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Physical Growth & Motor Behav

by: Paul Leuschke V

Physical Growth & Motor Behav KIN 260

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Kinesiology > KIN 260 > Physical Growth Motor Behav
Paul Leuschke V
GPA 3.65

Lisa Griffiths

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Lisa Griffiths
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This 77 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paul Leuschke V on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 260 at Michigan State University taught by Lisa Griffiths in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see /class/207286/kin-260-michigan-state-university in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Exam 2 Review Prenatal development fastest growth phase 9 months long 3 Phases of development 1 Girmanal 1st 2 weeks of growth the cells divide and there is mitosis 2 Embryonic organs and organ systems form the embryo starts to become a fetus around week 6 3 Fetusweek 9 until birth this is the period of rapid growth and there is functional development In early stages of pregnancy 1st 3 months the baby is vulnerable to tetragons harmful agents 3 trimesters 1 all major body systems are formed but not completed critical development time for heart CNS limbs 2 Fastest velocity of growth in entire life sex of baby is discovered here 3 addition of weight fetus develops own immune system if baby makes past 7 months it should survive DevelopmentGrowth Development fine tuning of the body and its systems across a lifetime Growth increase in size Maturationorganizational changes in the function of organstissues Aging process of growing older 3 Types ofgrowth 1 Cell size increase Hypertrophy 2 Cell number increase Hyperplasia 3 Increase in intercellular matter Accretion Recumbent length height laying down use until child can stand Mid growth spurt occurs between the ages of 6585 years old and is more common in boys Adolescence girls 9 years old males 11 years old known as the take off stage growth is mostly in the trunk 20 adult height is gained 253 years Males 4 inyear females 3inyear Growth stops at 173 for females 212 for males 4 phases in growth 1 rapid gain in infancy 2 Steady gain during childhood 3 Rapid gain during adolescent spurt 4 Slow and steady increase until growth ceases with attainment of adult stature PHV boys14 girls12 Males grow for a longer period of time 2 years and at a higher rate of intensity Zinyear ends up being about 5 inches of difference Developmental age is a better indicator of maturity 3 methods to asses maturity 1 Sexual maturity based on the development of secondary sex characteristics Females breastpubic hair development and menarche 132 Males penistestes development pubicfacial hair development and voice change 2 Dental maturation age of eruption of deciduous teeth and number of teeth emerged Similar to skeletal maturation also takes in place of calcification of permanent teeth Skeletal maturation Best way to determine biological agematurity it is most used bc development spans the entire growth period CONneed x ray to use which can be expensive Assess handwrist x ray of the left hand to determine skeletal age and skeletal maturation Needs to be more than a year difference to be considered a lateearly bloomer CVA form of muscular endurance is efficiency of heart lungs and vascular system HR of times heart beats per minute SV amount of blood ejected with each pump Maximal stroke volume is achieved during submaximal workout SV Affected by heart size contractile force vascular resistance to blood flow and venous return COHRSV COamount of blood pumped in 1 minute Maxiumum sv during exercise Untrained male100120 mlbeat untrained female 80100 mlbeat Trained male 150170 mlbeat trained female 100 120 mlbeat V02 max largest amount of oxygen that can be used at a tissue level this is best indicator of physical work capacity In kids this info is fragmented bc kids don t always want to do max effort and it s hard to tell what changes are coming from development Lots of times test CVA by field test like running boys run best at age 16 while girls do at 14 FITI39 principle Frequency 35 days a week Intensity 6090 of maximum hr Time 2060 minutes Type continuous rhythmic activities using large muscle groups Strength ability to exert muscular force Staticisometric force muscular force exerted against a nonmoveable object wall sits Dynamicisotonic force muscular force exerted against a moveable force bench press Boys