRUCTURECOMPOSITION A Egg from inside out B Composition 1 Yolk 2 WhiteAlbumin 3 Shell 11 EGG STORAGE Deterioration A What happens as storage time increases 1 Lysozyme 2 Water from white 3 Yolk 4 Vitelline membrane 5 Amt of thin white 6 Air cell increases 7 pH increases Loss of C02 B Egg Quality 1 Overall 2 Flavor 3 Baking 4 Methods to determine quality a In shell Candling b Out of shell l Albumen index 2 Haugh unit 3 Yolk index 111 EGG FUNCTION Thicken bind coat clarify emulsify leaven control crystallization smooth not sandy give structure avor smoothness moistness IV EGG GRADESIZE A grade and size are not the same Grade 1 thick white 2 height ofyolk 3 size of air cell B Grades 1 AA A 2 Grade B for ice cream 3 Grade C dried for cake miX etc C Size Jumbo Extra Lg Lg Med recipes based on V EGG COOKERY Overheat white Yolk A Egg white coagulates at and yolk at B 1 sugar and 7 coagulation temp C 1 salt and 7 coagulation temp D 1 Acid some and 7 coagulation temp Excess heating of acid egg mixture B If overcook in product custard etc 1 Stirred 2 Over bake C Cook In Shell Hard and Soft Cook Eggs 1 35 min soft 2 2025 min for hard cook or boil 1216 minutes A IF heat hot too long GREEN RING S from Fe from occurs more readily at cool bP N B Peeling C Read in book about custards cooked eggs out of shell 437439 meringues VI EGG FOAMING Foaming contributes to A Beating causes of albumen proteins 1 Unfold protein 2 Proteins a Ovomucin b Globulins c Over beating Elasticity is needed B Factors Affecting Foaming 1 Type ofbeating a Equipment b Sugar Added 2 Time a 1 time at 1st then b Max stability is reached 3 Temperature RT whites beaten 4 Thin white portion of egg whips to 5 pH Cream of tartar to 7 a Vol is a little less b Add it in the beginning FOOD EVALUATION Obj ective Measurements Subjective Measurements SENSORY EVALUATION Def method used to measure analyze and interpret reactions to those characteristics of foods and materials as they are perceived by the senses of sight taste touch and hearing Sensory evaluation of quality by a panel of judges is essential in most food experiments 1 Elements of avor A Taste 1 Sweet substances mostly nonionic tip of tongue 2 Bitter substances back of tongue a nonionic b ionic bitterness detection 3 Saltiness tip oftongue a anions b cations 4 Sourness caused by H ions B Odor olfactory epithiliium Pleasant sensations in eating come more from odor than taste Four fundamental Odor Sensations a fragrant of sweet owery b acid or sour c burnt or scorched d caprylic or goatlike C Mouthfeel 1 Sense oftouch a temp b tactile sensations characteristics of food which in uence tactile aspect of mouthfeel are the following a texture eg b astringency in cider c consistency important in fudge ice cream etc smooth 2 Pain Sense a pungency onions garlic horseradish vinegar allspice cloves sage mints mustard cabbage turnips b bite ginger red white black pepper D Other aspects of sensation known as avor I alkaline taste 2 unclassi ed mono sodium glutamate 3 psychological factors wrt avor unpleasant associations rejected 11 Sensory Testing A Type of Test depends on the objective of the experiment or study 1 Three types a Discrimination tests difference tests or similarity tests Type of panelists b Affective tests like or prefer c Descriptive Analysis qualitative and quantitative terms PU EXAMPLES OF SENSORY TESTS Discrimination Tests E Simple Difference Test Fquot Triangle DuoTrio 0 3 1 Paired Comparison N Affective Tests a Ranking b Rating 3 Descriptive a qualitative b quantitative C Sampling for Sensory 1 Sample preparation 2 Number of samples 3 Panelists 4 Testing Environment PHYSICAL METHODS OF FOOD EVALUATION 1 Volume 2 Texture a WamerBratzler Shear b Shear Press 0 Penetrometer d Shortometer 3 Rheology ow of matter Viscosity a Line Spread Test b Boswick Consistometer PROTEINS 1 Composition Proteins are molecules made up of many amino acids joined together by bonds A protein may contain A Amino Acids 1 Amino acids are