Cells and Molecules
Cells and Molecules BS 161
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Blick Sr. on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BS 161 at Michigan State University taught by Teresa McElhinny in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/207320/bs-161-michigan-state-university in Biological Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
BIO study guide 9202013 120800 AM CHAPTER 1 entire chapter o Why is evolution the overarching theme of biology o It is the process of change that has transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today 0 It is the explanation for unity diversity and the suitability of organisms for their environment 0 Organisms living on earth today are modified descendants of common ancestors o Make Observation Pose Question Generate Hypothesis o Generate HypothesesA tentative answer to a well framed question A rational accounting for a set of observations based on available data and guided by inductive reasoning o PredictionPredict an outcome of the tests o TheoriesA theory is general enough to spin off many new specific hypotheses that can be tested it is supported by a much greater body of evidence and it is a broad overarching concept that explains a variety of observations CHAPTER 2 p 3543 o Elements v Molecules 0 Element A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions 25 main elements Trace elements are required by organisms in minute quantities 0 Molecule two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond o How are elements categorized 0 Five element families on the periodic table alkali metals alkaline earth metals halogens and noble gases o Describe the structure of atoms 0 Smallest unit of matter that still retains mass 0 Neutrons Protons and Electrons o Protons and neutrons packed tightly in a dense core called the atomic nucleus 0 Electrons form a cloud of negative charge around the nucleus o Electron Shell 0 Orbit followed by electrons around an atoms nucleus 0 First shell has 2 second shell has up to 8 e Distinguish the four chemical bondsforces o How are they formed Covalent Share a pair of valence electrons Ionic Once atom takes e from its partner so both atoms end up with their valence shells complete Between a positive cation and negative anion Hydrogen the partial positive charge on H is attracted to an electronegative atom nearby Van der Waals ever changing regions of positive and negative charge that enable atoms and molecules to stick to one another Hot spots of asymmetrical polarization 0 Rate in terms of strength Covalent Ionic Hydrogen Van der Waals 0 Where are they present Covalent DNA functional groups Ionic Salts Hydrogen water Van der Waals Gecko feet o Polar Covalent Bonds Unequal sharing of electrons the overall charge is unevenly distributed o Electronegativity Atoms attraction for electrons of a covalent bond CHAPTER 3 31 5051 and 33 through end of buffers o Define pH 0 A measure of hydrogen ion concentration pH declines as H increases and vice versa 0 Values between 0 to 14 o Acidic is low Basic alkali is high o Significance of a compound s pH CHAPTER 4 whole chapter focus on 43 o Seven function groups important in biological systems 0 O O O O O O Hydroxyl part of alcohols Carbonyl part of ketones and aldehydes Carboxyl part of carboxylic acids Amino part of amines Sulfhydryl part of thiols Phosphate organic phosphates Methyl methylated compounds o Chemical structure of each of the seven groups 0 O O O O O O Hydroxyl H bonded with O Carbonyl C double bonded with O Carboxyl 0 double bonded to C which is also bonded to an OH group Amino N bonded to two H Sulfhydryl S bonded to H Phosphate P bonded to four 0 two 0 are negative one is bonded to the carbon skeleton and one is a double bond Methyl C bonded to three H atoms o Characteristics and functional properties of each of the seven groups 0 O O O Hydroxyl polar because of electronegative O can form hydrogen bonds with H20 help dissolve sugars Carbonyl found in different structural isomers found in sugars Carboxyl can donate H because the covalent bond between 0 and H is so polar Amino acts as a base Sulfhydryl two can react to help stabilize proteins Phosphate contributes a negative charge to the molecule it is part of Methyl arrangement in sex hormones affects their function o Where might you find the functional groups based on these characteristics 0 O O O O O O Hydroxyl Ethanol Carbonyl Acetone Propanal Carboxyl Acetic Acid Amino Glycine Sulfhydryl Cysteine Phosphate Glycerol phosphate Methyl 5Methyl cytosine CHAPTER 5 entire chapter o List the four large biological molecules 0 Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids o Which is not a polymer 0 Lipid o Identify and describe the reactions that synthesize and break down polymers 0 Dehydration Synthesis when a bond forms between two monomers each side contributes part of a water molecule releasing a water molecule as monomers are added to the chain Hydrolysis bonds between the monomers of a polymer are broken by the addiction of a water molecule the H attaching to one monomer and the OH attaching to the other o Name the monomers and polymers of each macromolecule O O O Carbohydrate Monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide Cellulose in plants glucose monomer chains Starch in plants glucose chains storage of polysaccharide Glycogens in animals glucose monomers Chitin animal and fungi hard skeleton Lipids Triglycerides phospholipids steroids Proteins enzymes hormones storage structural transport receptor motor and defensive proteins Nucleic Acids DNA RNA o Functions of each type of macromolecule o Carbohydrates fuel carbon sources strengthen plant cell walls store glucose as energy 0 Lipids energy cell membrane signal molecules through body hormones 0 Proteins catalyze reactions structural support