Introductory Microbiology MMG 301
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 Virulence and Pathogenesis Lecture 29 Vocabulam Adherence aided by several bacterial adherence factors that are specific to cells of certain tissues most often epithelial cells Adherence proteins bind bacteria to specific host receptors glycoproteins polysaccharides Glycocalyx Aids adherence and biofilm formation Fimbriae and pili bind to specific receptors on host cells Lipoteichoic acid aid in attachment Invasion Entry of the pathogen through the epithelium Colonization and growth Multiplication and growth of microbes after entry into host tissue must have suitable environment with proper nutrients pH trace minerals and temperature Virulence measure of the ability of an organism to cause disease virulence factor pathogenproduced substance that promotes the establishment and maintenance of disease ID50 infected does that makes 50 of population sick LD50 Lethal dose that kills 50 of population Hyaluronidase breaks down hyaluronic acid in connective tissue aids invasion Collagenase breaks down collagen in connective tissue aids invasion Coagulase works by causing blood to clot prevents access by host immune cells Streptokinase destroys fibrin of blood clots aids invasion Elastase breaks down host cell membranes aids invasion Hemolysins cause lysis of red blood cells Staphylococcus utoxin protein binds to host cell membrane creating a 2 way pore host cell dies due to loss of cell content and protein gradient Exotoxins bacteriaIIyproduced toxins are proteins or enzymes that are released from the bacterial cell into the surrounding environment AB toxin consist of 2 subunits B binds to host surface A crosses into cell Enterotoxins Exotoxins that affect the small intestine Botox botulism toxin toxin which binds to presynaptic membrane of motor neuron 9 paralysis Limulus amoebocyte assay LAL many kinds of colorgenerating of fluorescencegenerating detection kits are based on LAL Endogenous pyrogens enzymes which regulate temperature Concepts Review opportunistic accidental obligate pathogens and major points of adherence invasion colonization o Opportunistic infects immunocompromised organisms Accidental Introduced to the body accidentally Obligate can only replicate within host cells Adherence Aided by several bacterial adherence factors that are specific to cells of certain tissue most often epithelial Glycocalyx aids adherence and biofilm formation Adherence Proteins bind bacteria to specific host receptors Fimbraie and pili bind to specific receptors on host cells Lipotecichoic acid aid in attachment 0 Invasion Entry of pathogen through epithelium Invasion not required to cause disease some produce harmful toxins Colonization multiplication and growth after entry into host tissue Review each of the given examples of virulence factors involved in adherence invasion and colonization O Understand the difference between tissue specific infections and systemic infections what are bacteremia and septicem39a 0 Tissue specific Tissue tropism tissue organ speci c OOO Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 0 Systemic affects multiple organs tissues or entire body a system acteremia occurs then there is enough growth that viable bacteria enter the circulation bloodstream Septicemia Bacteremia with sepsis a severe lifethreatening systemic inflammatory response often in response to bacterial toxins How can virulence of a particular pathogen be measured 0 Can be quantitated using ID50 or LD50 test in mice What are the three common types of exotoxins o Cytolytic toxins degrade host cell resulting in lysis Staphylococcus utoxin protein creates 2 way pore everything leaves cell not proton gradient Hemolysins discovered because they lysis red blood cells but also lyse other cells 0 AB toxins consist of 2 subunits B to bind to host surface A crossed into cell 0 Superantigens Hyperstimulate immune cells resulting in tissue inflammation and dama e What is the mode of action of diphtheria toxin how does the A fragment inhibit ribosomes o Diphtheria toxin is an AB toxin that kills host cell by blocking protein transport B fragment binds to host protease then cleaves A an A frag enters cell and blocks tRNA from entering ribosome by enzymatic modifaction ADPribose is attached to elongation factor 2 and protein syn ls prevented Called ADPribosylation 0 Very cytotoxic only one toxin kills one host cell 0 Produced by Corynebacteriurn diptheriae Review the mode of action of AB toxins of tetanus botulism cholera and Shiga toxin 0 Botox Produced by Clostridium botuinurn Toxin binds to presynaptic terminal ofthe motor neuron 9 paralysis blocks release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine o Tetanus produced by Clostridium tetani colonizes deep wounds Binds to inhibitory interneurons results in continual excitation of muscles leading to spastic paralysis o Cholera Produced by Vibrio cholera B binds to intestinal epithelium A activates host enzyme adenyl cyclase 9 increased cAMP results in excretion of Na and H0032quot H20 follows 0 Shiga toxin Shigela dysenteriae A fragment cuts ribosomal RNA in host cell Mainly in small intestine but also in kidney why is there a large fluid loss in cholera 0 Large loss of ions of Na and HCOBZ39 water follows solute large water loss what are spastic paralysis and flaccid paralysis o Spastic continual excitement of muscle cells Tetanus o Flaccid paralysis of motor neurons Botox Review the important facts about members of the genus Clostridium Have no respiratory chain all energy comes from fermentation of sugars o Strict anaerobes most sporeformers Over 100 identified 0 Natural reservoir is in soil living in anaerobic pockets Explain the type and type II protein secretion systems discussed in class 0 Type N proteins transported to periplasm by Sec or Tat protein membrane trans Protein move out of outer membrane through associated pore protein 0 Type III similar in structure to flagellum injected directly into host cells What are endotoxins and how can they be detected Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 o Endotoxins cellbound lipopolysaccharides of GramT bacteria that can be released upon lysis of bacterial cell 0 Effects of endotoxins Fever endotoxin stimulates host to release endogenous pyrogens which regulate temp Diarrhea inflamaton less toxic than exotoxins EpidemiologyPublic Health Lecture 30 Vocabulam Epidemiology study of the prevalence incidence and transmission of disease in human pop Prevalence Fraction or percent of a given population has a disease Outbreak Sudden increase in cases above normal low levels Incidence number of cases of a disease within a population Endemic Disease is present at low constant levels Epidemic disease occurring within a population at a higher than normal rate Pandemic disease has spread across several continents influenza Common source epidemic Originate from a single source arrive from food or water Mortality Deaths due to disease total population of individuals Morbidity Incidence of a disease fatal or nonfatal Total population of individuals Carrier Individuals with asympotomatic or subclinical infections usually chronic that can expose others to infectious disease Reservoirs places or populations where infectious disease is maintained between outbreaks can be inanimate or living organism R0 Basic Reproductiv Number Number of infections that one infected individual generates during the entire infectious period Zoonosis diseases that occur primarily in animals but can be transmitted to humans Vectors live agents such as insects rodents ticks fleas Eg West Nile virus malaria Fomites inanimate contaminated objects eg toys beddin Vehicles nonliving sources of pathogens that infect many individuals Index case first occurrence of a disease in a population first person with case is called patient 0 Emerging Disease new or old pathogens not seen in recent years Concepts How are mortality and morbidity calculated 0 Mortality deaths due to disease Total population of individuals 0 Morbidity Incidence of a disease fatalnonfatalTotal population of individual Understand the difference between seasonal and sporadic disease occurrence 0 Seasonal Disease prevalence increases seasonally when insect vectors emer o Sporadic occurs in single and scattered cases What are differences between common source and hosttohost epidemics mon Source originate from a single source 0 HosttoHost disease arrives from people much slower rise in prevalence Review the modes of infectious disease transmission 0 Direct Contact Transmission Humantohuman Sexually transmitted or respiratory transmission Modes Coughingsneezing open skintoskin wounds sores accidental contact with feces urine blood Animaltohuman animaltohuman spread eg bovine tuberculosis rabies Avian influenza brucellosis anthrax many other 0 Indirect contact transmission Vectors live agent such insects rodents fleas and ticks Eg West Nile Virus malaria Fomites inanimate contaminated objects eg toys bedding Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 Vehicles nonliving source of pathogens that infect many individuals most food or water Review the stages of disease process infection incubation acute decline Infection Initial exposure and ent o Incubation time between infection and onset of symptoms can be daysyears 0 Acute Stage Fever and other symptoms at their worst 0 Decline Symptoms subside reduced fever What is herd immunity and how does is work 0 Herd immunity Occurs when a fraction of a population is immune to a disease o If a high fraction of the population is immune then the nonimmune are protected Fraction for immunity required will vary depending on disease How was epidemiology important for finding the source of the 1854 cholera epidemic in London 0 John Snow realized that humans were the reservoir for cholera Vibrio cholerae o Hypothesized that fecal matter contamination in drinking water transmits cholera 0 Snow tracked cholera outbreaks from 2 water supply companies concluded water was the source of the epidemic because of sewage Review the factors that are responsible for the rise in emerging diseases Ecological changeseconomic development agriculture dams deforestation Human demographics population growth migration IV drug use Increased international travel Technology and industry centralized processing food supplies overuse of antibiotics Microbial adaptation ability to undergo genetic changes and acquire genes 0 Shortcomings of public health measures cutbacks in mosquito abatement and pollution control What are the most common sites of nosocomial infections 0 Nosocomial infections occur in the healthcare setting 0 Transmitted by Contact humantohuman by healthcare workers and patients Airborne Exposed tissues resulting from burns abrasions trauma surgical procedures Deviceassociated resulting from medical devices such as ventilators catheters syringes 0 Common infection sites Urinary tract surgical site pneumonia bacteremias infection within blood Where can MRSAMethicillinResistant Staphuococcus aureus infections be acquired 0 Common cause of skin infection serious cases require antibiotic treatment what is invasive MRSA o Infections progress into deeper underlying tissue Why is MRSA a concern 0 94000 cases in 05 9 19000 died in hospital What is Clostridium dif cile emerging disease