Organisms and Populations
Organisms and Populations BS 110
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This 54 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Blick Sr. on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BS 110 at Michigan State University taught by Amber Peters in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/207326/bs-110-michigan-state-university in Biological Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Q3 Complete handout of phylogenetic tree Keep it simple Parsimony Always look for the most parsimonious tree Given any 4 closely related species A B C and D we can come up with many possible phylogenetic trees Here are just 3 hypothetical trees Q4 Write a few sentences in your carbonless what is different between the 3 trees in terms of taxa B s closest shared common ancestor Adapted from Campbell amp Reece 2002 The goal of taxonomy binomial ID naming classifying system is to reflect phylogeny evolutionary history Phylogenetic trees are based on synapomorphies and the principle of parsimony are hypotheses that depict evolutionary relationships among taxa and the relative time of divergence of taxa from a common ancestor Linnaeus mid 1700 s 2 Kingdoms Plan rs Animals donquott move move au l ofr ophic he rer39ofr39ophic Whi r raker 1969 5 Kingdoms Plants Most Recent Classification Woese s Conclusions 3 major groups Domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Whittaker s Kingdoms do not reflect phylogeny of organisms Prokaryotes are DIVERSE think Kingdomlevel differences between plants animals fungi similar to clades within Bacteria Archaea gt New 3 mag Wham am 3 Domains 1 Mathanubactenum Methanucuccus Archaea ne er Thevmupmtgus Pyvu mcuum PROKARYOTES p umunads EUKARYOTES Eu karya Evolution to Ecology 80 this is the Where do we find historical them relationships of all organisms on Earth that have resulted from 38 billion years 39 HOW many are of descent with there modificationevolution changes in allele frequency What is Ecology Ecology the study of how organisms interact with their environment Central goal understand the distribution and abundance of organisms Organismal ecology Individuals or Behavior 7 How do individuals 39 39 interact with each other and their physical environment Male and female salmon fight over females during the breeding season Figure 5013 Biological Science 22 C 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Study morphological physiological amp behavioral adaptations How and why does 39 population size change over time Each female salmon 39 produces thousands of eggs Only a few 391 u will survive to adulthood On average only two will return to the 23221mxaz s mzf e stream of their birth to breed Population Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time Community ecology How do species a interact and what are 7 the consequences 2 39 v Figure 0llt Eiologicll ScienceJe o zoos Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Community The interacting species within an area Ecosystem ecology F How do energy and nutrients cycle through the environment When salmon die and decomposethe nutrients that are released are used by bacteria archaea plants protists young Figure 501 d Biological Science Zle 2005 Pearson Prentice Halllnc I organisms Ecosystem All the organisms in a particular region along with nonliving components abiotic factors 1 Intro to Ecology 2 The Nature of the Environment 3 Biotic and abiotic factors Biotic living biological Abiotic nonliving physicalchemical Why don t we have toucans in the Michigan Why don t we the right biotic and abiotic factors in Michigan 7 1 39 Temperature North poe Small amount of sunlight per unit area R Lowangle of i39nEBming sunlight dogerate angle of i c f niing sunlight Large amount of Figure 502 Biologkal Science Zle 2005 Pearson Prentice Halllnc S n l lg per u n It a rea Precipitation a Dense dry air descends warms and absorbs moisture Cooled air Cg is pushed poleward quot E Lq Warm air rises and cools dropping rain Hadley cell Atmosphere not to scale Figure 503 Biological Sdene2e e was Pearson Prentice Hall lm39 Seasons March 20 Equator faces Sun directly ne 21 December 21 Northern Souther Hemisphere Hemisphere aces Su faces Sun most most directly directly If Earth did not tilt on its axisthere would be no seaso s Figure 504 Biologicll sdenzue o 2005 Pearson Prenllce Hall Inc September 22 Equator faces Sun directly Movement of Heat Water Equator has a surplus of heat poles have a deficit Water s high heat capacity makes it an ideal fluid to equalize this imbalance Gulf Stream moves 550 trillion calories northward into the North Atlantic