Introductory Microbiology MMG 301
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MMG 301 Dr Frank Dazzo Microbial Ecology I General Concepts amp Biogeochemistry Ecology study of organisms in their natural and managed environments Hierarchy of ecological order for microorganisms 0 Individual cells of the same type multiply to form populations 0 Metabolically related populations constitute groups called guilds o Mixtures of different guilds conducting complementary physiological processes interact to form microbial communities Microbial communities then interact with communities of macroorganisms and the physicochemical environment to define the entire ecosystem 3 all to 393 E 39quotg gg z 3255 Individual i Pupuiaunn TIlNT quotI u ii v 391 tmumw 2 39 Oxic zone Aerobes arid meditative HieTri es DBHQQE 639 02 r 6 102 6 H20 1 Populations guilds and communities an example of mmrahial comm unltr structure in a lake ecosystem a Population of the same species derived from cell divisions by Multiple communities containing leEFEI II guilds within the lake ecosystem The science of Microbial Ecology has 2 broad objectives 1 To understand the biodiversity of microorganisms in nature and how different guilds interact in microbial communities 2 To measure the behavior and activities of microorganisms in natural environments and monitor their effects on ecosystems A few important concepts Much is known about the activities of only a small proportion of the microbial world there are many microorganisms left to be discovered and this is a major goal of microbial ecology N Each type of microorganism has at least one ecological niche ie a function that it can successfully compete for in a habitat w Countless microbial niches exist in the biosphere and are in large part responsible for the great metabolic diversity and biodiversity of microorganisms on Earth 5 Since microbes are small their habitats are small and their ecological niches can also cover small spatial scales Despite their small size microbes nevertheless affect ecosystems on greater scales including globallevel effects eg biogeochemical cycling of C N S needed to sustain life on Earth 01 The concept of microenvironment becomes important in understanding how microbes actually live and metabolize within their natural habitats 6 Such microenvironments commonly undergo profound changes in physicochemical characteristics resulting in gradients N Example respiratory consumption of oxygen by large populations of aerobic microbes on biofilms within the human mouth creates anoxic microenvironments that allow anaerobic microbes to produce various volatile fermentation waste products that cause bad breath odor Description and microbial example Mullahs A unidirectional one pamerbendlts while Nalwhllgaxuy the otheris neither bene ted nor harmed s many interactions in microbial enous normal mlcrof o a c i m 9 m w heintacthuman body Predator engulfs attacks and kllls the prey Em P Examples densitydependent predation of mam K 44 bacteria by protozoans in aquatic and soil c habitats Parasite infects hostwho is harmed W Examples bacteriophage infecting bacteria Panamaquot human infectious diseases unidirectional release of an inhibitory quot compound by one organisms that harms a quot quot U 5 susceptible microorganism Example production of antibiotics or bactenocins mm P ecosystems llimitation of energyyielding organic carbonl Biogeochemical Cycles 0 Biogeochemical cycling involves both biological and chemical processes that result in the cyclic interconversion of certain key elements eg C N 5 others needed to sustain productive life processes in the biosphere o The most important role of microorganisms in the biosphere is their participation in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients 0 Life as we know it would ultimately cease to exist without this ycling o o Bacteria are essential for life on Earth 0 These cycles are driven by microbial metabolism that transforms nutrients often by oxidationreduction reactions thereby changing their physical and chemical characteristics 0 All biogeochemical cycles are interlinked and these nutrient transformations have globallevel impacts mu 5 a Mr Mulliceiiuiav eukaryolic organisms Presence of 02 sig cantly influences biogeochemical cycling as illustrated by its Influence on organic matter decompositon a 1m Omdalmn a Anae ro b imam reducedpwduc s W n 3 a My mum use will nunml Mensa cmrmahclwolmp 2mm 00 cmmwmm 0W mm Venous marDame clmmohcmmrmp vs suhsimepmducers mmmmm o Microorganisms form different products when decomposing complex orga tter Oxidized products accumulate aerobically thle reduced products accumulate anaerobically 0 These reactions also illustrate commens c transformations where the w ste products from one microbIal group are used as substrates by other microbial groups syntrophy Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle An i c Olianic maum Cannon mm o P 010 Aerobic Decompos mn a magnum no Numbc mumm and xmmcmalicn racmnnagumxs carbon mnanido oxidmon DH Mmhnnoaemzus elhnM mam 4 M 1 C02 fixation by photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs 2 Methanogene s from inorganic C02 H2 or organic matter involves varIous