in healthcare setting 0 Sporeforming Grampositive anaerobic rod 0 What does it cause Watery diarrhea fever abdominal pain 0 What individuals are at greatest risk Those undergoing antibiotic thearapy What are MDRTB MultiDrug Resistant Tuberculosis and XDRTB Extensively DRTB o MDR resistant to several antibiotics that are usually used to treat TB 4 cases 0 XDR rare type of MDR resistant to almost all antibiotics About 10 of MDR are XDR Treatment may need surgical removal of diseased lung Review the 5 measures used to control the spread of infectious diseases 0 Reservoir Control monitoring of domestic and wild animals for diseases immunization against rabies 0000 O Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 0 Transmission control mosquito control elimination of water or food contamination constant monitoring of food and water supply 0 Immunization smallpox has been eliminated from earth by immunization diphtheria tetanus pertussis measles rubella polio all prevented o Quarantine restricting movement of infected individuals required for smallpox cholera plaque yellow fever typhoid and relapsing fever 0 Surveillance monitoring of diseases by Center for Disease Control USA and World Health Organization What is a reportable disease 0 Infections that must be reported to local state and the CDC PersontoPerson Microbial Diseases Respiratoryl Lecture 31 Vocabulam Sequelae follow up diseases Superantigen type of exotoxin Hyperstimulate immune cells resulting in tissue inflammation and damage Pneumonia invasive lung infection DPT vaccine Diphtheria tetanus pertussis 9 vaccine for Diphtheria Pseudomembrane lesion resulting from Inflammatory response to localize infections Tubercule nodules created from hypersensitivity immune response forming around infection Macrophage cells produced by differentiation of monocytes in tissue Concepts Review the mode of airborne microbial disease transmission 0 Cannot survive long in the air Enveloped virus are susceptible to drying o Gram somewhat more resistant to drying than Gram o Spores can survive well but few pathogens are transmitted as spores Streptococcus pyogenes Gram cocci usually grow in large chains causes strep throat where does it infect often found in healthy adults what is hemolysis lysis or degradation of blood know the diseases stated in class Scarlet fever can result from certain strains of S pyogenes that carry a lysogenic bacteriopha e Rhuematic Fever a bacterial cell surface antigen resembles normal human surface antigen Patient s immune system begins attack normal tissue heart kidney joints Invasive infections some virulent strains can invade deep tissue Exotoxins and MProteins of bacterial surface act as a superantigen o What is necrotizing fasciitis Fleshing eating bacteria 0 review different types of diseases caused by group A and group B strep Group A most common group many asymptomatic carriers strep throat necrotizing fasciitis impetigo typical S pyogenes Group B newborn babies prego women elderly and adults with other illnesses S agaactiae most common lifethreating infection in infants 25 of women are asymptomatic carriers of Group B Strep in vagina 0 what are the sequelae of Strep infections no clue Streptococcus pneumoniae know about the two common diseases it causes umonia invasive lung infection Vaccine available that prevents about 60 of 90 know strains 0 OOO Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 Death occurs in 14 of hospitalized adults with invasice disease More commonly seen in the ederly 0 Bacterial meningitis infection of the fluid that surrounds the spinal cord and brain More severe that the viral meningitits Symptoms develop in several hours to 12 days nausea headache vomiting discomfort looking into bright lights Corynebacterium diphtheriae 0 what is the disease and where does it colonizeinfect Diphtheria infects upper respiratory tract tonsils and thorat 0 what is a pseudomembrane review the toxin produced by this bacterium It will restrict the airway Bordetella pertussis what is the medical and common names for the disease Pertussis Whooping Cough 0 what is filamentous hemagglutinin and how does it aid the bacterium on surface of B pertussis binding protein 0 how does pertussis exotoxin work induces cAMP synth in host cell that eventually leads to tissue damage Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis M bovis and others infect animals 0 Obligate aerobes intracellular parasites live inside macrophage cells of immune 0 how is it transm39 d inhales into lungs and grown 0 what host cells does it initially infect ngs 0 review outer cell wall structure Slide 9 on lecture 31 PersontoPerson Microbial Diseases Respiratory 2 Lecture 32 Vocabulam Antigenic shift segmented RNA genome allows shuffling and mutations of 2 major antigens that are on the surface of the virus envelope ZiehlNeelsen stain procedure Acid fast method for spectroscopy Meninges cover the spinal cord and brain Concepts Review important facts about leprosy the pathogen symptoms another name for disease 0 Also called Hansen s Disease 0 Pathogen is Mycobacterium leprae 0 Unknown mode of transmission possibly respiratory or direct contact Not highly contagious easily treated with antibiotics o Bacteria invade macrophages associated with peripheral nerves Eventually produce lesions on skin damage to tissues and secondary infection can lead to disfigurement Neisseria meningitidis o Meningitis an infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord usually caused by bacteria or virus 0 Where does it colonizeinfect attaches to upper respiratory tract and eventually invades the bloodstream lnfects the meninges o What other two bacteria most commonly cause bacterial meningitis Haemophiis influenza and Strptococcus pneumoniae Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 Legionnaire s disease review pathogen where is it found in the environment other disease it causes 0 Pathogen is Legionela pneumophia aerobic Gramquot rod 0 Water borne organism but inhaled in droplets lives in water storage tanks AC systems soil and aquatic habitats o Inhaled Legionela settles in lungs multiply eventually cause localized lesions 0 Also causes Pontiac fever and milder flulike symptoms Influenza virus 0 What tissues are infected upper respiratory tract 0 how does it cause annual epidemics Antigenic shifts to elude immune syst 0 how does segmented genome result in antigenic shift allows for shuffling and mutations of 2 major anitgens that are on surface 0 know important facts about avian influenza why are people concerned about this virus Caused by Influenza A subunit H5N I First documented in Hong Kong caused 18 cases and 6 deaths 0 what measures were taken to control avian influenza in the 1997 outbreak Entire poultry population was eliminated in 3 days to stop spread 0 how many deaths from the 19181919 influenza pandemic 100 million Common cold what are the common viral causes what viruses are more common in children 0 Most commonly caused by rhinovirus and coronavirus What is the viral cause and symptoms of measles mumps and rubella what is the MMR vaccine 0 Measles rubeola virus infects respiratory tract producing cough fever rash 0 Mumps Mumps virus spread by airborne droplets Inflammation of salivary glands swelling of neck virus spreads throughout body 0 Rubella German measles rubella virus Milder symptoms than measles infection of fetus can cause stillbirth heart eye and brain damage 0 MMR vaccine protects against measles mumps and rubella o Varicellazoster virus what are the diseases what can virus cause later in life 0 Chicken pox and shingles o Caused by varicellazoster virus highly contagious by airborne root PersontoPerson Microbial Diseases Direct Contact Lecture 33 Vocabulam Direct contact transmission diseases spread by direct contact Abscess acne or boils Otidis media inner ear Pyogenic involving producing pus Hepatitis general term for inflammation of liver caused by viral infection Opportunistic pathogens pathogens that take advantage of certain situations Cirrhosis treatment of the liver Chancre a painless sore that occurs during syphilis Diplococcus a round bacterium that forms in 2 cells Spirochete have an internal flagellum able to go through membrane like a corkscrew Concepts Diseases review Centers for Disease Control Category A priority biological agents Smallpox variola virus what are symptoms how was it eradicated o Caused by variola virus transmitted by aerosol or direct contact 0 Eradicated by being only a human reservoir no asympotamtic carriers short eriod of infectivity effective vaccine Viral hemorrhagic fevers review the viruses don t memorize dates Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 o Member of 5 virus families mostly found in Africa 0 Highest concern viruses are Marburg Lass VHF CrimeanCongo and Ebola 0 Natural reservoir is the monkey Anthrax o Caused by bacillus anthracis gram positive spore forming rod 0 Has 3 virulence factors Edema factor lethal factor 0 3 routes of infection Cutaneous skin inhalation respiratory tract and GI Plague o Caused by Yersinia pests o 3 forms of infection Pneumonic plague infection of lungs infected individuals can infect others before symptoms show Bubonic plague infection of lymph nodes through skin from flea Septicemic plague when bacteria infect the blood can be a complication of pneumonic or bubonic Tularemia review the pathogens transmission modes symptoms aused by Francisela tuarensis occurs widely in nature easy to isolate 0 caused skin ulcers swollen and painful lymph glands inflamed eyes sore throat oral ulcers or pneumonia 0 transmitted by wood tick or deer fly inhalation or contact with diseases animals Staphylococcus infections 0 irect contact infections include those spread between persons by direct contact or by contact with blood or other fluids 0 What organisms cause the infections S aureus What are the common infection sites normal flora of skin and upper respiratory tract 0 What is toxic shock syndrome Causes a hyperimmune response fever rash vomiting sometimes fatal 0 What is impetigo outer skin infection Bacillus anthracis what is the disease Antrax 0 what are the three types of infections Cutaneous skin Inhalation respiratory tract and GI 0 how are spores involved They are the infectious agent Helicobacter pylori 0 what disease does it cause Gastric ulcers 0 what is urease how is it a virulence factor Makes a mucus layer surrounding infection more alkaline able to survive extreme acidic pH 0 How does infection lead to ulcers Colonize on epithelial cells makes mucous layer and acid fucks with the lining Neisseria gonorrhoeae what disease does it cause Gonorrhea 0 how is it transmitted Infect mucous membrane of GI tract eye rectum throat 0 why is antibiotic resistance a problem Was treated with penicillin now have new penicillin resistant forms Treponema pallidum syphilis sexually transmitted 0 what is a chancre painless sore 0 what are the three stages Forms a chancre cells spread to other tissues causing skin rash then a latent stage occurs not infectious but can last years lesions form on skin bone nervous tissue 0 consequences of untreated infection blindness and insanity Chlamydia trachomatis most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in US 0 review intracellular life cycle 1 extracellular elementary body enters host cell by