strength spurt is a year behind the height spurt boys fastest increase in muscular strength occurs 1 year after PHV while girls happens simultaneously In general boy are 10 stronger than girls gender differences are most apparent after puberty Strength training Prepubescent controversy exists regarding strength training for the population certain skills show improvement and numerous places value weight training there must be regulations though They encourage use of various exercises and stress formtechnique also power lifting is not recommended should be down twice a week at about 60 of max and 1 set of 812 exercises and 8 to 10 reps per exercise Deprivation dwar sm negative influence on human growth created by serious deprivation or adverse stimulation an emotional disturbance that begins in the brain and it affects growth hormone when growth is affected motor development may also be affected 3 principles of stimulationdeprivation 1 Critical period time of particular of maximum sensitivity to environmental stimuli 2 Readiness minimum characteristics necessary for a human behavior to be acquired 3 Catch up the human power to stabilize and return to a predetermined behavior or growth pattern after being pushed off the normal path Introduction to Growth and Motor Development KEN Lecture Outline Motor Behavior Motor Control Motor Learning Motor Development Growth and Maturation Lifespan Perspective Human Development Domains Elements of Developmental Change Other Key Terms Motor Behavior the study of neural physical and behavioral aspects of movement refers to the relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience 39 sequential continuous age related process whereby movement behavior changes Motor Development A variety of definitions exist Our class definitions include Process the changes that occur in our ability to move and our movement in general 1 the study of changes in human movement behavior across the lifespan 2 the processes that underlie these changes and 3 the factors that affect them Motor Development Understand present past and future motor behavior What is happening and why it is happening Can diagnose problems intervene or remediate Can establish developmentally appropriate activities for all groups eg teachingcoaching implications Human development is multifaceted Enables a more complete understanding of all human development Interactions and change in and among the physical intellectual social emotional domains Growth and Maturation Development GrOWth Maturation Definitions 1 finetuning ofthe body and its systems across the lifespan progression and regression structural development increases in size functional development organizational changes in the function of organs and tissues process of growing older regardless of chronological age leading to the loss of adaptability or full function and eventually to death Lifespan Perspective Human Development Affective Cognitive Motor Physical H u ma n Developr Cognitive Physical Domains Concerns human intellectual development Concerned with the social and emotional aspects of human development Development of human movement and factors that affect that development All types of physicalbodily change Human Development Developmental Sequences Perspective 39 L if llgjl ll th 1 l i L l mfg a up a 1 Mil ll l gt4quot l Changes that occur as one passes through life are Qualitative Sequential i Stage3 Cumulative l I Stage 2 Directional Stagel Multifactorial I Individual J Human Development Key Terms Cephalocaudal Proximodistal Differentiation Integration Gross Movements Fine Movements Theoretical Perspectives in Motor Development M M Eat Lecture Outline Theories and Methodologies in Motor Development Maturational Theory Information Processing Theory Ecological Theory Newell s Model of Constraints Dynamical Systems Approach Perception Action Approach Mountain of Motor Development Theories and Methodologies in Motor Development 0 THEORIES METHODOLOGIES Explain Measure Facts Relationships Among Test Theories Facts Predict Behaviors Different theories often have different methodologies Maturational Theory 0 Maturation of different systems especially the CNS drives motor development Genetic inheritance is very important Children will catchup without help Critical periods of development occur 0 Environment has little influence Only those with best genes will be sports stars May speed or slow process of change Methodologies Observation and Description 0 Description of children s average performance by quantitative scores