First Aid and Personal Safety
First Aid and Personal Safety KIN 125
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paul Leuschke V on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 125 at Michigan State University taught by K. Kelly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/207285/kin-125-michigan-state-university in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Final Exam Study Guide This study guide is just a portion of what is on the exam Anything from the semester is fair game to be a question on the exam So in other words the topics listed below are not the only possibilities for test questions so do not only study off this sheet The nal is 100 questions multiple choice and truefalse VVVVVVVVVVVV V VVV VVV When should you remove an impaled object When should a cervical collar be applied compared to aligning the legs and body How quickly will brain cells die without oxygen a person without water a person without food How do you manage violent victims How can you gain entry in to a vehicle besides the door How do you accomplish this What are the ways of poison entry and the primary care for each type What questions should be asked to a poisoning victim What temperature do you need to bring the body to after a heat illness to be considered safe Why check for a pulse and capillary re ll Call rstcall fast principle How is a sheet used to move a victim How do you manage downed powered lines When do you not elevate a bleeding wound When can you stop performing CPR What should you never do with a woman in labor What does CHART stand for How do you quickly determine the amount of surface area burned When is activated charcoal or syrup of ipecac used What structure is in the anatomical snuffbox Know Types of emotional reactions to mass casualties and treatment for them Signals that someone is drowning and method of rescuing Distress signals Types of dressings Degrees of burns including signs and symptoms Differences in care when in a wilderness setting Types of head injuries and categories of responsiveness Difference in black widow spider and brown recluse spider Respiration and pulse rate for an adult Number of quadrants and organs located in each Diabetes and how insulin and glucose is used When to use jawthrust maneuver Ratio for CPR rescue breathing and clearing an obstructed airway What are the 3 c s to establishing rapport General differences between adults and children Common causes of spinal injury Types of heat loss Common cause of death among infants OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Final Exam Study Guide The final is 100 questions multiple choice and truefalse gt VV V V V VV When should you remove an impaled object o If interferes with chest compressions o If a penetrating cheek injury and more than lhour away from med care When should a cervical collar be applied compared to aligning the legs and body How quickly will brain cells die without oxygen a person without water a person without food 0 wo Oxygen 46 min 0 wo Water 3 days 0 wo Food 3 weeks How do you manage violent victims 0 Walk single le 0 Stand in side of door Never turn your back on victim Always follow never lead 0 Identify exits 0 Ask victim to put weapons in a neutral place How can you gain entry in to a vehicle besides the door How do you accomplish this 0 Break furthest car window from victim quick hard thrust in the lower corner screwdriverssharp object What are the ways of poison entry and the primary care for each type What questions should be asked to a poisoning victim 0 Entries Ingestion Inhalation Injection Absorption I Ingestion Maintain airway monitor ABCD s determine if poison was acid or alkali place victim on side call poison control Inhalation Get victim to fresh air ASAP monitor ABCD s lay victim down head elevatedloosen all tight tting clothing if victim s unconscious place on sideCPR or Rescue Breathing Injection Activate EMS keep sitting if possible to prevent vomit inhalation attempt to identify source send to hospital assist with epi penif applicable Absorption Protect self with gloves move from source remove all contaminated clothesj ewelry brush off dry chemicals or solid poisons irrigate affected area with clean water for at least 20 min 0 Questions to Ask I What did you eat or drink today What was the substance How was it introduced Quantity of substance Do you have the container Has vomiting been induced Antidote given Is there a history that may suggest suicide Does the victim have an underlying medical illness allery chronic drug use or addiction What temperature do you need to bring the body to after a heat illness to be considered safe 0 Temperture must drop below 102 F Why check for a pulse and capillary re ll Call rstcall fast principle V V V V V V How is a sheet used to move a victim 0 Fold sheet lengthwise to form narrow long harness lay sheet across the victims chest pull ends of sheet under victim