endocytosis O Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 2 differentiates to the metabolically active reticulate bodies multiply 3 reticulate bodies differentiate into more elementary bodies exit 0 when does endocytosis occur when the extracellular elementary body enters cell 0 what diseases does it cause Chlamydia Yersinia pestis 0 what are bubonic infection of lymph nodes through skin from flea o pneumonic and infection of lungs infected individuals can infect others before symptoms show 0 septicemic forms of plague when bacteria infect the blood Herpes what is the virus Herpes virus what do HSV1 and HSV2 cause 1 Cold sores fever blisters some genital transmitted by direct contact 2 mainly genital also found in other sites Cause painful blisters on genitalia Transmitted sexually Review the HIV life cycle starts as HIV 9 AIDS how are CD4 CCR5 and gp120 involved CD4 and CCR5 are on host cell and bind to HIV cell 0 review the eukaryotic opportunistic pathogens often seen in AIDS patients T lymphocytes and macrophages are sestoyed by the virus Pneumonia Pneumococytisjiroveci fungal most common Candidiasis Candida albicans fungal systemic Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii protozoan brain How are hepatitis A B and C transmitted o A not direct contact fecaloralroute persontoperson or contaminated foods 0 B transmitted through blood transfusions sharing needles tattooing piercing sexuall o C transmitted through bloodbody fluids how common is Hepatitis A 30 ofthe population has anitbodies vaccine availble how many worldwide infections with Hepatitis B 350 million humans have chronic HBV 00 Vector Transmitted amp Soilborne Diseases and Polymicrobial Diseases Lecture 34 Vocabulam Zoonoses disease found primarily in animals but are transmissible to humans Accidental hosts organisms that get infected but are not the reservoirs Polymicrobial disease infections in animals or humans that are induced by multiple bacteria viruses fungal or parasitic organisms or a combination ofthese Negri bodies found in nerve tissue deals with rabies Aflatoxins toxic and many are carcinogens Concepts Rabies 0 how is it transmitted bites from infected animal but respiratory also possible 0 long latency12 weeks in animals up to 9 months in humans 0 how is it treated by postexposure vaccination live attenuated vaccine plus antirabies immunoglobulin what is an attenuated vaccine live but weakened viruses Review West Nile Virus what animals affe 0 Human horses and birds are all affected but birds are reservoirs Hantavirus 0 related to hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola and Lassa viruses Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 0 what is mode of transmission deer mouse host inhalation of dried airborne fecal material from infected animal 0 what is the disease and what organ is mainly affected Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome fever muscle aches decreased blood platelets lungs filled with fluid Mice and rats Review Rickettsial diseases how are they each transmitted from a vector bite 0 connect the pathogen to its disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsi zoonotic disease humans are accidental hosts 3 12 incubation phase Ehrlichiosis caused by members in Ehrlicha and related genera can infect mammals zoonotic transmission to humans by tick vector Typhus Rickettsia prowazekii humans are only known host humantohuman transmission by common body or lice warfever Qfever Coziela burneti tick spreads disease animalstoanimal contact with urine feces milk other fluids can transmit it to humans Borrelia burgdorferi o What is the disease Lyme disease 0 how is it transmitted spread by the deer tick 0 what happens if left untreated expanding red ring around tick bite dissemination of organism the demyelination of neurons with symptoms similar to Alzheimers Review the plague Caused by Yersinia pests 0 what are the three forms bubonic pneumonic and septicemic 0 how is the vector involved in transmission transmitted by fleas grown in fle intestine 9 infects new host with bite What pathogens cause malaria how is vector control helpful 0 Pasrnodium faciparum P vivax P ovae and P malariae o Transmitted by mosquitos insecticidecontaining mosquito nets Review the soil bacterial pathogens mentioned in the lecture etanus caused by Clostridiurn tetani spores germinate in anoxic conditions 0 Botulism Clostridium botuinurn also a ubiquitous anaerobe spore forming soil 0 Fungal mycoses fungal disease can be catorized by location superficialskin subcutaneousunder skin or systemic Review the two major mycoses caused by soilborne fungi Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsuatum infects lungs Athletes foot Trichophyton what organ is affected in primary infection lungs what are aflatoxins toxic and carcinogens o Aflatoxins produced by Aspergilis flavus What are polymicrobial diseases infections in animals or humans that are induced by multiple bacteria viruses fungal or parasitic organisms 0 how are they inducedenhanced Weakened or immunocompromized host Initial infection creates new pathways for secondary pathogens Virulence of 2 or more pathogens is greater than an alone one 0 review bovine respiratory disease complex don t memorize individual pathogens BRD major cause of economic loss in cattle industry overcrowding bad nutrition and transport are all contributing factors 0000 Food Preservation and FoodbornelWaterborne Diseases Lecture 35 Vocabulam GRAS generally recognized as safe Enterotoxins affect the small intestine Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 Pascalization ultra high pressure processing Enterohemorrhagic cause intestinal bleeding Verotoxin similar to shiga toxin an enterotoxin Psychrotolerant can grow in colder temperatures Sludge removal of insoluble materials from raw sewage by screening and gravitational settlings Activated sludge flocs and suspended solids in Activated sludge method Indicator microbes used to detect fecal wastes in potable and recreational water Fecal coliforms Gram negative nonsporulating facultative anaerobic rods from the intestine of the warmblooded Rotavirus most common cause of all gastroenteritis in kids Concepts Review the methods used for food preservation discussed in class Refrigeration low tempslower growth of microbes psychrotolerant can still grow though freezing can prevent growth but ruins some food 0 Acidity Acidic pH less than 5 inhibits growth can also add salt to food 0 Drying Reducing water content NaCl inhbits most bacteria but fungi and Gram positive can grow Chemical preservation Sodium shit acts as growth inhibitors and GRAS 0 Radiation Ionizing kills microbes wide variety of foods 0 Heat Pasteurization shortterm heating to reduce microbes in foos wo significant reduction in quality canningo heating sealed container sterile 0 Ultra high pressure processing Cold pasteurization or Pascalization most microbes killed spores are not Know the differences between food infection and food poisonin Infection infection arising from ingestion of pathogen disease occurs when organism grows after ingestion o Poisoning ingestion of preformed microbial toxins microbes that produced the toxins do not need to invade host Food poisoning review the facts about Staph aureus Clostridium prefringens and C botulinum o S aureus commonly found on all humans skin and food heatstable toxins o C perfingens most prevalent food poisoning in US spores germinate and grow in intestines produce toxins no invasion only colonization o C botulinum strict anaerobe found in soil spores from soil contaminate food canned foods that are undercooked can contain live spores after germination botox is produced Foodborne pathogens review the information for Salmonellosis Campylobacteriosis Listeriosis Salmonellosis caused Salmonella transmission uncooked food containing fecal contamination infect GI tract produce several enterotoxins o Campylobacteriosis most prevalent foodborne pathogen caused by Campyobacterjejunl colonizes the small and large intestine o Listeriosis Listeria monocutogenes psychrotolerant transmission through manin animals transmitted to humans through dairy products Review the types of pathogenic E coli discussed in class Shiga Toxin Producing E coli STEC produces Shiga toxin an AB toxin that halts protein synthesis About 90 are 01571H7 results in intestinal hemorrhaging and kidney failure 0 Enterotoxogenic E coli ETEC Colonizes intestines and secret either one or 2 similar toxins differ from 01 571H7 cause intestines to excrete excessive fluids what is Norovirus 0 how is it transmitted eating food or drinking liquids that are contaminated touching surfaces or objects contaminated then placing hand in mouth having direct contact with someone who is infected 0 what are symptoms stomach cramps nausea vomiting diarrhea headaches O Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 what is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children Rotavirus What is pulsedfield gel electrophoresis involves separation of large restriction enzyme fragments of genomic DNA from pathogens isolated from patients 0 what is it used for used by the CDC to track the source of foodborne outbreak 0 what is PulseNet database for this shit Vibrio cholerae how is cholera spread 0 Accidental ingestion of fecal contaminated water or food treated w contaminated water 0 Disease proceeds not b infection but by attachment of bacteria to the wall of small intestine ad releasing cholera enterotoxin Giardia and Cryptosporidium Giardia and Cryprosporidium what do they cause something 0 how are they transmitted ingestion of fecal contaminated water 0 can survive chlorination procedures Legionnaires disease what is the pathogen Legionela pneumophia 0 how transmitted found in cooling towers and condensers of AC units 0 what organ is infected Lund 0 what is Pontiac fever l ore mild case of Legionnaires disease Describe the three stages of wastewater treatment why is wastewater treatment important 0 Primary removal of insoluble materials from raw sewage by screening and gravitational settling sludge is resut Secondary microbial conversion of organic matter into microbial biomass and final decomposition products plus removal of many bacterial pathogens Tertiary biological and chemical removal of inorganic nutrients to reduce eutrophication of receiving ecosystem virus removal or inactivation 0 Most significant method of disease prevention Review the aerobic and anaerobic processes involved in wastewater treatment 0 Aerobic treatment of wastewater by aerobic microbes that serve to turn complex carboncontaining compounds to 002 and CH4 Activated sludge method uses aerated tanks containg slime producing bacteria such as Zoogoea results in a flocculent material that serves as a growth stratum for protozoans and other organisms Trickling filter method wastewater is trickled through bed of small rocks where protozoans and other organisms attach to a microbial biofilm on the rock surface Anaerobic uses an enclosed vessel is used for the anoxic processing only small opening for gas what happens in anoxic processing complex community of anaerobes actively decompose polymers 0 O O O Immunology and Host Defense Mechanisms Lecture 36 Vocabulam Innate immunity involves mechanisms that work against all potential microbial pathogens Adaptive immunity