archaea methanogens Methanobacterium others Global CH4 production 10quot kgyr N 85 biogenic Biogeochemical Nitrogen cycle I I dlnlungun NIII NICI WII illusiricalion m lowquot NH 9 g 23 Nitrogen 7 llxouon 3 I 0 NH m Anaerobic iron NHzoroups Nitrogen oipra39iein a xenon Amm 1 Oxlc Anoxic III 2 g in mmquot zrrim Examples of bacteria involved in box numbered steps Nitrogen xation N2 gt NH aerobic freeliving Azotobacter cyanobacteria symbiotic Rhizobium Frankia anaerobic Clostridium pe ringens purple amp green sulfur p o rophs NHJ assimilation ae amp anaerobic many organisms mmo c n or many organisms N ro robic A n I ganic N gt NHg n aerobic Nitrosomonas ica on a robic Nitrobact Nitrate assimilation H NHH amino acids many organisms Dissimilatom nitrate reduction N0 gt N02 many organism Denitriricati on N0339 gt gt gt gt N2 Bacillus Pseudomonas others 9959 MMG301 Study Guide for Exam 4 non cumulative nal Lectures 32 39 Lecture 32 Understand that bacteria are present deep in the earth could use and may even catalyze the production of hydrogen gas fuel product of the oxidation of basal FeO Geosmin order of soil is produced by Streptomyces bacteria Soil is teaming with life important for cycling of elements important for life eg carbon and nitrogen Understand that soil contains many microniches and gradients as a consequence a great diversity of microbes and physiological processes can occur Soil subsidence is the phenomenon where soil organic matter is mineralized to C02 gas This can be greatest when a wetland is drained before drainage the productive wetland community adds soil organic matter which is not fully degrades in the anaerobic water saturated environment Draining the wetland allows for increased gas exchange and aerobic respiration of organic matter to C02 Understand the biological and chemical pro les work together to stratify soil into layers Understand that gene sequences can be analyzed to infer microbial diversity and that FISH is used to link the gene sequences to microbial cells using oligonucleotide probes that hybridize to 16S ribosomal RNA sequences DNA can also be used Clicker question FISH is used to correlated a 16S gene sequence with a cell type uses oligonucleotides that hybridize or base pair to 16S rRNA and can label general or specific type of bacteria depending on if the probe binds to sequences conserved by many microbe types or is speci c Phyllosphere Rhizosphere Rhizoplane de nitions General ways microbes can promote plant growth Stresses associated with life on the phyllosphere Know that rhizobia legume symbiosis functions in nitrogen xation where rhizobia x dinitrogen in exchange for sugar Know what an infection thread is and the 4 steps of rhizobia legume symbiosis development Know what a bacteroid is and what the main inputs and outputs are for the functioning of the rhizobia legume symbiosis Clicker question on cheaters won t be on exam meant to make you think Know the 4 steps of crown gall disease and the application of Agrobacterium to plant biotechnology know general idea not speci c details Another all of the above clicker question gene transfer from A tum to plants IS horizontal gene transfer IS important for making genetically modi ed plants IS a type of conjugal transfer 33 Animal microbes interactions Know the generalities of the recent Science article of a recent Rickettsia endosymbiotic association with white ies increases the tness of white ies that now most white ies in a population have it when 10 years ago few contained Rickettsia endosymbionts Evolution by symbiosis Clicker question Rickettsia endosymbionts of white ies B provide a tness advantage to the ies Know Symbiosis de nition deBary and types with respect to tness of the host Understand that symbioses may be operating in cognito vs pathogens that cause acute disease Evidence that eukaryotes are result of endosymbiosis Know what vertical transmission is Primary vs secondary endosymbionts Know what Buchnera aphidacola functions provide to the aphid host aphid in return Bacteriocyte de nition Clicker question Function of Buchnera endosymbionts to the host is C provide essential amino acids that are lacking from the plant phloem on which the aphids feed Know that leaf cutter ants in symbiosis with fungi which they farm by providing the fungus with plant foliage Know that ants have Streptomyces symbionts on the abdomen that produce antibiotics that the ants use to ward off pathogenic fungi Clicker question Function of Streptomyces symbiont to the ant is C produce antibiotics against fungal parasite Know the function of the squid vibrio symbiosis and what counter illumination is Know that the symbiosis is a good model system because it results in an obvious characteristic it is simple 1 symbiont type bacteria related to pathogenic V cholerae that has genetic techniques established genomics available in both organisms Ciliated appendages are used to acquire symbiont cells present in seawater These degrade after symbiosis develops by the production of Tracheal Cytotoxin component of peptidoglycan cell wall and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin but function as signals for symbiosis NOT AS TOXIN in this context Know the general