s arms at the a1mpits and behind the victim s head grab loose ends of sheet and pull towards you How do you manage downed powered lines 0 Assume all downed lines are live park vehicle at safe distance warn bystanders to stay clear tell victims to stay inside vehicles and not to touch and metal NEVER try to handle live wire When do you not elevate a bleeding wound o Fracturedislocation o Impaled object o Spinal injury When can you stop performing CPR o Tired o Victim is dead 0 EMS shows up or someone with more experience What should you never do with a woman in labor 0 Let them use the bathroom 0 Do not hold legs together Do not ask mother to cross legs or ankles never try to delay or restrain delivery What does CHART stand for o C Chief Complaint what did the victim tell you H Histog what happened A Assessment what signs and symptoms did you nd RX Prescription what did you do for the victim T Transport and Disposition after you cared for the victim where did the victim go Did victim leave Was it on foot car ambulance helicopter How do you quickly determine the amount of surface area burned 0 Use victim s palm to estimate of bodypalml of total body surface area When is activated charcoal or syrup of ipecac used 0 Ingestion of poison victim s conscious hasn t swallowed acids or alkalies is able to swallow What structure is in the anatomical snuffbox 0 Area of wrist through which radial artery passes o Scaphoid Fracture Know 0 Types of emotional reactions to mass casualties and treatment for them I Acting Normal I Blind Panic I Depression I Overreacting I Conversion Hysteria o Signals that someone is drowning and method of rescuing I Methods 0 Reaching Assists o Throwing Assists OOOO I Signals 0 Face down in water 0 Struggling to stay above water 0 Distress signals 0 Types of dressings I Asepticsterile dressing I Westmoist dressing I Dry sterilea sterile dressing free from moisture Petroleum gauzesterile gauze saturated with petroleum jelly to keep from sticking to wound used to cover burns Occlusiveplastic wrap petroleum gauze or other dressing that forms an airtight seal used for chest or abdominal wounds Compressa bulky usually sterile dressing intended to stopcontrol bleeding Universal trauma dressingdressing made from 9X36 inch piece of thick absorbent material Adhesive stripscombination of sterile dressing and bandage individually packaged and used for small wound 0 Degrees of burns including signs and symptoms I E Degree super cial o Involves epidermis or outer layer of skin 0 Pain 0 Redness I g Degree partialthickness o Involves epidermal and dermal layers of skin 0 Pain 0 Redness o Bh39stering Swelling 0 I gm Degree fullthickness o Involves all layers of skin as well as fat muscle and bone 0 Dry 0 Leathery o Charred skin 0 Differences in care when in a wilderness setting 0 Types of head injuries and categories of responsiveness I Injury to scalp Contusion Laceration Abrasion Avulsion I Injury to brain Coupcontrecoup Accelationdecceleration Contusion Subdural hematoma Epidural hematoma 0 Difference in black widow spider and brown recluse spider I Black Widow Spider red mark shaped like hourglass on underside 0 Sharp pinprick pain at site followed by dull pain in are of bite small red fang marks severe muscle spasms and rigidity fever and chills headaches and dizziness nausea and vomiting weakness and drooping eyelids OO O O OO 00 O O O I Brown Recluse Spider brown poisonous spider violinshaped mark on back 0 Bites do not heal require surgical grafting serious medical condition Respiration and pulse rate for an adult Number of quadrants and organs located in each I 4 Quadrants o RUQ Liver Gallbladder part of Pancreas Kidney o RLQ Appendix Small and Large Intestines o LUQ Spleen Stomach Part of Pancreas Large Intestine Kidney o LLQ Descending Colon Small Intestine Diabetes and how insulin and glucose is used I Insulin a hormone that takes sugar from blood stream to the cells I Glucose sugar I Diabetes body doesn t produce enough insulin doesn t get delivered to cells and resort to fats and proteins as fuel When to use jawthrust maneuver I Suspect spine injury Ratio for CPR rescue breathing and clearing an obstructed airway What are the 3 c s to establishing rapport I Competence I Confidence I Compassion General differences between adults and children Common causes of spinal injury I Compression weight of body driven against head I Excessive exion extension or rotation I Lateral bending I Distraction sudden pulling apart of spine Types of heat loss I Radiation heat transfer from surface of object to surface of another wo direct contact I Convection cold air in immediate contact with skin is warmed by skin I Conduction heat transfer from surface of object to surface of another through direct contact I Evaporation loss of body heat when perspiration is changed liquid gas I Respiration loss of body heat through normal breathing Common cause of death