ability to recognize and destroy specific pathogens or their toxic products Antigen any molecule or portion of a molecule that stimulates a response in immune system examples include proteins polysaccharides Phagocyte recognize pathogenassociated molecular patters Leukocyte on surface of phagocytes Neutrophil most numerous white cells Macrophagecells produced by differentiation of something pathogenassociated molecular patterns structures that are part of the cell of many commonly encountered pathogen memory cells remain in bloodstream to provide secondary antibody response Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 pattern recognition molecules produce initial plasma cells Tcell receptors receptors on cell Which bind Tcell natural immunity results when exposure to a pathogen acquired after being infected by a pathogen active immunity vaccination produces response that provides immunity passive immunity no response of the immune system involved artificial immunity induction of immunity by immunization using an antigen for specific pathogens involves human innervation epithelium layer of bullshit humoral immunity mediated immunity toxoid exotoxin that have been chemically inactivated but are still antigenic Concepts What are the differences between adaptive and innate immunity 0 Innate involves mechanisms that work against all potential microbial pathogens does not rely on previous exposure to a pathogen nonspecific immunity 0 Adaptive ability to recognize and destroy specific pathogens or their toxic products that results from prior exposure to that pathogen specific or acquired immunity What aspect of foreign cells is recognized by phagocytes What happens when the foreign cells are detected 0 Phagocytes recognize pathogenassociated molecular patterns PAMP occurs through pattern recognition receptors on surface of phagocytes Once detected with PAMP phagocyte becomes active to ingest and destroy the pathogen Where are Tcells produced and where do they mature What is necessary for them to recognize a presented antigen 0 Needs to be able a tcell receptor on the antigenpresenting cell 0 Mature in the thymus Describe the two subtypes of Tcells what does each do 0 Tc cytotoxic cells targets cell lysis 0 TH helper cells Tm release cytokines TH2 stimulate antigenreactive B cells to proliferate and produce antibodies What are B cells responsible for o For antibodymediated immunity also called humoral immunity 0 Steps 1 antigenrecognizing B cell ingest and degrade antigen 2 antigen is presented to a TH2 cell 3 ifthat recognizes the same antigen the B cell is then stimulated to produce immunoglobulin protiens What are the major classes of antibodies lgG lgA lgM lgD and lgE o How are they differentiated They are based on physical and immunological properties and distribution 0 What component of the immunoglobin binds the antigen Bind to small regions of molecules called epitopes 0 Describe the structure of lgG o 2 light chains a sequencevariable antigenbinding domain and a constant domain 0 2 heavy chains a variable and 3 constant chains What immunogenic materials are used for preparation of vaccines o Toxoid exotoxins that have been chemically inactivated but are still antigenic o Inactivated pathogen pathogens are killed by reaction with chemical compounds or heat 0 Live attenuated pathogen a mutated variant of a pathogen used 0 Synthetic vaccines genetically engineered proteins are used 0 DNA vaccines plasmids containing DNA encoding proteins or short regions of proteins are injected What are superantigens and what do they do Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 o Superantigens are bacterial exotoxins that overstimulate the immune response 0 Results in excessive inflammatory response resulting in host tissue damage Describe the methods used to produce the seasonal flu vaccine 0 Seed viruses from CDC propagation of virus in chick embryos or cell cutlture inactivation and purification test for potency and sterility packaging and labeling Diagnostic Microbiology Lecture 37 Vocabula Bacteremia looking for presence of bacteria in blood Septicemia presence of microorganisms or toxins in blood Bacteriuria presence of abnormal pathogens in urine Purulent pus Selective medium contains substances that inhibit growth of certain types of bacteria Differential medium incudes compounds that allow visualization of certain biochemical pathways and products BSL biosafety level 4 classifications based on levels of risk and containment Titer antibody concentration KirbyBauer test Polyclonal antibodies many types of antibodies to many antigens are produced by many Bcells Hybridoma when a single antibodyproducing bcell is isolated and fused with an immortal cell line Serology study of diagnostic in virto antigenantibody reactions Epitope binding site on proteins for B cell Concepts Review the common sources of clinical specimens 0 Blood look for bacteremia or test for presence of antibodies to a pathogen o Urine bacteriuria presence of abnormal pathogens in urine most often dected using a urinanalysis dip stick Feces pathogen can deteriorate rapidly so diagnostic tests must be done soon Abcesses and wounds swab or needle aspiration of purulent discharge Throatnasal swab soft cotton swabs to collect bacterial samples Genital swabs narrow swabs Review laboratory biosafety levels 0 BSL1 few safety controls open lab bench nonpathogenic organisms o BSL2 can have open bench but gloves lab coat eye protection required 0 BSL3 designed for pathogens organisms manipulated in biological safety cabinets room under slight negative pressure extensive air filtration o BSL4 used for lifethreating pathogens that can be transmitted by aerosols What are MIC disk diffusion assay and Etest used for how are they performed 0 MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration using tube dilution assa 0 Disk Diffusion assay pure culture is spread on plate then disks containing different antibiotics are placed on plate KirbyBauer test 0 Etest MIC is read from the edge ofthe clear zone using the scale on the strips what is the Mantoux skin test how is it interpreted 0 test for prior exposure to tuberculosis 0 Technique involves making serial dilutions of patient s serum and determining the highest dilution at which an antigenantibody interaction can be observe What are monoclonal antibodies how are they produced and why are they useful for diagnostics and research Monoclonal antibodies produced using cell biological methods 0 Can make hybridomas resulting cell line can produce antibodies specific to one epitope indefinitely How are antibodies useful in neutralization precipitation and the immunodiffusion assay I 0000 Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2013 O Neutralization biological activity of antigen is blocked snake antivenom Precipitation antibodies have 2 variable binding sites can create networks of an insoluble antigenantibody complex 0 Immunodiffusion assay antigenantibody precipitation reactions run in a gel 0 Diagnostic Microbiology II Lecture 38 Vocabulam Hemagglutination agglutination of blood cells in blood typing Serotyping agglutination of blood cells in bacterial cells Neutralization Fluorescent antibodies purified antibodies tat recognize specific antigens are chemically modified with fluorescent dyes Direct and indirect ELISA Enzymelinked immunosorbent Assays Western blot preformed after protein gel electrophoresis Membrane filter assay clinical samples are treated to release genomic DNA denature and then hybridize with a probe tagged with a reporter molecule Olgonucleotide probe Dipstick assay Concepts What are direct and indirect agglutination reactions 0 Direct soluble antibodies cause clumping of antigens that are on surface of a particle or cell 0 Indirect passive antigens or antibodies are chemically coupled to particles such as latex beads Describe the characteristics of fluorescent antibodies and how they can be used 0 Purified antibodies that recognize specific antigens are chemically modified with fluorescent dyes o Often used to examine for a pathogen in a complex of clinical sample What are direct and indirect ELISA used for what are the steps used for the direct ELISA 0 Direct purified antibodies that recognize an antigen are linked with enzyems that catalyze colored productproducing reaction used for detecting antigen in clinical teps 1 coat plate with antibody 2 add clinical sample 3 wash plate 4 add enzymeantibody 5 wash 6 develop color reaction 0 Indirect Measure antibodies to proteins 0 Purified antigen is absorbed to microtiter plate patients serum is added then antiantibodies linked to enzyme are added 0 Antibodies that recognize and bind antibodies from another animal can be used for this assay What is an immunoblot what are the basics of how it is performed 0 Immunoblots antibody blots using a mixture of proteins and separate using electrophoresis o Denature proteins by boiling in detergent 9 blot the sperated protein to membrane 9 teat membrane containing blotted proteins with antiboides 9 add marker to antigen anibodies Describe the process of nucleic acid diagnostic methods including the membrane filter assay and the dipstick assay 0 Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Methods used to detect DNA sequences that are specific to a particular pathogen can PCR amplify DNA in clinical sample to increase sensitivity 0 Membrane filter assay clinical samples are treated to release genomic DNA denature and the hybridize with a probe tagged with a reporter molecule External Components Lecture 10 Vocabulary 0 0 0 0 0 tissue tropism 7 the propensity for certain types of bacteria to adhere to different types of tissue uropathogenic7 propensity for infection of the urinary tract Ecoli 7 main pathogen for causing urinary bladder infections in females twitching motility chemotaxis7 directed movement towards chemical gradients Mot protein 7 motor protein in the basal body helps provide the energy for rotation proton motive force Chemoreceptors7 sensor proteins around the cell that sense chemicals and make appropriate changes in motility to bene t the cell Phototwcis light sensing Aerotaxis 7 oxygen receptors that cause a resultant movement of the bacteria towards or away from oxygen concentration Lysozyme 7 cutting protein Concepts glycocalyx extra cellular matrices composed of polysaccharides 39239 Capsule 7 semirigid matrix with a de ned boarder that follows the contour of a cell and does not allow Indian Ink to diffuse into a capsule 39239 Indian Ink a small black carbon particle 39239 Slime layer 7 nonrigid indicated by name and is easily deformed o The Slime layer does not excluse Indian Ink particles 0 Most often they are composed of polysaccharides glycolax but can be a polypeptide anthrax 0 Purpose I Water retention prevention of dessicationdrying this membrane acts like a sponge and helps the cell retain water allowing it to survive for a longer period 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maxMn Hagan zw mum WWW11W a H mga M Ck l mm mm L mamm m cellcannmmme mm mmamm h ce smpsmd m faxmnmd mmmnm accurmdallnwn m mave mthz mth mam W m m Aldlrzapulmy my 074nman dandrusz 9 msenmnafcapl arymbe cantnmmg mnmmmbmmmpmmr xepllzdthzce mave mm r away a m mm andu39mmted hymn m 9mm mm ulmdmmmwmmu Munmm A v mmy mm armmm wqu Mmmzawhryamwh mme mum mm m mum m