First Aid and Personal Safety
First Aid and Personal Safety KIN 125
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paul Leuschke V on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 125 at Michigan State University taught by K. Stewart in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/207279/kin-125-michigan-state-university in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Test 2 Review Understand the following concepts and you will be in good standing for the written exam 0 Partial thickness burn o Involves epidermal and dermal layers of the skin 0 Pain 0 Redness o Blistering o Swelling 0 Rule of 9 s upper extremity o Mentally divide the body into regions 0 Each represents 9 ofthe body surface 0 ora multiple of9 HE RULE OF MINES l Head 4m mi 5439 7 7 Pushmu Imus 13 Anlnrmrtnmk 18H 7 7 EdL lium39INtrxiimmiy TK39 if External uummlm l m Each lower uxurumy 135 7 7 7 7 9hr wags I 18W o t step in FA care O m o Bleeding pressure Remove the victim from source of burn Eliminate cause of burn o o 0 Put out the fire wash away the chemicals etc 0 Assess ABCD s 0 Manage respiratorycardiac complications 0 Activate EMS system 0 Assess vital signs until medical help arrives o Immerse burned area in cool water 0 Sources of bleeding artery vs vein vs capillary o For small superficial or partial thickness burns to an extremity ONLY Don ts for FA care for burns O O 0 Break any blisters that have formed Contaminate the burn area NEVER apply butter grease or fat to a burn Do not apply ice or an ice pack to serious burns 0 Care for chemical burns Ifa minor burn can apply cool compress Use plastic non breathable non sterile materials to dress the burn 0 Brush dry powder off the skin and flush area vigorously in a steady stream of Phenol carbolic acid rinse with alcohol then irrigate with water Concentrated sulfuric acid water heat so must be vigorously flushed with water 0 EXCEPTIONS 0 Lime powder water corrosive o hose or shower to remove 0 While flushing remove victim s clothing shoes stockings jewelry If the victim is able wash with soap and water and rinse thoroughly after flushing 0 contact lenses irrigate well underneath lid If chemical got into victim s eyes irrigate eyes for at least 20 minutes remove Source Color Speed Effect Artery Bright red Rapid spurting or Under high pulsating pressure most dif cult to control Vein Dark red Steady ow Dif cult to control Capillary Medium red Slow even ooze Often clots or steady drip spontaneously O usually causes little blood loss Ways to control bleeding 0 Directpressure 0 Elevation 0 Indirect pressureartery compression o Airsplint o Tourniquet o How to use indirect pressure 0 If you still cannot control the bleeding apply pressure to the pressure point 0 Pressure point artery lies close to surface and can be compressed against bone 0 Brachial artery arm 0 Femoral artery leg 0 Call EMS if bleeding can t be controlled or if pressure points must be used to control it Direct Pressure 0 Place a sterile dressing over the wound so it is covered completely 0 Press firmly with even pressure over the wound o Elevate the bleeding part above heart level unless you suspect fracture dislocation impaled object or spinal injury 0 You can use a cold pack over wound along with direct pressure and elevation 0 Check the dressing every few minutes do not remove soaked through dressings Add more on top 1 Never apply direct pressure to a wound if there is an impaled object or protruding bone 0 Mottled skin and blanched nails 0 Periodically check the distal pulses and frequently check for mottled skin or blanched nails 0 Signs the pressure bandage is too tight 0 Types of shock anaphylactic and hemorrhagic or hypovolemic o Hemorrhagic Hypovolemic 0 Severe bleeding or loss of blood plasma 0 Anaphylactic o Life threatening allergic reaction to a substance 0 Hematoma 0 Collection of blood beneath the skin 0 55 1 Lump with bluish discoloration 0 FA care for closed injuries 0 O O 1 If you suspect internal bleeding treat for shock 2 Apply ice or cold compresses to help relieve pain and reduce swelling 3 Splint painful swollen or deformed extremities to help control pain and swelling and prevent further injury 0 Abrasions r x W O Threat is from infection Superficial wound caused by rubbing scraping or shearing Bleeding usually not severe 0 Human bites 0 Combination of penetration and crush injury Human or animal Human bites most difficult to manage because of high infection