organic substances that are the of proteins Groups that they contain are 2 See the AA table for the composition ofR group Fourth edition Table 131 p 270 Third edition Table 121 p 317 B Proteins See fourth edition p 272273 third edition p 316 gure in book 1 How proteins are formed from amino acids joined 2 Proteins are very large molecules 2 Primary Structure of Proteins N CCN CC etc 3 Secondary Structure of Proteins Type of bonding that forms the spiral is 4 Tertiary Structure of Proteins 0L helix of protein twists and turns and held by what type of bonds ROLE OF WATER IN FOODS 1 States of Matter A 03 p 1 p 1 gt DJ 0 U Solids l Amorphous 2 Crystalline dynamic state of solid that contain liquid Liquids Heat of fusion Gases l Latent heat of vaporization 2 Property of gases with heating Functions of Water and Liquids in Foods Flow type of bonding Surface tension interfacial tension Evaporations Vapor Pressure 111 Water as a Dispersing Medium Solvent A Dissolved molecules B Solubility C Concentration D Colloidal Dispersions l Phases of Colloidal Dispersions a dispersion medium b dispersed substance 2 Examples a Sol b Gel c Foam d Colloidal dispersion of gas in solid e Colloidal dispersion of liquid in a liquid 3 Emulsions a Energy b Types 0 Emulsi er d Stabilizer E Suspension ICE CRYSTALLIZATION FROZEN DESSERTS ICE CREAM Federal Standard of Identity at lest 10 milk fat 20 total milk solids and optional additives 05 stabilizers and 02 emulsi ers Flavor Body and Texture 1 Plain Ice Cream Ingredients A Sweeteners Sweeteners sugar lowers freezing point adds smoothness B Milk solids C Fat D Stabilizers not emulsi ers a b c Examples Gums such as d Heat shock e Too Much E Emulsi ers monoglycerides 11 Other Frozen Dessert Types A Composite B Ice Milk C Sherbet D Sorbet E French ice cream or frozen custard whole eggs or usually egg yolks 14 111 How To Make Ice Cream A Ice salt B Churn C Freezing l Dissolved substances concentration and freezing point 2 As the water crystallized 3 Endothermic As ice melt is absorbs heat from miX 4 Mix is stirred to a b c Overrun 1 home made 2 commercial 3 too great 4 too little D Ripening Hardening l 2 3 E Store ice cream at SUGAR CRYSTALLIZATION Depending on sugars concentration in a product they can impact the texture of various food products I Candies A CANDY TYPES l Crystalline 2 Noncrystalline or amorphous B Crystalline Candies 1 Ingredients a sugar 1 solubility in water 2 saturation 3 super saturation b liquid c avoring d interfering agents 1 glucose andor fructose a Can add b Or can form them Inversion Invert Sugar 2 c Acid addition 1 Time after acid 2 Too much acid N High amount of interfering agents E corn syrup 4 fat V39 protein 0 Other ingredients 2 Fudge Preparation Heating 2 19 0quotm 3 Fudge Preparation Agitation 999 4 Ripening Meats MEATS Meat I STRUCTURECOMPOSITION Meat is made up of muscle bers surrounded by connective tissue Water Protein Fat CHO Vit minerals A PROTEINS l MUSCLE FIBERSMUSCLE PROTEINS a Myosin b Actin c Tropomyosin d Troponin e Formed Protein 2 Muscle Contraction ATP Ca Myosin Actin Actomyosin Ca 3 Muscle to Meat Rigor Mortisi a After slaughter glycogen 9 no more ATP b RM time of onset c Breakage of links between actin and myosin when Meats 4 Meat a Tendemess Proteolytic enzymes b Dark Cutting Beef c Pale Soft Exudative PSE d Cold Shortening e Other ways to tenderize meat 2 CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROTEINS a Collagen iwhere found 1 type of protein 2 color 3 concentration of and location 4 animal age effect 5 cooking effect b Elastin l where found 2 color 3 effect of cooking 4 effect of animal age B Fat 1 Where lipids in meat are found Meats 2 Marbling 3 Types of fatty acids most often found C Pigments In Meat 1 Types Myoglobin and Hemoglobin 2 Forms of myoglobin names and colors a Muscle color wo exposure to oxygen b Muscle in body or when vacuum packed c Fresh cut muscle initial exposure to oxygen d Oxidized form e Heat it f Cured muscle myoglobin