Mummavmmm nlunlwy mummyn unimm m Rawbun Mbamm I1 mm m um um mm mumm magnummum mm ammu m u I 1 1 Internal Components Lecture 11 Vocabulary Nucleoid 7 distinct structure of aggregated DNA specialized protein Supercoiling coiling of the DNA caused by the DNA gyrase protein DNA gyrase 7twists cell to allow the DNA to t into the cell Plasmid 7 small circular elements containing DNA that replicate separately from the chromosome Bacteriocin 7 protein toxins that kill other bacteria Polysomes 7 multi ribosomes Methylotroph7organisms that have the capacity to utilize singlecarbon compounds as the main source of energy ex Methane osmotically inert does not have any effect on osmotic gradient biodegradable waste that can be degraded by other liVing organisms glycogen 7 polymer of glucose with alpha 14 bonds polyphosphate 7 polymer with high energy phosphate bonds magnetosome 7 iron magenite crystals surrounded by a membrane 7 primarily found in aquatic bacteria Aquaspirillummagnetotacticum 7 may help cell orient and migrate along the geomagnetic elds to locate optimum depths for nutrientrich aquatic habitats photic zone7area of light absorption in aquatic environments algal secretions and organic matter more abundant in these areas Calvin cycle7carbon xation method using RuBisCo enzyme Concepts how are bacteria able to t very long DNA chromosomes into a small cell 39239 DNA gyrase twists doublestranded DNA by cutting and rejoining the DNA molecule repeats and repeats until it becomes more twisted 39239 the other proteins that help get the nucleoid into cells are a couple of proteins called MinE divisome C and D E whalam m 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wnue u csuepseavesecxes sink a me bannm and med s makz mwveswles m ngam bunynncy mum cfwmce raazlwmam mm m arboxysoma o Cantnmthz enzyme cafnanlc a s mmd m cafuan xath Ru lscaphnmanmkphs and nhydnse cnennnnunmpns mxystn mz 5M2 Nutritioncultivation Lecture 12 Vocabulary Macronutrients 7microelements found in carbohydrates nucleic acids proteins and lipids CHONSNa Micronutrients 7trace elements used as cofactorsCo Cu Mn Mo Ni Se Cofactors 7 nonprotein component of an enzyme micronutrients Autotroph 7 use carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source self feeders Heterotroph 7 use several to many different organic carbon molecules glucose as the carbon source Phototroph 7 uses light energy as a means of production for ATP Lithotroph 7 reduced inorganic compounds as a source of electrons Organotroph 7 reduced organic compounds as a source of electrons Chemoheterotroph 7 uses oxidized chemical compounds for the production of ATP Chemolithotroph7 use inorganic compounds to make energy and carbon dioxide as their carbon source Photoheterotroph 7 uses light for energy and organic compounds as carbon source Photoaatotroph 7 uses light for energy and carbon dioxide as carbon source F astidious 7 Organisms that cannot synthesize growth factors denovo 7 must have access to organic compounds such as 7 ammino acids purinespyrimidines nucleoties amino acids and vitamins growth factor 7 organic compounds required for growth of fastidious organisms in nature they are present in low concentrations and their uptake involves high affinity transport systems growth factor analog7 A structure structurally similar to a growth factor that could be invorporated into a cellular pathway resulting in inhibition of the pathway de novo synthesis 7 synthesis from new which requires complex energydependent multistep pathwayds versus just uptake from the environment synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugar or amino acids EMB agar 7 contains methylene blue 7 selectively inhibits gram bacteria so it can be used to selectively culture Gram bacteria Petri dish 7 a shallow glass that is used to culture cells Durham tube 7 indicates gas production of microorganisms Pure culture 7 a population derived from a single cell representing only one genotype Nitrogen fixation 7 nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted to ammonia Sterilization 7 the complete killing or removal of all viable organisms Autoclave 7 moist heat sterilization under high pressure and high temperature that kills bacteria endospores Concepts what are th e functions of vitamins in the cell 39239 Growth factors with compleX organic structures and serve as coenzymes or cofactors that work at the active sites of important proteins 0 As catalysts they are needed in low quantities within the cells 0 De ned V undefined media 39239 De ned medium synthetic 7 all chemical ingredients are of known concentration 39239 Unde ned media complex 7 all chemical ingredients are of unknown concentration Rich v minimal growth media 39239 Rich 7 contains all essential nutrients even those normally synthesized by the bacteria 39239 Minimal growth 7 contains the minimum set of nutrients for a speci c bacterium to grow what is agar used for at what concentration is it most commonly used 39239 Agar is used as a solidifying agent for culture medium it is a red algal polysaccharide 39239 At 100 degrees C it dissolves and when cooled it solidi es advantages easy to prepare colorless not degraded by most microbes 39239 Used at 15 dz uwusbalwaw Mum mamth gully mm o 51an 7 hmmhm cahmhs s ustnnces that selzcnvelymhbn 39h gmwthaf mwmaxganlsms ex Mmmm camammg m that changes calm m h cmhh pH 7 Mmhm ahghmms that an ax am and how m prodmlwn ofgam mmbamdma mm W mm 9 Capture afgas bubble m Inverted Nb Durham lube 39h gas bubbles me and callzctzdbycapmn tubes manage and man yanmga ofaulozbzvmg m mm mamodsfm mntmzwm o Antilch 7 mm hm smnhzanan hm high srmh pressure 151mm m reach and mhhmh h tempnmre hr mc rah 15 mmntzs 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t2 wnh an emchmzm culture afsample m be cscca scns ddnnansmm fresh sun medmm a Allnw gmwlh fax 2 Is a Observe dues 4h mm ddmmn thushnws gmwlhls sssumsam have camamzd nu ccus mks hm afdmman m w H 4 c 14 I A anmlwn on ANGEL mm an mcmmum wmm WWW cm W m mm o Lvsc arspccmc culmre m an andmcubanancandmnns um selzctfaxgmwthaf unlsz Iyp afmwmaxgamnns rm exmmnmzmalsam zs o stuhsmam axmme axganlsms share metaballc pathways thanquot bung selzctzdfax o A sealzdjarcumammg culmre plausmdanaxygenrcansnmng chzmwalsyslem pmdvces an mumbw gmwlh chamber Cell DivisionDiffMeasurement Lecture 13 Vocabulary Prosthecate 7 appendages of bacterial cellular membranes neither pilli nor agellum contain cytosol Septnm 7 forms exactly midway between the two cell poles during cell divison grows inward and separates the two cells and pinches off Endospore7 a dormant tough and temporarily nonreproductive structure produced by a certain bacteria Propagate 7 structure capable of giving rise to a new bacterium Spornlation 7the process of forming a bacterial endospore spore acidsoluble proteins 7 special proteins accumulated inside bacterial endospores 7 some are storage proteins degraded by germination others bind and protect spore DNA dipicolinic acid 7 major constituent of the spore core exosporinm the outer layer of the wall of the spore anthrax 7 causes anthrax and produces toxins Petroijansser counting chamber7 a method used to estimate the number of bacteria on a plate with a grid Advantages quick direct can be linked to computer 7 assisted microscopy and image analysis Disadvantage counts both living and dead cells and density must exceed 106 cellsmL Turbidity 7 measurement of light scatter can be used as a method of estimating number of bacteria in a sample Divisome 7 all proteins involved in cell division Concepts what do MinC MinD MinE and F tsZ do during division 39239 MinC MinD MinE help assemble the divisome in the center of an elongated cell 39239 FtsZ ring forms at the division plane and the septum forms what is noteworthy about Caulobacter what is the product of cell division of this bacterium 39239 Caulobacter is a prostheocate bacteria has an appendage and the appendage is a stalk The product of the division is a daughter cell that has a agellum and can swim to a new location and live in that environment review the sporeforming Bacillus Paenibacillus and Clostridium species discussed in class Paenibacilluspapilliae Bacillus th uringiensis 39239 Bacillus andPaem39bacz39llus 7 rod shaped cells and many produce antibiotics o Paenibacz39lluspapilliae 7 rod shaped bacteria that causes a disease in Japanese beetles milky disease 0 B thuringiensis 7 produce proteins that are toxic to insect larvae and used for nonchemical biological insect control in agriculture advantages safe to humans and animals 0 B subtilis 7 studied in laboratories as model bacterium for endospore formation 0 B antracz39s causes anthrax by producing toxins 39239 Clostridium 7 have no respiratory chain and get their energy from anaerobic fermentation o C perfringens 7 pathogen causing gangrene and food posioning o C tetam39 7 causes tetanus o C botulinum 7 causes botulism review the steps of spore formation in what order do they occur in what microbe has this process been best studied review the sporulation animation it shows more detail than covered in class 39239 Best studied in Bacillus subtilis 39239 Results in the conversion of a vegetative cell into a nongrowing heat resistant dormant endospore triggered when environmental conditions become unfavorable for bacterial growth takes approximately 8 hours 1 Asymmetric cell division 7 dividing of the cell membrane in two compartments 2 Prespore engulfed by mother cell membrane 7 prespore that has two membranes around it now 3 Cortex formation 4 Coat formation invorporation of calcium SAPS dipiloconic acid maturation and release diploconic acid forms a complex with calcium and forms a structure that is resistant to extreme conditions helps the spore in maturation process 39239 important aspect 7 dehydrated interior that allows the cell to survive for a long period of time what is the structure of Streptomyces 39239 a branching lamentous bacterium that produces spores by a distinct mechanism major source of antibiotics review the 4 most common meth ods for measurement of bacterial populations advantages anddisadvantages of each how can serial dilutions and plating be used to obtain a viable cell count 39239 Direct microscope count 7 PetroffHausser counting chamber 0 Small cells of known volume with cover strip on the top count the number of divisions and estimate the size of the population by counting the cells in a small population of the size can then guess the larger population since you know the total volume I Advantages quick can be linked to computerassisted microscopy and image analysis I Disadvantages counts both living and dead cells cells must exceed lOAS cellsmL 39239 Viable cell count by plating 0 Method of isolating individual colonies need to make successive dilutions of bacteria and put on agar plate count colonies that grow on the agar plate I Advantages very sensitive only counts viable cells I Disadvantage requires preparation of media use of tubes plates and pipettes and must use a wide range of dilutions takes time 39239 Viable cell count by ltration 0 Used mainly in water analysis take the water sample and lter it through a sterile lter and put lter on sterile agar I Advantages very sensitive only measures viable cells can handle a large sample requires less preparation of viable plate count methods Disadvantages incubation