concept that these steps are similar to disease progression but function for mutualism and not disease in this system A TOXIN may only be a toxin in the right context Clicker Function of the V scheri to the squid is B produce bioluminescence Know nematode Photorhabdus symbiosis based on insect pathogenicity nematode is a host for Photorhabdus symbionts in a mutualism insects a host for Photorhabdus pathogens and nematode parasites in a parasitism Photorhabdus infected insects are bioluminescent for reasons unknown Know that Photorhabdus symbionts function to kill the insect and produce insect toxins inclusion proteins and antibiotics so the pair can reproduce at the expense of insect hosts Clicker Function Photorhabdus provides to the nematode is D all of the above pathogenicity to insect production of antibiotics and production of bioluminescence No the stage of nematode that lives outside of insects develops and consumes mother nematodes Don t learn endotokia matricida unless you want to impress your friends Only know that pulse chase and green uorescent protein can be used to detect symbionts that persist in nematodes vs the symbionts only transiently present Know that the mother nematode acquires the symbionts in a complex process where the symbiont 1st establish a persistent biofllm Don t learn all the steps Know that mutants defective in symbiosis can be screen by using symbiotic bacteria labeled with the green uorescent protein and screening for nematodes that lack uorescent bacteria These mutants are unable to colonize the nematodes Know that a mbrial adhesive organelle was identi ed in the mutant screen required to make the persistent biofllm and to colonize nematodes Know that viewing single symbionts in the present bio lm reveal that the cells a small colony and cell variant DIFFERENT than the large cells that were thought to be wild type or the normal type Know that the termite contains an anaerobic community and that culturing spirochete symbionts revealed that these bacteria make ACETATE and fix dinitrogengt 34 Human lVIicrobe Interactions Know that mammals develop in utero in a sterile environment then acquire a normal microbiota that in nearly a year resembles that of an adult Know difference vs pathogenicity and virulence Colonization and infection are similar terms and I won t ask you to know the difference Know what infectious disease is Clicker Below processes that necessarily cause damage or harm to the host is C pathogenicity A numerous and diverse microbiota inhabit nearly all parts of the body exposed to the environment 10 x more microbes than human cells 100000000000000 1014 bacteria in or on each human being Know that types of microbes may vary depending on niche on or inside human body Know the value of gnotobiotic animals for dissecting the role of complex microbial communities on human health and what are conventionalized animals General health bene ts of a normal microbiota Know what tissue tropism is and how it relates to colonization Relationship of normal microbiota and opportunistic pathogenicity Clicker Which human environment is normally devoid of human microbiota c blood Skin microbiota stresses of living on skin interaction with sweat glands and odor Opp01tunistic pathogenicity Normal microbiota of mouth and teeth what they live on What stresses they resist What is plaque Streptococcus are the primary colonizers Many other secondary colonizers Know that anaerobic environments and lactic acid product on tooth enable causes demineralization and dental carries cavities Clicker Factors increasing the prevalence of dental carries D all of the above a biofllms B lactic acid production and C large dietary uptake of simple sugars Microbes are prevalent throughout the gastrointestinal tract even the stomach where the pH is 2 very acidic bacteria produce butyrate and other acids and vitamins important for nutrition Diversity and Community composition can vary from individual to individual recall the 3 community types mentioned before class later Lect 38 Much of the diversity is with different strains more than species or genus Large intestine is an anaerobic fermentation chamber gut microbiota consists of more than 700 types that function to modulate the immune system and to produce organic acids vitamins odors and steroid metabolism Know that an altered gut microbiota is correlated with several diseases Clicker Characteristic of the large intestine normal microbiota b it modulates the immune systems Respiratory tract Know main defense mechanism of mucous ow out of the lung by ciliated epithelia cells Lung is normally free of a microbiota so oxygen can be exchanged Urogenital tract microbiota Present of Lactobacillus in vagina indicates health bacterial vaginosis is diagnosed as an altered community with sever disease characteristics such as increased transmission of sexually transmitted diseases Clicker True for a normal vaginal microbiota D all of the above inhibits transmission of disease can be transferred to newborns born vaginally lower pH by production of lactic acid Know what probiotics are 35 infection and virulence Understand that Salmonella bene ts by inducing in ammation by formation of tetrathionate