rate mouth harbors millions of bacteria Expose the wound so you can see it clearly if necessary cut the victim s clothing from around the wound 2 Control bleeding with direct pressure using your gloved hand and a dry sterile compression bandage if possible 3 Prevent further contamination Avoid touching the wound with anything unclean Leave the cleaning of the wound to medical personnel 4 Apply a dry sterile dressing to the wound and bandage it securely in place 0 Impaled objects O 2000 00000 SliverSplinter If left will always cause infection If you can see the end use tweezers If you can39t grasp it use sterile needle Fishhook Only remove if the point not the barb is penetrated Ice the skin to numb then back it out If barb is through skin tape hook to body and transport Once removed wash with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment 1Remove the victim s clothing if necessary to expose the wound cut it away without disturbing the impaled object 2 Manually secure the impaled object to prevent any motion o 3 Control bleeding with direct pressure but do not exert any pressure on the impaled object or on the edges of the skin around the cutting edge ofthe object 4 Stabilize the impaled object with bulky dressings and bandage in place 0 O 5 Calm and reassure the victim as you monitor for shock 6 Keep the victim at rest 0 7 Do not attempt to cut off break off or shorten an impaled object unless transportation is not possible with it in place 0 8 Activate the EMS system immediately 0 Type of dressing used for chest injuries 0 Place an occlusive dressing over any open wounds to the chest 0 control external bleeding 0 Does not allow air to pass through 0 Sucking Chest wound 0 Tape 3 sides down 0 Open side allows air to leave lungs 0 Air will not be able to enter through opening 0 quotsuckingquot chest wound 0 Open Pneumothorax o Sucking chest wound 0 Open wound allows air into chest cavity 0 Bowel evisceration o If organs protrude activate EMS 0 Do not try to touch or replace them in the abdomen 0 Cover the abdomen with a clean moist sterile dressing 0 Never use absorbent cotton 0 Cover the moist dressing with an occlusive material to retain moisture and warmth o Gently wrap the dressing in place with a bandage or clean sheet 0 Amputation FA care 0 1 If possible rinse the amputated part with clean water but do not scrub Wrap the part in a dry sterile gauze dressing secured in place with a self adherent roller bandage O 2 Place the wrapped part in a plastic bag 1 c 3 Place the wrapped and bagged part in a cooler or any other available container so that it is on top ofa cold pack or a sealed bag of ice 0000 0 Do not use dry ice It should be kept as cool as possible without freezing Do not cover the part with ice or immerse it in any kind of liquid 4 When EMTs arrive GIVE THEM THE AMPUTATED PART so it can be transported with the victim Clear fluid pink from ear nose or mouth Cerebral spinal fluid basil injury 0 Tooth reimplantation period 0 Re implant within 30 minutes 0 First priority for chest injuries 0 Your first priority is to open the airway and ensure adequate breathingventilation 0 Do not s for rib fractures OOOOOO First Aid Care Activate EMS immediately if breathing abnormalities then Use a sling and swathe to stabilize the victim s arm as a splint against the chest Position victim in a supine position Monitor ABCDs Watch for signs of internal bleeding that could lead to shock DO NOT Wrap anything completely around the chest Tape the ribs down 0 Flail chest 0 O O OOOC O Instability of a section of chest wall 2 or more adjacent ribs are fractured in 2 or more places First Aid Immediately activate EMS then Maintain an open airway Administer artificial ventilation if necessary Use gente touch to locate edges of flail section Stabilize with a pad or pillow weighing less than 5 lbs Secure with wide tape or cravats Position victim with flail segment against external support in a semi sitting or supine position Hemothorax 0 Blood fills the chest cavity How to tell if a bandage is too tight 0 Skin becomes pale or cyanotic o Capillary refill is slowed or diminished o Victim complains of pain 0 Usually only a few minutes after application 0 Skin distal to bandage is cold tingling or numb o Victim cannot move fingers or toes o REMEMBER PMS pulse motor sensory AND feeling warmth color Function of musculoskeletal system 0 Gives shape or form to the body 0 Supports the body allowing it to stand