Normative Descriptive Period 0 Biomechanical descriptions of movement patterns in fundamental skills Biomechanical Descriptive Period Information Processing Theory The brain acts like a computer inputting information processing it and outputting movement Humans respond to stimuli in the environment Environment will provide sports stars eg coaches family Genes are less important Must have experiences to develop Sensitive periods of development occur Methodologies Experiments and Hypotheses Effects of stimuli on responses at different ages Influence of practice or feedback on motor learning What Does it Mean What did Thelen and Ulrich mean when they said A paradox in development centers on the universalHy of development as opposed to individual differences Ecological Perspective Interrelationships between the individual the environment and the task Focus of this class Newell s Model of Constraints Dynamical Systems Approach Perception Action Approach Newell s 1986 Model of Contraints H 7 Functional Structural 4 PERFORMANCE Newell s Model of Constraints cont Categories of Constraints Individual physical and mental characteristics Structural body structure Height weight strength balance body proportions Result ofgrowth and maturation A slowly 39 Functional behavioral function Motivation fear beliefs selfefficacy focus memory knowledge Can A quickly and frequently Functional Structural Newell s Model of Constraints cont Categories of Constraints cont Environmental physical and socio external constraints Temperature lighting humidity gravity floor surface stereotypes parent expectations sibling behaviors Functional Structural Newell s Model of Constraints cont Categories of Constraints cont Task goals rules and equipment Shoes ball size speed field size etc NOTE need to consider all categories of constraints to understand a given movement Why does Joey always hop with his right leg Dynamical Systems Approach Many systems work together to influence a human movement task not just CNS Systems nerves hormones muscles skeletal system levers motivation fear gravity floor surface etc Note no one system is quotin charge An interaction model of these systems Dynamical Systems Approach Our body the environment amp our tasks are constantly changing and interacting softly assembled Near infinite number of possible combinations and resulting movements Organization of systems constrains behavior the body s systems do not develop at the same rate Rate limitercontroller a system within an individual that holds back or slows the emergence of a motor skill Attractor state a position that an individual or system is in that is comfortable and stable a preferred statemovement Level Dynamical Systems Approach Development Dynamic Our systems grow and mature at different rates To advance to a new stage the RATE LIMITER must reach a certain level llll EL Tyne mos mos Level Level NI 6 Tyne mos PerceptionAction Approach Close interrelationship exists between perceptual system and motor system systems evolved together Development of perception and development of movement must be studied together in addition to the environment 0 Affordance the perceived function of an object based on its size and shape of the object and the person Change as individuals change resulting in new movement patterns Body Scaling using an individual s body proportions when making movement decisions Mountain of Motor Development Clark amp Metcalfe 2002 Take out a sheet of paper and write your name on the top Put quotMountain of Motor Development as the title of your paper Without using notes or the article write a short paragraph in your own words about why you think we are learning about the Mountain of Motor Development What does it mean What is it s significance Mountain of Motor Development Clark amp Metcalfe 2002 0 Find your groups match your pieces of paper Introduce yourselves to your group members if you don t already know them 0 Your Task Become the expert at your area of the mountain What is it Why is it an important part Give at least two examples Be prepared to share with the class Mountain of Motor Development Clark 8 Metallic 2002 I Skillful 11 yr Proficiency Barrier ContextSpeci c 711yr m G Fundamental Skills 17yr Preadapted 2Wk1yr PERIO Re exive B2wk Prenatal 9mt B Other Side of the Mountain Compensation Period 50 yrs Infant Reflexes and Stereotypies 2007 MCGrawIiill Highev Ezlnation All rights reserved Objectives Explain the importance and the role of the infant 39 reflexes Pinpoint and explain the number of infant