electron donor Know what opportunistic accidental obligate and facultative pathogen means Know the general mechanism of pathogenesis and that toxicity and invasiveness are two processes that cause tissue damage and disease Clicker question tricky one sorry For an infectious disease agent to cause disease it must D neither produce toxin a or invade host cells b Both of these are not essential because the other can be used exclusively Clicker question another tricky question The bacteriumPseudomonas aeruginosa which commonly infects burn wounds is best categorized as what type of pathogen A opportunistic It colonizes from the opportunity of damaged tissue from the burn wound B accidental is almost correct and I won t ask you to know the difference Know what adherence is and what adhesins mbriae or pili and lectins are Clicker Adhesins that bind to sugar groups can also be considered a b lectin Know bacteremia toxicemia and septicemia Know what virulence is and LD50 and LT50 measures of virulence Know virulence factors and virulence genes Clicker question Which statement is true regarding LD50 C it is less than the LD90 because the dose resulting in 90 mortality is greater than the dose resulting in 50 mortality What is a siderophore and why is it a virulence factor Virulence plasmid Be able to know if something is a likely a virulence factor or not Definition and types of exotoxins Know what is hemolysis and a method that it can be detected Know that AB toxins have two subunits one involved in host cell binding B the other to cause a variety of toxic activities eg diphtheria toxins stops translation by ADPribosylating EF2 botulism toxin blocks release of acetylcholine neurotransmitter resulting in accid paralysis tetanus toxin blocks release of glycine from inhibitor neurons causing rigid paralysis cholera toxin activates adenylate cyclase increases cAMP and release of Cl and HC02 then water release into the intestine Know what endotoxin is Clicker question Tracheal cytotoxin and endotoxin are virulence factors produced by Vibrio scheri in the squid light organ is FALSE because they signal morphogenesis of the light organ for mutualism NOT disease Don t know host susceptibility last slide that was not covered 36 Epidemiology and Public Health Microbiolog Know the definitions of epidemiology prevalence outbreak incidence endemic epidemic pandemic and sporadic and seasonal epidemics Note the difference between incidence and prevalence outbreak epidemic and pandemic Clicker The infectious disease caused by HlNl in uenza virus is best characterized as C pandemic because it is the most recent u pandemic although last fall the CDC stated that the pandemic is over and it is now endemic Know what mortality and morbidity rates are Acute vs chronic infections and carriers Understand why a carrier such as Typoid Mary should not work in a kitchen Know what a RESERVOIR for infectious disease is and some types Know difference in outbreak dynamics of infectious disease transmitted by a common point source vs person to person spread Know what a Vector fomites and vehicle is as related to infectious disease spread Seasonal outbreaks can indicate what mode of transmission Understand herd immunity and how immunity via vaccination or endemic disease limits potential for outbreaks Know that disease transmission is most likely after some incubation and before acute disease because this period corresponds to high numbers of infectious disease agent without the host being severely ill Clicker question confusing statement I wanted you to know that the individual choice to be vaccinated affects the population outbreak potential in addition to the health of the individual Have a general idea on point source for cholera can be identified Know what is nosocomial disease modes of transmission why prevalence for antibiotic resistance and major sites of infection Clicker Adding antibiotics to animal feed to increase production is D all of the above it s good because it lowers the cost of food bad because it increases antibiotic resistance and used widespread in animal production Know that HIV virus causes the disease epidemic of AIDS basis for antimicrobials and why it is theoretically preventable Don t memorize stats Clicker AIDS is theoretically preventable because d all of the above advances in technology will lead to a cure a vaccine will become available C transmission is largely due to human behavior that can be altered C is the most correct answer but A and B are true possibilities Know the 5 strategies of preventing infectious disease epidemics and some reasons why new epidemics are still emerging Know generally what SARS is and that the pandemic was limited by global control measures Know that several emerging infectious diseases are by new multidrug resistant strains and why this is a concern Know characteristics that may place an infectious disease agent into Category A 37 Person to person t 39 39 Airborne Understand the differences between outdoor and indoor air why air is inhospitable for microbial growth Clicker the air more likely to contain opportunistic pathogens is b indoor air Indoor air has more human associated microbes Understand that we breathe