erect 0 Provides the basis for locomotionmovement o Gives muscles a place to attach 0 Contains joints that allow movement 0 Forms protection for major body organs 0 Brain skull 0 Heart and lungs rib cage 0 Pelvic organs pelvis o Spinal cord vertebrae Sprain vs strain 0 Sprain Injury to a ligament o Injury to a Muscle andor Tendon Xray rules out o Fractures RICE 0 Rest Ice Compression Elevation Closed vs open fractures 0 Closed simple 0 Overlying skin is intact 0 Open compound 0 Skin over fracture site has been damaged or broken 0 The bone may not protrude o Comminuted fracture o Comminuted A comminuted fracture appears at the point of impact with multiple cracks radiating from the center looks like a cracked eggshell o FOOSH 0 Fall On OutStretched Hand 0 Immobilize above and below injury 0 AC joint sprain o Shoulder Separation Swelling 0 Deformity o Palpable lump 0 Guarding o supporting injured arm by holding the elbow 0 Care 0 Immobilize with a sling and both horizontal and vertical swathes 0 Apply ice pack or cold compress to the shoulder joint if victim can tolerate it o Splint for dislocations what not to use 0 Do not splint if it will cause more pain for the victim 0 Assess PMS below the injury before and after you apply the splint Immobilize the joints above and below injury Splint an injury in the position you found it Remove clothing and jewellery from injury site Cover all wounds including open fractures with sterile dressing before applying a splint bandage gently o If there is a severe deformity or the distal extremity is cyanotic or lacks pulses o Align the injured limb with gentle traction o Splint 0 Never intentionally replace protruding bone ends 0 Pad the splint to avoid pressure and discomfort 0 Apply splint before trying to move the victim Q When in doubt splint the injury 0 If the victim shows signs of shock 0 Place Victim in the normal anatomical position 0 Arrange for immediate transport without applying a splint o Dislocated elbow DO NOT use an air splint o Colle s vs smith s fracture o Displaced fractures of forearm just above wrist o Colle s MOI victim falls on palm of hand with wrist extended 0 Smith s MOI fall on the back of hand with wrist exed o Anatomical snuffbox scaphoid fracture 0 Anatomical snuffbox 0 area of wrist through which the radial artery passes 0 Pain in this area usually indicates Scaphoid fracture o Ischialtuberosityfracture o Ischial tuberosity The spot where the top of the hamstring attaches 0 Pain 0 Swelling 0 Lump 0 in buttocks at muscle attachment 0 Use roller bandage to support affected buttocks 0 Apply ice pack or cold compress 0 May have difficulty walking 0 Provide crutches or other way of transportation 0 Coup countrecoup o Damage to the brain on both sides the side that received the initial impact or blow and the side opposite the initial impact coup miury Curl39itjsccuup l39l UW mm nhlmzt o Acceleration deceleration injury 0 Acceleration deceleration trauma is the most common result of CHI It occurs when the head is accelerated and then stopped suddenly as in a car accident and causes discrete focal lesions to two areas ofthe brain The brain will suffer contusions at the point of direct impact and at the site directly opposite the point of impact due to the oscillation of the brain within the skull 0 Linear skull fracture o The most common type of skull fracture a linear fracture causes a thin line crack in the skull Linear fractures are the least serious and the most difficult to detect 0 Tx for suspected spinal injury 0 First priority establish and maintain an open airway and adequate ventilation 0 Establish and maintain in line stabilization Place handsarms on both sides of victims head Hands against shoulders forearms supporting the head Position head gently in line with body EXCEPT IF 0 Victim s head is severely angled o Victim complains pain pressure or muscle spasm KIN 125 Test 1 Review The test is based off of the powerpoints and lectures as well as the chapters in the book that they correspond with Ifyou have a good understanding of these materials you will do well on the test Know the procedures for Choking Obstructed airway CPR Rescue Breathing AED AdultChildInfant for ALL I Hand placements rates ratios rechecks body position etc I Know the purpose behind the techniques What is the goal of the care that you are giving What type of people have responsibilities to provide rst aid care To whom do they have this responsibility