takes time before results are obtained takes time most plate count methods underestimate the number of cells since dead cells are not counted and some microbes cannot grow on the mediums we provide 39239 Indirect measurement by turbidity 0 Light is passed through a bacterial suspension less light will exit the sample than is entering The light can be measured and quantitate cell numbers This is only accurate in the range which the cell number is proportional to the optical density Quick and easy but must be compared to a standard curve and insensitive below 10A7 cell density 00 O why is standard curve needed for turbidity measurements of cell numbers work through the method of obtaining a viable cell count by plating how are serial dilutions done 39239 You need a standard curve with known concentrations that are associated with an optical density value in order to estimate the actual cell density of your sample how many prokaryotic cells are estimated to be on earth 39239 16 10A30 cells 39239 9294 percent live in the ocean and terrestrial subsurface Batch amp Continuous Culture Lecture 14 Vocabulary generation time 7 the time it takes for a cell to double in both mass and number exponential growth 7 logarithmic growth semilog plot 7 exponential growth plotted on a semilog plot yields a straight line growth rate constant 7 k log N 7logNo batch culture 7 A culture growing in an enclosed vessel such as atube or a ask where exponential growth cannot continue inde nitely inoculum7 a substance a Virus or toxin or immune serum that is introduced into the body to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease Liebig s law of the minimum 7 states that growth is controlled not by the amount of resources available but the scarcest resource limiting factor dilution rate 7 can be the same as the growth rate in a continuous culture can be controlled by adjusting the ow rate of fresh medium containing amounts of growth factor washout7 the point where growth can not be balanced because the dilution rate is too large growth doesn t equal dilution rate Concepts review exponential growth how it is plotted two methods of determining generation time you should bring a calculator to Exam 2 be able to calculate generation times and growth rate constants 39239 Select range that has doubled in cells from xaxis 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Ellb use 1 2quot I I I I n 1quot E E V f 39lurl d39ny a E w a Full nally E 7 u 1 E a Q31 3 9 a u quotI x E a n f nquot r Fran 39239 Lag phase 7 a period of metabolig adjustment before the population density changes 0 The length of lag will depend on prior history of the inovulum culture and the lag will be longer if the inoculum is hold since the cell constituents are depleted and must be resynthesized o Lag also occurs when cells are transferred from a complex medium to a simple medium since many enzymes must be made to synthesize the essential 39 quot before r r 39 quot growth 39239 Exponential phase 7 cell number and all components of cell mass double during each generation time the population is most uniform during exponential growth so this is the best phase for biochemical or physiological studies 0 Exponentially growing cultures have faster growth rates in rich complete media than minimal media because metabolites are required for growth are already provided externally and are taken up rather than synthesized o Vary significantly amount species but are in uenced by environmental conditions 39239 Stationary phase 7 eventually the population growth ceases This phase represents a balance between cell division and death or the cells cease to divide but remain metabolically active 0 Main reasons most common are nutrient limitation and accumulation of toxic waste 0 The nutrients that are needed cease to be available 39239 Death phase 0 A decline in the number of viable cells not cell turbidity the remaining cells still scatter light 0 When transfer to fresh medium the dead cells fail to resume growth irreversible loss in the ability to reproduce what is a viable but nonculturable VBN C organism why is it important to know about them 0 O Viable but not culturable During stationarydeath phases some microorganisms gram will gradually lose their ability to recover and reproduce when returned to standard nutrient conditions These cells have metabolic activity and are structurally VBNC intact May be a survival mechanism 7 a quiescent state analogous to the endospore but not heat stable 0 O 0 O o o O how can a single limiting nutrient control the growth rate and yield of a fastidious culture 39239 A fastidious organism is one that requires a nutrient so the nutrient that is in the lowest concentration will control the growth rate review 3 key points of th e functioning of a chemostat study the effects of dilution rate on ch emostat culture the four parameters using the graph 39239 3 key points 0 ow system maintains a constant volume 0 aeration system maintains oxygen levels 0 ow rate of fresh medium in ow rate of cells medium out o 0 continuous cultures are used to study a microorganism maintained in a constant exponential growth and 0 effect of limiting nutrient concentration 0 cell density 0 growth rate 0 physiological characteristics during exponential cell growth 39 Growth rate can be adjusted by the ow rate of fresh medium containing limiting amounts of growth factor Growth yield is controlled by the concentration of nutrients in the medium Reaches steady state equilibrium when the doubling time compensates for cells washed out of the chemostat 7 cell density and nutrient status remain constant 0 o o 00 O Populatlon Regulated Growth Lecture 1 5 Vocabulary signal molecules 7 excreted by bacteria that increase in population along with bacterial population so bacteria can sense their own population density quorum sensing 7 example of cooperative bacterial cellcell chemicalmediated communication stringent control 7 negative downgrade the synthesis of macromolecules for fast growth or positive produce essential proteins that help the organism survive for a long period of time in the starvation period 7 Stationary Phase Inducible Protien 7 SPi sideroph ore 7 iron carrier proteins autoinducers7 chemical signaling molecules that are produced and used by bacteria participating in quorum sensing Concepts what are the characteristics of the two types of bacteria based on their adaptive starvation responses 39239 Differentiating bacteria Bacillus 7 produce highly differentiated endospores via precisely controlled developmental pathway to resist adverse conditions 7 successful strategy restricted to a few genera of bacteria 39 Nondifferentiating bacteria 7 E coli 7 undergo regulated physiological responses without formation of highly differentiated morphologically distinct cells Adaptations enhance the bacteria s avility to scavenge nutrients survive starvation and protect itself 0 what is the meaning of turnover of cell macromolecules 39239 Degrade storage polymers of PHB glycogen polyphosphate 39239 Macromolecules proteins lipids under starvation conditions the cells can take these apart and use the components for metabolism and use the smaller molecules for essential processes When food becomes plentiful again we do the opposite and make more macromolecules review the 4 main strategies used by nondifferentiating bacteria for stationary phase survival 1 Turnover of cell macromolecules to generate metabolic acivity 7 degrade storage reserve polymers PHB glycogen polyphosphate 2 Highly Regulated macromolecular synthesis 7 Stringent Control 7 central regulator of macromolecular synthesis triggered by a stationaryphase emannemeaune smugmf39xespunse 3 New nnmzm mmpu systzms wnn en1nnneea pink emeeeney n New ngnenmnnynnnepnn syslems e Feesmempnmeenexnmn n snnnn axgamc malecnle thatbmds 1mm and 5 synthsmd m une exmmnmzm unen mds a xmn b New pun syslems wnhbmad subslmz speeenmy A Pmtzchve changes In eeu nemeemne m en1nnneeune statmmyphas n Increased encapsuhnan pmtzconn and hygmscapw b Increase In negeue and mhm m Increase chzmmnxxs and adhzsm Imam mne e devchve dlvlsmns m makz snnnuen case a Increased synthsls afmlclemd pmtems m pmtect DNA e Increased emssehnhng 111 me nnnneenmme and machmem a men mmbm how do Vibrw uharmndexomumnmwa quorum mmmg 9 Hana eenen 7 en 13m a Sanne lumeneeeenmnecene live m n symbth nexnmnenep msldz spam xgms m at has angnnmn a algkrrrylzldxng enugycansummg nacmm ls cahlyudbythz enzyme a Expressmn anne lunl39ense gem is mincedbythz presence afspecx c snnnn campmmds seenecea m une mwlh nneamnnbyune banana qunmm sensmg o Myxacaccmamhus 7 high eeu dzmiymd shm an sandman a Fannnmn affmmng bady mews ofngml mum m mdw Gram e m Gram w orgammfm quorum me o cnnno eNeneyxnenneeenn nemnee AHLs wnene the Rcanbe ahyimcm nan wnhwmus mums o Gmm rbutznausmg ahgappndzs s what are bio lms 3 stages of biofilm development 0 00 Biofilms are microbes that grow on surfaces where nutrients concentrate to levels much higher than in the bulk solution Microbial concentrations can increase to a continuous cell density that covers large areas of surfaces biofllms o Organized microbial communities consisting of numerous immobilized cells embedded in an organic polymer matrix of microbial origin 7 first grow as monolayers then multilayers and eventually more complex assemblages of cell aggregates interstitial pores and conduit channels Stages 0 Attachment of a few cells of a single type of organisms o Colonization and growth of a multilayered biofilm with different microbial types 0 Development of a mature biofilm with cell aggregates pores and conduits 00 o 0 how bio lms are advantageous to the microbial community inhabiting it what are examples of impact of bio lms on humans 39239 Biofilm colonization of inanimate prosthetic devices and organ tissues protects the microbes from antibiotic chemotherapy and attach from the host immune systems 7 these internal biofilms become a major source of infection for other parts of the body as the bacteria detach during biofilm sloughing 39239 Produce plaque 39239 Celltocell 39 iun makes it A to the microbial community inhabiting it Survival amp Growth pH Temp Oxygen Lecture 16 Vocabulary Psychrophile 7 cold loving microbes lt15C Mesophile 7 microbes that thrive in average temps 1545C T hermaphile 7 heat loving microbes 4590C stenothermophiles are responsible for food spoilage in refrigerators Hyperthermophile 7 extreme heat loving microbes gt80C Psychrotolerant 7 some microbes can tolerate an extended range of temperatures eury extended range steno narrow range cardinal temperatures 7 three critical temperatures for a speci c microbes 1 Minimum 7 the microbe doesn t grow below this temperature 2 Optimum 7 the temp range the microbe will grow 3 Maximum 7the microbe doesn t grow above this temp decimal redaction time 7 the time required at a certain temperature to kill 90 percent of the organisms being studied pasteurization 7 used for milk and other heatsensitive foods to reduce the population of undesirable microbes involves heating to 66C for 30 minutes batch or 71C for 15 sec continuous ow acidophiles 7thrive in acidic conditions pH 2 neutrophile 7 thrive in neutral conditions alkalinophiles 7 thrive in alkaline conditions pH 10 extremophile 7 an organism that thrives in and may even require physically or chemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to