each second Oceans Regional Effects on Climate ramrjs anuv wusywaall wwwplanetforilifecomqwgrmlqlobcllimatehtm Moderates Climate Calgary Canada 51 N Lat 126 cm of snow each year London England 51 N Lat snow is uncommon Thames river hasn t frozen for gt200 years QS Why is there such a difference in the snowfall between these two locations Organismal Ecology What is the meaning of life Organismal Ecology Purpose of Life Increase Fitness How do you do that Eat Avoid Being Eaten Find Mates Reproduce Eat Avoid Predators Reproduce Flexibility of Behavior Some types of behavior are performed in nearly the same way every time these are called FAP fixed action patterns Other types of behavior are highly flexible Some types of behavior are readily modified by learning or communication Other behaviors do not require learning and are considered innate Innate no modification through learning 2axest0 explain behavim r Snuhng Highly stereotyped Highly flexible Fixed little variation Condition dependent Language Originates and is modified through learning Figure 512 Biological Science2e 2005 Pearson Prentice Halllnc NonFlexible Behaviors Fixed Action Patterns Imprinting Fixed action patterns FAPs highly stereotypical behavior patterns 1 Almost no variation in performance 2 Speciesspecific 3 Once begun continues until completion a Courtship displays in b Webbuilding in spiders c Eggretrieval behavior ducks in geese Blue footed boobies httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvDCNQFantLM E Doing the dance incorrectly greatly decreases aness Innate behavior instinct Innate behavior inherited behaviors with little variation based on learning or condition Responses to very simple stimuli releasers or sign stimuli Adaptive Significance of FAPs Releaser is exceptionally important to the individual s fitness its ability to survive and produce offspring Imprinting adoption of the first moving thing they see as their mother fast and irreversible and occurs only during a short critical or sensitive period Konrad Lorenz Flexible Behaviors Conditional Strategies Learned Behaviors Communication Conditional Strategies NOT a fixed action pattern Varies depending on the environment but still the goal is to INCREASE FITNESS Ex Blue Head Wrasse 394 1246 Figure 515 Biological ScienKeJe 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Mouth brooding in fish Q6 Come up with your own example of an instinct earned behavior conditional strategy Proximate vs Ultimate Causation Behavior Proximate or mechanistic causation determines how actions occur Utimate or evolutionary causation determines Why actions occur Proximate Causation Environmental changes Courtship display of a male Anolis lizard Social interactions 0 Hormonal changes Enviro change gt hormone level change gt behavior to maximize tness in new environment Flexible hormone levels exible behavior Ultimate Causation Male Anolis lizard displays to females find mates and increases fitness Social Dominance Many animals that live in groups exhibit certain behavior to show and establish a hierarchy within a group Marking territories scents Defining territories songs roaring howling Individuals signal their superior strength to competitors to obtain food resolve territorial disputes and acquire mates Red Deer of Rum The Evolution of SelfSacrificing Behavior Altruism behavior that has a fitness cost to the individual exhibiting it and a fitness benefit to the recipient 1 Good of the species hypotheses 2 Kin selection 3 Reciprocal altruism Do organisms act for the good of the s p e c i es THE FA R s of Bv GARY LARSON Wmms Inc All Right ReservedDist by Creators Syndicate M 1 e S 1 1 decrease in frequency in the population Which will increase e by Gan Larson 1980 FarWorks Inc All Rights Reserved Used with permission d Kin Selection natural selection that acts through benefits to relatives Hamilton s rule if high benefits of altruistic behavior are dispersed to close relatives and the costs are low alleles associated with altruistic behavior will be favored by natural selection and spread through population Br gt C B fitness benefit to the beneficiary r coefficient of relatedness C fitness cost to the actor Coefficient of relatedness Ex Between parent and offspring r12 Between siblings r12 Between grandparents and grandchildren r14 Between cousins r18 Reciprocal Altruism exchange of fitness benefits that are separated in time How would you test Whether meerkat altruistic behavior is due to kin selection or reciprocal altruism httpwwwmeerkatsnet MEERKAT MANOR httpanimaldiscoverycomfansitesmeerkatmeerkat html
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