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Date Created: 09/06/14
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW ATOMS AND MOLECULES ATOMIC STRUCTURE Where are the Electrons Atomic Orbitals Aufbau Pauli Exclusion Hund s Rule MOLECULES Ionic vs Covalent Bonds Molecular Orbitals Lewis Dot Bonding and Antibonding MO s Hybrid Atomic Orbitals VSEPR DRAWING STRUCTURES MOLECULAR PROPERTIES Molecular Shapes amp Bond Strengths Polarity and Intermolecular Forces Acids and Bases BronstedLowry Lewis Introduction to Reactions amp Formal Charges OveXe cloud of electrons nuclus protons and neutrons Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc protons and neutrons Pw n Cloud of electlrns 18 Telectrnn density nuclleus PD distance nfmm the nuclneuns Elnpgrr gaht Pearson PtFEI7ItiEE Haflli Inn nucleus Gnpyrigiht ZBEIE PEarson Prena ine Haallli InnE 1395 a1 rmLi urbitagfl H atkmit irhitl 23 e ecIrom1 density node dlistce Z from the m1c1eusV istmce f1r0m the 1 m1c14eus nucleus Copyright 206 Pearson Pren ice Hall lune Hoe eleetrent tdistenee from density the nucleus zt dirtectienst of axes nudws Z eemtes ut toward us the 2 pl Orbital the 2px Zpy emd 2pZ orbitals superimposed at anglee Cegpyrighmt t 2 ZIO6 Peatse n Ptrtentttele Hall lune lrhital Iquot itEiIi bwitl quotI aquot 1391 1I39 p 1P2 1 31 l11 Sa 1 quotlg Tn T 34L v5221Ii1s 1il39quot 1rl vrfJ 13939 l 393T If1quotl 1 39Jj 1 sh gt rhital EI lEquoti39iQI a39 H5 3 End T5 En Ed sis 5 43 55 453 Ed k 339inI Icawest energies lifill fira 35 maximum I T1wt ale mn 2 pair it l T I5 Energy is j ll j H ij H lj j 312 E ij I lj lgj Halutiua Enarur nf 5 and p h39II39rtns cl nrhitals EIquotE nut 5I39IJ39ql39I TIWILEE 11 Eewzunlcz EEI39I39I LIrE12 II15 if E Elernen ty uf the Flritand EEnn Haws Eniawirft i if iT Mquot 39 Lii if i EiE39i1I Ei ELainf mriJ5 II 15 E J 5 539 EL 15 E J Eur is3ie3 5 I IL IL H 153 EEEEJIEl 0 5E3 EEIIEIIJ 39i 53Zj EEIEEIIEri l fl J I V Jo JL JL E 11 Is 3g 22nLn N31 EEjE EEJE39EE39EJE39s39 3 Hg 1539 iE EEE39E39Z Ef3quotE Chemical Bonds The Octet Rule Atoms form bonds to produce the electron configuration of a noble gas because the electronic configuration of noble gases is particularly stable For most atoms of interest this means achieving a valence shell configuration of 8 electrons corresponding to that of the nearest noble gas Atoms close to helium achieve a valence shell configuration of 2 electrons Atoms can form either ionic or covalent bonds to satisfy the octet rule Bond Formation Ionic bonding electrons are transferred Covalent bonding electron pair is shared Na 1 nonpolar polar ionic bond covalent bond covalent bond Copyrrtighti A 2005 Pearsont Ptrerrnttticer Hall Inc Ionic Bonds When ionic bonds are formed atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas In the process the atoms become ionic The resulting oppositely charged ions attract and form ionic bonds This generally happens between atoms of widely different electronegativities bnding region electrons in this region T I b 2 attract both nuciei WC em and mask the positive 4 p reelling p p2 nucleus il char Copyright A 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 0q Comsetructiv Imteracetion 0 P two 15 orbitals are in phase and have the same si add bonding molecular orbital represented by MO 039b0r1di11 C0pyright 2005 Peasrsosn Prentzice Halijlie Irma Destruct391ve imeraction The twol ls orbitalls are out of hase add node anlltiondinlg molecular orbital representte by node 0 agnjtibonlding MC Copyrighllt 2005 Pearson Prentiale Hailiilil lrjm antibonding energy A 1s 13 atomic orbital atomic orbital molecular orbital Copyvrighat 2005 Pearscan Prenstjice Ha3 Inc