the majority of life on earth obligate 7 unable to grow at a neural pH wateractivity 7 vapor pressure of air over a substance or solution divided by the vapor pressure over pure water 7 this allows us to categorize microbes into certain water activity ranges that they grow hyperosmotic 7 an environment where the solute concentration is much higher outside the cell than inside 7 causes plasmolysis plasmolysis 7 loss of water and collapse of internal structure hypoosmotic 7hypoosmotic stress occurs when the microbe is exposed to low solute concentrations the periplasmic oligosaccharides counter balance and the mureinsacculus maintains the protoplast integrity so the cell does not bust xerophilic to be adapted for life with limited supply of water Concepts review kinetics of sterilization by heat how do the survival curves for thermophiles and mesophiles differ 39239 Two factors 7temperature and time of exposure 39239 Upon exposure to eat there is an exponential rate of death 39239 Thermophiles will generally take a longer time to kill with heat in contrast to mesophiles how is Pasteurization performed on heatsensitive foods 39239 Used for milk and other heat sensitive foods to reduce the population of microbes 39239 Batch 7 heating at 66C for 30 minutes 39239 Continuous ow 7 71C for 15 sec why is acidity useful for preserving certain foods why do some batch cultures grow better if a pH buffering agent is included 39239 The acidity inhibit most microbes which extends shelf life 39239 Undesired pH changes can be amajor problem so adding a pH buffer such as phosphate will be included to maintain a more constant pH what results from placing a microbe in a hyperosmotic or a h ypoosmotic environment 39239 Hyperosmostic 7 plasmolysis loss of water and collapse of internal structure metabolism slows down 39239 Hypoosmotic7 too much water diffuses into the cell and the cell lyses 39239 Xerophilic grows with low water availability review the 3 groupings of microbes based on salt tolerance what are some zompaabla mum and how am they mm by halophlta v u o Humalmmmnamm ammlm Ufa o Halnph z 75mm 9 Nanhalnplulzs cannm Meme much ssh E nah o Extrema phlzs 79mm amanmafsah o Campu nle mm 7 mmm mmle am can accumulate m 1m cancemnonns wnhmcells m canmn ualmce adverse asmnsls effects mm rwww m major gmupw ofaambzz andanaambz mmmgam m m My 79 mmguufmi umg mwgmuawmamm agar Wm do me myth m mmmrm WWW do 9 Aembw mlcmaxganlsms a Obhgm qumsOZ Memes H mm a Mmmaem 1 xeqmre 02 minutes 1255 than ax mu m n 2 F02 o Faculth 7 wk wnh ax mm 02 5e umbxc nsplnnmq wm 02 15 present and ammbxc nsplntmn ax fennemman whzn mm 15 m 02 E nah o Ammbxc axgamnns a Obhgm dues mt Meme 02 a Aemmleme 0k wnh ax wnhmn 02 but mm ammbxc nsplnmn af fennenmmn o Thmglycme 7mm 02 o Rzazunn 7 dyz mm quota Wm 02 15 present sum sewn 5mm annular cw Facuuanvehnhumse Mmaaempm up Mmmv mum m u39 used 1 Wm M propar nzuomng ofaulozbzw o mum prerwkzged sam zs afbactzml endnspuxes 7 m fax gmwlh a er each stznhzanan cycle mm slnps um change calm m hightzmpmmns Radiation and Nonchemotherapeutic Antimicrobials Lecture 17 Vocabulary Sterilizer 7 chemical antimicrobial that kills all living organisms including spores Disinfectant 7 kills microbes or pathogens from inanimate surfaces may not kill spores Sanitizer 7 reduces but may not eliminate microbes Bacteriostatic 7 antimicrobials that inhibit microbial growth without killing them Bacteriocidal 7 antimicrobials that kill microbes Bacteriolytic 7 antimicrobials that kill microbes by lysing them Antiseptic 7 a nontoxic antimicrobial compound that can be used on living tissues Germicide 7 nonchemotheraputic agents antiseptics disinfectants sterilizers sanitizers Selective toxicity 7 a property of chemotherapeutic agents that will kill the harmful bacteria but will not harm the good bacteria T nbe dilution assay 7 used to detect the minimal inhibitory concentration 7 a series of increasing concentrations of the antimicrobial agent are prepared in the culture broth medium each tube is equally inoculated and incubated to allow microbial growth to proceed Growth turbidity occurs in those tubes containing the concentrations below the MIC and no grth tubes are at MIC and higher concentrations of the antimicrobial agents Concepts what types of damage are caused by ionizing radiation UV light 39239 Ionizing radiation gamma rays 7 damage to DNA proteins via electrons and radicals used to sterilized medical devices foods meat v UV light 7 DNA damage modi cations used to disinfect exposed surfaces air water v Microwave 7 Heat possible other effects used to sterilize disposable medical devices uses Slanhzmg mum am ed mums stxnmcunu uxvusud au ami m walm Daman lo mm pmlmns smmmuan av mamcm mm mad meal am am Ramauun SMIng euenz cmwava Han pom r s yummy wa mm and mum Gamma mys Hamth rwwwfazlor zmmfmm aw9711 ofanumumbml agm whalfom of mmm me mm o Annmxcmbul agenn39actms 7 a Cancemmmn xpasm a Tempnmreafmmmzm a Presence afathzxaxgamc materials a mu afmwmbmlnslstnme m m anumwmbul agem o Mmmbmlfacmxs 7 a Papmmm a Papuhnanandcammnmiycampasman a Encasememwnhm snn39acebm lms m w m mwwm mmbuory nmunmzmm MIG dammed o Dmmma Ismg mm ddmmn assay a A 521125 afmcxeasmg cammnm am ammcmbml agent are prepared m 5 mm medmm each hub 15 equallymncuhmd and Incubated a aw mammal gmw hm pmceed 9 Lawn m shadwclnudyanawhzn mm 15 asuzface afce s any Irs mm dues camammg m ammwmbulm Tm m acc cancemnonns belaw u MIC m nub animus m slur m m mc and mm cammmm HIHHIH hm n 27m manncentratmn mgr cancenuaunu m w m m agar dz uwn mlpafmmad how m m mmmww 9 Th cm axganlsm us spread an m white medmm m an agar at 5m agufax mum and hznsmnlz Andaman dues are apphzd a zxmm nmmnOAAX amsm pmdvces a can vzm 1m afgmwlh except 111 mm af amnnd am camammg mnbmncs whmh m axgnnlsm ls susceptihlz iu mnllmm Lawn nl gmm Chemotherapeutic Antimicrobials Agents Lecture 18 Vocabulary therapeutic index 7 toxic dosetherapeutic dose 7 the higher the index the better the chemotherapeutic agent LD50 7 lethal dose 50 the dose at which 50 percent ofthe test subjects die ED50 7 effective dose 7 the dose at which 50 percent ofthe test subjects produce a therapeutic response toxic dose 7 the level at which the drug becomes toxic to the host therapeutic dose 7 the dose required for effective clinical treatment transpeptidase7 a bacterial enzyme that crosslinks peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls monensin7 an ionophore antibiotic used in animal feed Isoniazid 7 inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids in mycobacterium prodrug Ceftriaxone 7 ionoph ore antibiotics 7 binds to bacterial membranes which forms a pore in the membrane depolarizes the membrane no energy cell death selective pressure 7 use of antibiotics creates great selective pressure favoring the microbes that are resistant to drugs and selecting against microbes that are sensitive to the drugs selective toxicity Concepts review the stages of the clinical trial system for drug evaluation v Phase Itrials 7 evaluation of drug safety and side effects on small groups of 20 100 individuals several months v Phase II trials 7 test for efficacy 7 randomized and blind placebodrug trials several months 7 2 years 0 Phase III trials 7 larger scale tests on up to several thousand patients several years 239 FDA approval 7 1 year v Post marketingPhase IV 7 continued monitoring of drug safety and efficacy 0 o comparison of results with other drugs 39239 Typical costs 800 million7 1 billion 1015 years review the modes of action of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents 39239 Critical pathway inhibition 0 Synthetic growth factor analogs o Sulfanilamide I Mode of action inhibits incorporation of paminobnzoic acid into folic acid 39 DNNRNA synthesis inhibitors 7 inhibits synthesis of DNA and RNA by inhibiting the DNA gyrase o Quinolone antibiotics I NalidiXic acid I Cipro oanin I Novobiocin 39 Inhibition of cell wall synthesis 0 Penicillins 39 Inhibition of protein synthesis Alteration of cell wall membrane properties 0 0 0 0 0 0 O what is the meaning of broad spectrum and narrow spectrum antibiotics 39239 Narrow spectrum 7 inhibit or kill only select bacteria 39239 Broad spectrum 7 effective against a wider range of bacteria be able to identi a generalized chemical structure of a lactam antibiotic kanamycin erythromycin tetracycline daptomycin 0 0 39 Beta lactam 39 Kanamycin Erythromycin 39 Tetracycline Daptomycin 0 0 0 O o 0 0 O know the modes of action for each antibiotic mentioned on the lecture slides o 39 Sulfanilamide 7 inhibits incorporation of paminobenzoic acid into the vitamin folic acid Isoniazid 7 inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids in Mycobacterium NalidiXic acid Cipro oxacin Novobiocin 7 DNA gyrase inhibitors Penicillins 7 inhibition of cell wall synthesis Penicillin G 7 first B lactam antibiotic discovered and produced commercially B lactam antibiotics 7 inhibit cell wall synthesis Cephalosporin 7 produced by the fungus effective against a broader range of bacteria than the penicillins more resistant to B lactamas than some other 0 o 00 O o o o 000 00 O o o O antibiotics and is used for treating penicillinresistant bacteria 39239 Examples of inhibition of protein synthesis 0 Aminoglycosides 7 have structures of linked amino acid sugars 7 inhibit protein synthesis 308 o Rifampicin 7 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase Macrolides 7 inhibits protein synthesis SOS Tetracyclines 7 broad spectrum antibiotic 7 binds to 30 subunit of ribosomes 39239 Examples of alteration of cell membrane properties 0 Daptomycin 7 a lipopeptide natural product from Streptymyces ionophore 7 binds to bacterial membranes resulting in depolarization of the membrane 7 no energy cell death Platensimycin 7 inhibits enzyme involved in fatty acid and membrane biosynthesis produced by Streptomyces platensis OO O what bacterial enzyme is inhibited by lactam antibiotics what enzyme degrades these antibiotics 39239 Transpeptidase is inhibited by B lactam actibiotics 39239 Inhibited by betalactmase cuts betalactan ring and inactivates it review the 6 modes of antibiotic resistance 39 A particular binding site may be lacking in the organism ex Mycoplasmas have no typical cell wall so they are resistant to betalactamase antibiotics Organisms are impermeable to the drug Gram bacterias are impermeable to penicillin G Modi cation of the antibiotic to an inactive form 0 Clevage of penicillin by the enzyme betalactamase o Modi cation of enzymes 0 Kanamycin gets inactivated by kanamycin acetyltransferase 39 Target of the antibiotic altered 7 mutation in ribiosome results in decreased 0 0 O 0 O 0 binding by erythromycin 39239 Mutation that results in a metabolic bypass around a step blocked by an antibiotic o The modi cation of metabolic pathways such that the folic acid can be obtained from external 39 to yield 39 to J 391 antibiotics o The enzyme that converts the prodrugisoniazid to its active form is defective o 0 The organism can pump out the antibiotic out of the bacterium ef ux pump 0 Tetracycline pumped out of a cell how does overuse of antibiotics can result in increased drugresistant strains 39239 Selective pressure o Favors microbes that are resistant to the drug and selects against microbes that are sensitive to the drug 0 Overuse results in increased prevalence of drugresistant