reflexes Describe the primitive reflexes Describe the postural reflexes List and explain some stereotypies Q 2007 MrGraerill Higlwev Educatmm rights reserved What is a reflex A reflex action or reflex is a biological control system linking stimulus to response and mediated by a reflex arc Reflexes can be builtin or learnt For example a person stepping on a sharp object would initiate the reflex action through the creation of a nociceptive stimulus within specialized sense receptors located in the skin tissue of the foot The resulting stimulus would be transmitted through an afferent nerve to the spinal cord This stimulus is usually processed by an interneuron to create an immediate response to nociception by initiating a motor response to withdraw from the painproducing object This retraction would occur as the sensation is arriving in the brain and producing the subjective perception of pain which would result in a more cognitive evaluation of the situation 2007 ll GrawIllll Higher Ezluiation All rights reserved What is an infantile reflex An involuntary stereotypical movement response to a specific stimulus that is seen only during infancy 2007 McGrawI lill Higher Education All rights reserved Infant reflexes and stereotypies are very important in the process of development Importance of Infant Reflexes Reflexive movements occur during the last 4 months of prenatal life and the first 4 months after birth Reflexes occur subcortically below the level of the higher brain centers Eg palmer grasp 2007 lvdcerawIlill Higher Education All rights reserved Infant vs Lifespan Reflexes Most quotinfantquot reflexes do not last beyond the first year Reflexes that endure are called quotlifespanquot reflexes mmmm MMWWWM The KneeJerk Reflex KneeJerk reflex Gm ma arsalmol gangnnn Slrelch Sensory quotemquot receplnr Monasynapnc synapse SPINAL conn Molar neuron quadriceps muscle effector C 3007 Mr Edusdrlun All nglw Infant vs Lifespan Reflexes 0 Many ofthe reflexes do not completely disappear First they are inhibited by the maturing nervous system Second they are integrated into new movement behaviors 2007 lv k rawIlill Higher Education All rights reserved Role of the Reflexes in Survival Primitive reflexes are important for Protection Nutrition Sucking reflex Rooting reflex Infant reflexes are called primitive reflexes Asymmetric tonic neck reflex Symmetric tonic neck reflex Moro reflexes Startle reflex Primitive reflexes are surV39Val Lab 39 th39 fl repressed by 6 months of Wm mere ex age 2007 lv k rawIiill Higher Education All rights reserved Role of Reflexes in Developing Future Movement Postural reflexes Help the infant maintain posture in a changing environment Prevalent belief automatic movement is practice for future voluntary movement Other experts believe these reflexes may not be related to future motor development These reflexes disappear when voluntary behavior surfaces 2007 lv k rawIlill Higher Education All rights reserved Role of Reflexes in Developing Future Movement 0 When the stepping reflex is stimulated walking may begin at an earlier age Link between stimulation ofthe reflex preceding the disappearance phase and early movement 0 Small amounts of practice can lead to significant results 2007 lv k rawIlill Higher Education All rights reserved Role of Reflexes in Developing Future Movement Infant Re ex Future Voluntary Movement Crawling Crawling Labyrinthine Upright posture Palmar grasp Grasping Stepping Walking 2007 McGranlill Higher Education All rights reserved Reflexes as Diagnostic Tools Appearancedisappearance of reflexive responses are reflective of normal development Atypical reflexive movements Exhibiting a reflex when one shouldn t Not exhibiting a reflex when one should Weak or asymmetrical Can help determine the level of neurological maturation Reflexes are agespecific in normal healthy infants 2007 lv k rawIlill Higher Education All rights reserved Reflexes as Diagnostic Tools Reflex Concern when lacking weak asymmetrical or persisting Moro Cerebral birth injury Asymmetric Cerebral palsy other neural tonic reflex damage 2007 McGraw Hil Higher Education All rights reserved So Why Do We Have Them Prenatal and Very Early Infancy Structural we are hardwired to have these mechanisms Functional they help us survive Throughout Infancy AM they prepare us for future voluntary movement How are reflexes and similar voluntary movements related Early Beliefs separate CNS inhibits reflexes before voluntary movement begins Zelazo practice effects Thelen weightstrength as