among infants Longest stage of labor I Stage 1 Dilation Common musculoskeletal injuries I Sprain I Strain I Dislocation I Cramps I Contusions I Fractures 0 Different types of seizures along with signs and symptoms I Simple partial J acksonian jerking in the ngers and toes may spread to entire armlegbody I Complex partial psychomotor blank stare chewing and random activity victim seems dazed I Myoclonic sudden brief massive muscle jerks that involves partall of body I Atonic drop attack I Absence petit mal blank stare common in children don t involve convulsions I Generalized TonicClonic Grand Mal 0 Types of skull fractures I Depressed an object strikes the skull I Linear most common type thinline crack in skull I Comminuted appears at the point of impact multiple cracks from center I Basilar break in base of skull 0 Risk factors for suicide I Male over 40 unmarried I Alcoholic or drug abuser I Depression Previous attempts A plan Gathering articled used to commit suicide Recent diagnosis of debilitating disease Recent loss of loved one I Loss of control of life Differences between a Colles s and a Smith s fracture I Colles s fracture falls on palm of hand wrist extended I Smith s fracture falls on back of hand wrist bent inward Differences between ligaments tendons muscles and joints I Ligaments connect bonetobone add support to a joint I Tendons connect muscletobone add support to a joint I Joints where 2 bone ends articulate or fit into each other Care for a chemical burn I Brush dry powder off skin and ush area in steady stream of water while ushing remove clothing if able wash with soap cover burn area with dry sterile dressing I If chemical in eye irrigate eyes for at least 20 min Methods of victim transportation I OneRescuer Walking Assist Blanket Drag Clothes Drag shoulder drag Sheet Drag Firefighter s Carry O O O O Cradle CarryPiggyback Carry Packstrap Carry Ankle Drag o Cradle Carry Two and ThreeRescuer 0 Seat Carry 2 o Extremity Lift 2 0 Chair Litter Carry 3 0 Flat Lift and Carry 3 0 Terms of direction and location of the body 0 Tick re Directions 0 Superior above higher than point of reference 0 Inferior below lower than point of reference 0 Anterior front 0 Posterior back Locations 0 Medial toward midline center of body 0 Lateral away from midline o Proximal near point of reference 0 Distal far away from point of reference Direction and Location 0 Super cial near surface 0 Deep remote from surface 0 Internal inside 0 External outside moval technique Use finetipped tweezers to grasp tick as close as possible Pull slowly rmly steadily until tick is dislodged Wash bite are thoroughly with soap and water and apply antisepticantibiotic ointment Apply cold pack to relieve any pain and swelling Report bite doctor 0 Affects of altitude on water preparation Boil 28 min higher altitude requires longer time gt DefinitionSigns and symptoms of o Angina pectoris heart s demand for oxygen is greater than what it s receiving Chest pain Dyspnea Profuse perspiration Lightheadedness Palpitations Nauseavomiting Pale cool moist skin 0 Dyspnea sensation of shortness of breath Shortness of breath unable to breath unable to catch breath O 0000 Abrasion open wound caused by rubbing and scrapping off layers of skin Epiglottitis bacterial infection in ammation and swelling or epiglottis blocking airway I Pain swallowing I High fever I Drooling I Mouth breathing I Insistent on sitting up Bronchiolitis Avulsion tearing of a ap of skin Cyanosis dizziness clammy skin abnormal skin color Decompression sickness the bends gases enter bloodstream I Blurreddistorted vision partial deafness distortion of senses I Nauseavomiting I Numbnessparalysis I Staggering gait lack of coordination Barotraumas the squeeze body cavities are subjected to extreme pressure air pressure becomes too great during ascentdescent I Mild to severe pain in affected area I Discharge from nose or ears I Extreme dizziness I Nausea I disorientation Air embolism air bubbles enter the bloodstream diver hold breath during a dive I Itchy blotchy mottled skin I Difficulty breathing dizziness chest pain I Severe deep aching pain in muscles joints and tendons Hemophiliac person whose blood will not clot due to congenital abnotmalities Flail chest instability of a section of chest wall 2 or more adjacent ribs are fractured in 2 or more places Emphysema respiratory disease characterized by overin ated alveoli I Victims are not cyanotic often appear pink in color I Weight loss I Limited activity I Small amounts of mucus in cough I Prolonged and difficult exhalation Chronic bronchitis in ammation mucus in bronchial tree I Thick mucus with coughing I Cyanosisskin appears blue I Swelling of hands feet ankles I Distended neck veins Triage I Ask coherent passengers about other victims I Search ditches weeds side of road I Look for tracks leading away from the scene Asthma
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