strains within human populations 0 Pediatricians prescribe 13 less antibiotics than they did 10 years ago why do AZ T fusion inhibitors and protease inhibitors have certain antiviral effects 39239 Nucleoside analog inhibitors 0 Useful against retrovirus es 0 AZT 7 an analog of the nucleozidethyminidine o Cidofovir deoxycytidine monophosphate useful against certain DNA viruses 39239 Nonnucleoside inhibitors 0 Protease inhibitors 7 prevent cleavage of important proteins required for viroal replication 0 Fusion inhibitors 7 prevent entry of the virus into the cell 0 Neuraminidase 7 inhibitors that prevent viral release in uenza only Bacteria amp Eukaryotic Viruses Lecture 19 Vocabulary Bacteriophage 7 a virus that infects bacteria Virion7virus genome and all of its outer components Capsomers7the protein coat of the virus Nncleocapsid7nucleic acid protein coat ysis7release of replicated virus into the host cell PF U 7 Plaque forming units 7 the formation of areas of lysis in cell lawn on cultures Lysogen7a cell containing a prophage that is immune to the same cells Prophage7viral genome inserted and integrated into the host cell Temperate phage lysogenic phase 7 incorporation of the phage genome into the host cell to form prophage E coli Induction 7 lysogengoes through to lytic pathway and returns to the normal pathway reverse transcriptase 7 transcribes single stranded RNA to DNA polyprotein7 multiprote in segmented genome 7 strand RNA is in 78 segments oncogene7 Concepts what are the general structural differences between lamentous icosahedral and complex viruses gtFilamentous 7 spiral long and narrow tobacco mosaic gt Icosahedral 7 utilize overlapping genets to make everything fit gt Complex 7 composed of subassemblies which assemble into the virus collar tail tailpins what is a virus titer and how is it determined how is a plaque formed on an agar plate gt Titer 7 concentration of viruses determined by size of plaque gtPlaque 7 formed on agar plate when viral lysis occurs and leaves bacteriafree zones on the agar plate review the life cycle of the T4 bacterial virus how are viral components made when they are needed 0 Attachment 0 Penetration 0 Synthesis nucleic acid protein 0 Assembly and packaging 0 Release lysis gt The synthesis of viral components are timed so the genes are not made until needed what are the two paths that an E 001139 cell can take after it is infected with lambda what is induction gt Bacteriophage lambda 7 two pathways of existence 0 lysogenic pathway I viral DNA integrated into host DNA I cell division 0 lytic pathway 0 lysogen cell containing prophage is immune to same virus I replicates I coat protein synthesized amp assembled I lysis gt induction 7 latent virus transformed into prophages what are the significant features of in uenza virus type of genome envelope proteins antigenic shift gt segmented genome Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2010 HumanMicrobial Interactions Lecture 29 Vocabulary pathogen pathogenicity Proponibacferium acnes virulence gnotobiotic infection normal flora bacterial interference disease gnotobiotic immunocompromised host resident flora transient flora Concepts 0 what is the most common tissue type for microbial colonization what areas of the body is this found what are the three main types of hostmicrobe interactions review two enzymes found in saliva that protect against microbial infections how do they do that review the two major microbial diseases of the oral cavity what is dextransucrase how does the stomach protect against entry of pathogenic microbes how does Helicobacfer survive what type of microbe makes the large intestine an anaerobic environment what are some beneficial effects of intestinal microbes what condition prevents pathogenesis of the vagina by microbes review opportunistic accidental obligate pathogens and major points of adherence invasion colonization 0 what are examples of probiotics what are their benefits to human and animal health Infections and Virulence Lecture 30 Vocabulary virulence factor adherence proteins hyaluronidase collagenase coagulase streptokinase elastase leukocidins lecithinases hemolysins endogenous pyrogens Limulus amebocyte assay exotoxins AB toxin enterotoxins LD50 nosocomial infections hemolysins Concepts review opportunistic accidental obligate pathogens and major points of adherence invasion colonization review each of the given examples of virulence factors involved in adherence invasion and colonization what are bacteremia and septicemia what are the three common types of exotoxins how can virulence of a particular pathogen be measured review the mode of action of AB toxins of tetanus botulism and cholera why is there a large fluid loss in cholera what are spastic paralysis and flaccid paralysis what is the mode of action of diphtheria toxin how does the A fragment inhibit ribosomes what are endotoxins and how can they be detected review the nonimmune defense mechanisms against infections EpidemiologyPublic Health Lecture 31 Vocabulary prevalence incidence common source epidemic outbreak endemic epidemic pandemic mortality carrier reservoirs zoonosis vectors fomites vehicles nosocomial infections Concepts 0 review the stages of disease process infection incubation acute decline how is morbidity calculated what is herd immunity and how does is work what are differences between common source and hosttohost epidemics how was epidemiology important for finding the source of the 1854 cholera epidemic in London what 5 measures are used to control the spread of infectious diseases what is a reportable disease what are the most common sites of nosocomial infections Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2010 what are HAMBSA and CAMBSA what is invasive MBSA what is VB E where is it most commonly found what are MDBTB and XD BTB review the factors are responsible for the rise in emerging diseases PersontoPerson Diseases Lecture 32 Vocabulary DPT vaccine sequelae superantigen pneumonia Concepts Streptococcus pyogenes where does it infect Bhemolytic know the diseases stated in class what is the common phrase for necrotizing faciitis what is impetigo 0 review different types of diseases caused by group A and group B strep Corynebacterium diphtheriae what is the disease and where does it colonizeinfect what is a pseudomembrane Bordetella pertussis what is the medical and common names for the disease what is filamentous hemagglutinin and how does it aid the bacterium how does pertusis exotoxin wor Mycobacterium tuberculosis how is it transmitted what host cells does it initially infect what is the skin test for TB exposure Streptococcus pneumoniae what are the two common diseases it causes Neisseria meningitidis meningitis many are carriers where does it colonizeinfect eventually into blood and meninges layer surrounding brain vaccine available what other two bacteria most commonly cause bacterial meningitis Legionnairs disease review pathogen where is it found in the environment Influenza virus what tissues are infected how does it cause annual epidemics how does segmented genome results in antigenic shift what is asian bird flu why are people concerned about this virus Common cold Bhinovirus Coronavirus what viruses are more common in children review facts about SABScoronavirus how was a major pandemic averted that is the viral cause and symptoms of measles mumps and rubella what is the MMB vaccine varicellazoster virus what type of virus and what are the diseases what can virus cause later in life PersontoPerson Diseases Lecture 33 Vocabulary abscess protein A otidis media pyogenic opportunistic pathogens accidental hosts Campylobacteriosis Concepts I diseases review Centers for Disease Control Category A priority biological agents smallpox variola virus what are symptoms how was it eradicated viral hemorrhagic fevers reviewthe viruses don t memorize dates Anthrax plague Tularemia review the pathogens transmission modes symptoms what diseases are caused by Dengue virus how is it transmitted Staphylococcus direct contact infections what are the common infection sites what is toxic shock syndrome Bacillus anthracis what is the disease what are the three types of infections how are spores involved Helicobacter pylori gastric ulcers what is urease Yersinia pestis plague what are bubonic pneumonic and septicemic forms Hepatitis reviewthe major characteristics and transmission modes for hepatitis A B and C what is cirrhosis Neisseria gonorrhoeae what disease how is it transmitted why is antibiotic resistance a problem Study Guide for Exam 4 MMG 301 Fall 2010 0 Treponema pallidum syphilis sexually transmitted what is a cancre what are the three stages consequences of untreated infection 0 Chlamydia trachomatis most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in US review intracellular life cycle what is endocytosis Herpes what is the virus what do HSVf and HSV2 cause review the HIV life cycle how are CD4 CCR5 and gp120 involved review the eukaryotic opportunistic pathogens often seen in AIDS patients Vector Soilborne Diseases Lecture 34 Vocabulary polymicrobial disease Negri bodies aflatoxins zoonoses Concepts 0 rabies how is it transmitted long latency how is it treated by postexposure vaccination 0 hantavirus related to hemorrhagic fever viruses what is mode of transmission what is the disease and what organ is mainly affected Review Flickettsial diseases how are they each transmitted connect the pathogen to its disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Ehrlichiosis Typhus Qfever Barrela burgdorferiwhat is the disease how is it transmitted what happens if left untreated what pathogens cause malaria how is vector control helpful review the soil bacterial pathogens mentioned in the lecture review the two major mycoses caused by soilborne fungi what organ is affected in primary infection what are aflatoxins Food Presenlation and Foodborne Diseases Lecture 35 Online Vocabulary GRAS enterotoxins enterohemorrhagic Campylobacteriosis psychrotolerant Concepts 0 review the methods used for food preservation discussed in class 0 Vibrio cholerae how is cholera spread 0 Giardia and Cryptosporidium what do they cause how are they transmitted can survive chlorination procedures know differences between food infection and food poisoning Legionella pneumophilia Legionnaires disease how transmitted what organ is infected lungs also causes Pontiac fever 0 Food poisoning reviewthe facts about Staph aureus Clostridium perfringens most prevalent and C botulinum what are Infant botulism and wound botulism 0 Foodborne pathogens reviewthe information for Salmonella typhimurium Flotavirus Listeriosis and pathogenic E coli 0 how is Norovirus transmitted what are symptoms Diagnostic Microbiology Lecture 36 Vocabulary bacteremia septicemia bacteriuria purulent abscess selective medium differential medium BSL titer polyclonal antibodies hybridoma serology hemagglutination serotyping radioimmunoassay immunoblot probe membrane filter assay dipstick assay Concepts 0 review the common sources of clinical specimens what are MIC disk diffusion assay and Etest used for how are they performed what is the Mantoux skin test how is it interpreted what are monoclonal antibodies how are they produced and why are they useful for diagnostics and research
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