constraints 2007 ly k rawIlill Higher Education All rights reserved Primitive Reflexes Palmar Grasp Reflex Sucking Reflex Search Reflex Moro Reflex Sta rtle Reflex Asymmetric Tonic Reflex Symmetric Tonic Reflex 2007 lGrawIlill Higher Education All rights reserved Primitive Reflexes cont Plantar Grasp Reflex Babinski Reflex Palmar Mandibular Reflex Palmar Mental Reflex 2007 lGrawIlill Higher Ezlucation All lights reserved Postural Reflexes Stepping Reflex Crawling Reflex Swimming Reflex Head and Body Righting Reflexes Parachuting Reflexes Labyrinthine Reflex Pull Up Reflex 2007 lGrawIlill Higher Education All lights reserved Primitive Reflexes N Palmar Grasp The palmar grasp reflex of the most emerge Appears in utero Endures through the 4th mo Negative palmer grasp neurological problems spasticity Leads to voluntary reaching and grasping 2007 Mm aerlll Hi i sxslviilnmglgl righ s Primitive Reflexes N Sucking Occurs preand postnatally Babies are born with blisters on lips Stimulated by touching the lips 92017 MCGi aerill Higher Edammm rights reserved Primitive Reflexes quot39 Search Helps the baby locate nourishment Baby turns head toward the food Usually works in conjunctions with sucking reflex Contributes to head and body righting reflexes Also called the rooting reflex Snit mulus i toiyiclhiing the 2007 McGrawHill Higher Education All rights reserved Primitive Reflexes N Moro Reflex Palm of hand lifts back of head Hand is removed suddenly so that head begins to fall Head is supported Moro reflex precedes the startle reflex and causes the arms and legs to extend immediately rather than flex Disappears at 4 6 months Moro Reflex 2007 McGrawHill Higher Education All rights reserved Primitive Reflexes quot Sta rtle Similar to the Moro reflex May not appear until 2 3 months after Moro disappears Elicited by a rapid change of head position by striking the surface that supports the baby loud noise Causes the arms and legs to flex immediately 2007 ly k rawIlill Higher Ezluiation All rights reserved Startle Reflex 2007 MCGraw Hill Higher Education All rights reserved Primitive Reflexes N Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex Causes flexion on one side and extension on the other Not always seen in newborn Facilitates the development of bilateral body awareness Primitive Reflexes quot39 Symmetric Tonic Neck Re lex Limbs respond symmetrically Its persistence may impede other motor milestones Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex 2007 MCGrawIiill Highev Ezlnation All rights reservgd Primitive Reflexes Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex Place baby in a sitting Neck Arms Legs position tip forward flexes flex extend Place baby in a sitting Neck Arms Legs position tip extends extend flex backward 2007 McGrawHill Higher Education All rights reserved Primitive Reflexes N Plantar Grasp The toes appear to be grasping Stimulus is touching the ball of the foot 0 This reflex must disappear before the baby can stand or walk 9 2M7 McGi aerlll Higher Edutai iun All rights awed Palmar Plantar Grasp Reflexes 200 Maurawmn Ingner Education All rights reserved Primitive Reflexes N Babinski Reflex Elicited by a stimulus similar to plantar grasp but response is different Test of the pyramidal tract activity for later motor movement 92 Primitive Reflexes Palmar Mandibular Reflex Makes the eyes close the mouth open andor neck flexes which tilts the head forward 0 Also called the Babkin reflex Stimulus is pressure to both palms 9 2777 Mm aerill Higher Emua mw All ed Primitive Reflexes Palmer Mental Reflex Elicits a facial response when the base ofthe palm is scratched Lowerjaw opens and closes 92017 MCGi aerill Higher Edumi iunJUl rights erved Postural Reflexes N Stepping 3 5 u Stepping reflex is a forerunner to walking Postural Reflexes N Crawling Believed to be essential to the voluntary creeping movement 0 Observed from birth to 34 months 2007 Moo aerill Higher Edumtim i All lights leserved Postural Reflexes N Swimming Characterized by the baby s swimminglike movements when held in a horizontal position Postural Reflexes Head andBody Righting The head rights itself with the body when the body is turned to one side Body follows head Precursor to rolling movements Body righting may not be evident before month 5 Postural Reflexes Parachuting Reflexes Propping reflexes Related to upright posture This reflex is a conscious attempt to break a potential fall Highel Education All aserved Parachute Reflex


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