store amino acids transport coordinate responses receive signals from outside cell cell movement protect cell 0 Nucleic Acids store hereditary information carry instructions from DNA to ribosomes o Summarize differences in macromolecular structure 0 Carbohydrate carbon ring Lipids glycerol head fatty acid tail Proteins shape determines function Nucleic Acids phosphate group attached to a five carbon sugar attached to a nitrogenous base 0 O 0 CHAPTER 6 o What is the significance of the observation that most cells are small in size 0 Surface area increases while volume remains constant 0 Diffusion gets things around and this is easier when cell is small 0 Surface to volume ratio is key o Classify and identify between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 0 Prokaryotic Consists of domain bacteria and Archaea contains a nucleoid region and no membrane bound organelles o Eukaryotic Membrane bound organelles larger than prokaryotes has a nucleus phospholipid bilayer regulates passage of materials 0 Both Pro and Eu plasma membrane have cytosol chromosomes present ribosomes make proteins o Protist Single cell organism has a cell wall chloroplasts flagella vacuole and a nucleusnucleolus o Key functions of parts of cells 0 O O O O O O O NucleusContains DNA Nucleolusnonmenbranous structure involved in production of ribosomes RibosomeFree in cytosol or bound to rough ER has a large and small subunit Ribosomes make proteins by information from DNA Rough ERSecretes glycoproteins distributes transport vesicles to Golgi makes membrane Smooth ERManufactures lipids makes steroid metabolizes carbohydrates detoxifies stores Calcium ions GolgiCisternae make up the Golgi Modifies ER products Manufactures molecules polysaccharides Sort and package materials into vesicles Cisface receives products from ER and transface ships them away from Golgi LysosomeFuse with vacuoles and releases enzymes into it to digest it Help with phagocytosis and autophagy Digest macromolecules CapsuleJelly like outer coating of many prokaryotes NucleoidRegion where prokaryotic cells DNA is located not enclosed in a membrane VacuoleDigest and store organic compounds Help with cell growth and water balance Important in protists Chloroplastsite of photosynthesis in plants and algae Thylakoid stacks called granum Empty space called stroma has ribosomes MitochondrionCellular respiration and ATP is generated here PeroxisomeBreak down fatty acids Detox alcohol Makes hydrogen peroxide and then breaks it down Cell Wallouter layer that maintains a plant cells shape and protects it from mechanical damage made of cellulose other polysaccharides and protein Microfilaments7nm thick Maintain cell shape help with muscle contractions and help change cell shape O O O O Microtubules25 nm thick Transports vesicles maintains cell shape in cilia and flagella helps chromosome movement during mitosis Intermediate Filaments612 nm thick Maintain cell shape Anchor organelles CentrosomeRegion where the cells microtubules are initiated contains a pair of centrioles Microvilli Long thing projections from surface to increase surface area without much increase in volume needed to exchange a lot of material with their surroundings o Identify the three primary components of the cell s cytoskeleton and how they affect O 0 Cell ShapeMicrotubules Microfilaments and Intermediate filaments all maintain cell shape Tubules are compression resisting Filaments and intermediate filaments are tension bearing Cell FunctionMicrotubules move chromosomes and organelles Microfilaments contract muscles form the cleavage furrow during division Intermediate filaments anchor nucleus and other organelles Cell MovementMicrotubules form cilia and flagella Microfilaments move cells as in pseudopodia o Compare bacterial flagella with eukaryotic flagella and cilia O O 0 How 0 O O O O 0 How 0 Bacterial Flagella Smaller and simple structure Made of the protein flagellin Rotary movement Proton driven Eukaryotic FlagellaLarger more complex structure Made of tubulin from microtubules Bending movement ATP driven are plant cells different from other cells Have a cell wall made of cellulose AND cell membrane Rectangular fixed shape One large central vacuole taking up to 90 of cell volume Centrioles are only present in lower plant forms Contain chloroplasts for food are proteins targeted to various cellular locations How will disruptions of this system impact targeting and cellular function o Extracellular Components 0 Extracellular matrix Supports cell adheres cells to other cells helps the cell move regulates and organizes what come in the cell 0 Cell Junctions Cells communicate through direct contact Plasmosdesmata Membrane lined channels filled with cytoplasm to connect cells and made them continuous in plant cells Tight Junctions Prevent fluid from moving between cells Make us watertight Desmosomes talk between cells anchor Gap Junctions provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another in animal cells Membrane proteins surround a pore which molecules can pass through c Protein Path 0 Nucleolus ER Ribosome Golgi Out 0 Signal Peptide encoded in primary structure of the protein tells protein when to start and where to go o ICell Disease 0 Genetic disease from lysosome issues Lysosome doesn t digest things properly Joint stiffness decreased bone density trouble breathing 0 Developmental delays max 8 year life span CHAPTER 7 O o Membrane Structure 0 Hydrogenate to turn unsaturated fat to a saturated fat trans fat 0 Amphipathic a molecule containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions 0 Fluid Mosaic Model a membrane is a fluid structure with a mosaic of various proteins embedded in it Lateral movement occurs often Flip flop between sides is rare Saturated v Unsaturated O
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