When you call 911 what information should you give them The exact location of the victim A phone number you can be reached at Any info about the victim that will help the dispatcher send appropriate personnel and equipment Suspected injuries Victim status Complications Medical conditions Know where the major organs of the body are located Pelvis Advantagesdisadvantages of using a bagvalve mask I Advantages High oxygen level limits disease transmission very effective with 2 rescuers I Disadvantages need 2 rescuers may take longer to assemble requires practice not readily available Things to look for at a scene that can alert you to danger or give you clues as to what is happening at the scene Know the basic interaction between the body s systems When to give care rst vs when to call for help rst Call rst DIf alone and treating an unresponsive victim who you believe is suffering from a cardiac related emergency D Care rst DIf alone and treating an unresponsive victim who you believe is suffering from a respiratory problem D Where to check for a pulse on an adultchildinfant Adult and Child Carotid artery Infant Brachial artery Cardiac chain of survival Early Recognition amp Access Early CPR Early Deflbrillation Early Advanced Life Support EMS HeadTi1t ChinLift vs JawThrust 0 Determine if the airway is open 0 Unconscious use head tiltchin lift or jaw thrust maneuver 0 Suspect possible c spine if victim Is involved in any type of crash Falls greater than own height co p to neck or back co tinglingnumbnessunusual sensation in extremities Appears intoxicated or altered mental status Older than 65 Has injury to head and neck Disease transmission For disease to spread three things must happen D 1 Infecting organisms bacteria and viruses must survive outside their host D infected person animal or insect D2 Infecting organism must move from one place to another D transmission D3 Infecting organism must invade a new person s body and begin to multiply D Lateral Recumbent Position Modi ed HAINES Maintain open airway and place them in the face up position Place victim in modi ed HAINS Position only if victim is vomiting and cannot sustain an open airway you have to leave the scene and leave the victim alone Examples of hinge joints El Where two bone ends articulate or t into each other Immovable skull Slightly movable spinal column Freely movable knee and elbow Hingeelbow ngers toes knee Difference between artery and vein Normal Resting Breathing Rates D Adults 12 20 bpm breaths per minute D Children 15 30 bpm D Infants 25 50 bpm The Nervous System and what it controls El This system controls and regulates all other body systems Functions El Enables the person to be aware of the environment El Enables the person to react to the environment El Coordinates responses of the body to stimuli El Keeps body systems working together ABCD AVPU DOTS Check alertness level of consciousness Response to verbal stimuli Response to painful stimuli Unresponsive does not respond to any stimuli S signs and symptoms complaining of A allergies M medications taken P pertinent past medical history L last time Victim ate or drank E events prior to the incident Look for D eformity O pen wounds T enderness S welling Wh0 wears medical alert tags Abd0minal Quadrants and how to palpate wpain o RUQ Liver Gallbladder Part of Pancreas Kidney o RLQ Appendix Small and Large Intestines o LUQ Spleen Stomach Part of Pancreas Large Intestine Kidney o LLQ Descending Colon Small Intestine St0ma Stoma surgical opening in the neck Preventing gastric distention I Gastric distention In ation of the stomach with air I Blow only hard enough to make the chest rise and fall Deliver full slow breaths Ensure an open airway Stop rescue breaths if any noises are heard from the victim during ventilation Ditferences between chronic bronchitis and emphysema o emphysema Respiratory disease characterized by overin ated alveoli 0 Signs and symptoms Victims are not cyanotic and often appear pink in color Weight loss Limited activity Small amounts of mucus in cough Prolonged and dif cult exhalation Chronic bronchitis In ammation edema mucus in bronchial tree Thick mucus with coughing Use neck and chest muscles to assist breathing Cyanosis 9 skin appears blue Swelling of the hands feet ankles Distended neck veins High pitched wheezing or low pitched snoring during inhalation and exhalation Ather0scler0sis Str0ke signs and symptoms FAST altered level of consciousness