nitrates nitrites 9 nitric oxide myoglobin color is color is heard nitrosylhemochrome color is oxidation 1 Color is D Organization of muscle components from myo laments to muscles 1 what are myo laments a thin b thick Meats 2 what are the Myo brils a what are the Sarcomeres 3 what are the muscle Fibers 4 What makes up the Muscle E Names of Connective Tissue Around Fibers Muscle etc 1 Endomysium 2 Perimysium 3 Epimysium II COOKING METHODS A Heating 1 Fat 2 Water 3 Muscle bers 4 Meat cuts with a lot of collagen a to tenderize Reaction b Moist Heat Methods 1 2 3 Meats 5 Meat with low amounts of collagen a Method to cook b Over cooking results in c Types of Dry Heat Methods Tender cuts See Table 154 in fourth ed p 334 Table 144 in book p 395 for Final Temperature F for beef pork poultry sh 1 Roasting time for some collagen conversion 2 Broiling direct heat method intense heat 3 Grilling 4 Microwave a b c d e d Restructured meats Meats B Cooking Losses 1 Types a b C 2 Cooking losses are greater when 990quot C Meat Tenderizing 1 Proteolytic enzymes to tenderize a Papain b Bromelin c Ficin 2 Mechanical Tenderization Meats III Flavor and Juiciness A Water Holding Capacity and Juiciness Free water in meat Water is lost when meat is B Flavor Varies with time temperature and cooking method Carbonylamine reaction Sear meat brown prior to moist heat methods to I avor POULTRY Hold freshly killed poultry until rigor has passed 4 hrs chicken 12 hours turkeys before freeze or cook COLD SHORTENING or THAW RIGOR Dark meat is more juicy less tender than white Flavor I conc of carbonyl compounds Sulfides also contribute to avor Warmed Over Flavor A type of oxidative rancidity Phospholipids higher conc in dark meat plus Fe from broken down tissue with cooking cause this off avor in cooked poultry Very Slow cooking and especially hold after cooking FOOD EVALUATION Obj ective Measurements Subjective Measurements SENSORY EVALUATION Def method used to measure analyze and interpret reactions to those characteristics of foods and materials as they are perceived by the senses of sight taste touch and hearing Sensory evaluation of quality by a panel of judges is essential in most food experiments 1 Elements of avor A Taste 1 Sweet substances mostly nonionic tip of tongue 2 Bitter substances back of tongue a nonionic b ionic bitterness detection 3 Saltiness tip oftongue a anions b cations 4 Sourness caused by H ions B Odor olfactory epithiliium Pleasant sensations in eating come more from odor than taste Four fundamental Odor Sensations a fragrant of sweet owery b acid or sour c burnt or scorched d caprylic or goatlike C Mouthfeel 1 Sense oftouch a temp b tactile sensations characteristics of food which in uence tactile aspect of mouthfeel are the following a texture eg b astringency in cider c consistency important in fudge ice cream etc smooth 2 Pain Sense a pungency onions garlic horseradish vinegar allspice cloves sage mints mustard cabbage turnips b bite ginger red white black pepper D Other aspects of sensation known as avor I alkaline taste 2 unclassi ed mono sodium glutamate 3 psychological factors wrt avor unpleasant associations rejected 11 Sensory Testing A Type of Test depends on the objective of the experiment or study 1 Three types a Discrimination tests difference tests or similarity tests Type of panelists b Affective tests like or prefer c Descriptive Analysis qualitative and quantitative terms PU EXAMPLES OF SENSORY TESTS Discrimination Tests E Simple Difference Test Fquot Triangle DuoTrio 0 3 1 Paired Comparison N Affective Tests a Ranking b Rating 3 Descriptive a qualitative b quantitative C Sampling for Sensory 1 Sample preparation 2 Number of samples 3 Panelists 4 Testing Environment PHYSICAL METHODS OF FOOD EVALUATION 1 Volume 2 Texture a WamerBratzler Shear b Shear Press 0 Penetrometer d Shortometer 3 Rheology ow of matter Viscosity a Line Spread Test b Boswick Consistometer
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