large volumes of air and particles are trapped by mucous that is pushed out of the respiratory tract by ciliated epithelia cells Cystic brosis disease has thick mucus that is not removed and thus become colonized by opportunistic pathogens Clicker Persons with cystic brosis are more susceptible to respiratory infection because a the mucous is thick inhibiting the removal of microbes from the respiratory tract Know difference between Group A and B Strep and that Streptococcus causes strep throat scarlet fever rheumatic fever impetigo and necrotizing fasciitis Know virulence factors of Strep and what they are Capsule hemolysins superantigens Clicker A virulence factor of Streptococcus pyogenes is c super antigen Know that Neisseria meningitides can cause meningitis and what meningitis is Disease is spread rapidly in closed quarters such as college dormitories A vaccine is available Diphtheria is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria and uncommon in the US due to DTP vaccine Virulence by diphtheria toxin that can lead to formation of a pseudomembrane that can block airway Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis Uncommon due the DTP vaccine but remerging in persons not vaccinated Virulence factors of filamentous hemaggluttinin antigen pertussis exotoxin and tracheal cytotoxin Know generally how these act to cause disease TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis acid fast slow growing Gram positive Know what is and causes acid fast characteristic Know that it is one of the most significant infectious diseases currently It is phagocytosed and triggers nodule formation in lungs where it survives Nodules are detected by lung Xrays Isoniazid is an effective treatment that prevents mycolic acid synthesis TB enters a dormant state requiring extensive periods of antibiotic treatment Drug resistant strains exist some essential not treatable with antibiotics M leprae causes leprosy Hanson s disease bulblike lesions of the skin Does not grow in lab only armadillo animal host Clicker A virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is all of the above a waxy mycolic acid cell wall invasiveness and dormancy Colds and u are common respiratory viruses many types of virus cause cold so no vaccine currently available In uenza Type A common and has 8 different RNA genome fragments that can be reshuf ed if a cell is infected by more than 1 type A virus Major glycoproteins l Hemagglutanin and Neuraminidase e g HlNl are type 1 of each antigen Flu evolved by 2 processes antigenic drift change from mutation and selection during infectious and outbreaks Antigenic shift a new antigen gene from another u type is acquired that may cause a pandemic because the population may be na39139ve of the new combination of antigens Flu epidemics happen every year u pandemics every 1040 years HlNl swine u the most recent Pigs are permissive for both avian and human u and can be a place where antigenic shift occurs Clicker Flu pandemics are largely caused by what evolutionary process of the in uenza virus B antigenic shift Measles Mumps and Rubella chickenpox was not covered and won t be on exam 38 Direct contact microbial Disease Staphylococcus are members of the normal microbiota of skin and upper respiratory tract and cause diseases of acne boils etc Virulence factors of hemolysins coagulase leukocidin super antigens what they are and how their role in disease Toxic shock syndrome Hyper and systemic in ammatory immune response caused by super antigens H elicobacter pylori causes ulcers discovered by Warren and Marshal for causing ulcers that are treatable with antibiotics Virulence factors of VacA cytotoxin urease makes alkaline Lipopolysaccharide Clicker The medical community at rst didn t accept that H pylori causes ulcers because c bacteria were not known to be present in the low pH environment of the stomach Know that hepatitis is a disease of the liver most often caused by viruses cirrhosis is destruction of liver cells and tissue damage Some virus types also cause liver cancer Vaccines against A and B have resulted in lower prevalence Universal precautions used to limit the spread of these viruses in hospitals and food service Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Disease is painful in males but weak or asymptomatic in females Antibiotic resistance to penicillin prevalent resistance to others also occurring Continued prevalence because 1 no immunity due to antigenic variation of Opa surface proteins 2 oral contraceptives decrease Lactobacilli that inhibit N gonorrhoeae symptoms in females weak or asymptomatic Clicker Gonorrhea disease is likely to remain prevalent because c there is no immunity due to antigenic variation of Opa Syphilis is caused by the spirochete Trepanema pallidom which causes more death thanN gonorrhoeae Primary syphilis characterized by a localized chancrelesion that can spread and cause skin rash secondary syphilis tertiary syphilis is widespread infection ranging from mild to lethal Penicillin is effective treatment and disease is at lowest levels on record in Us Chlamydia is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis an obligate intracellular pathogen most prevalent sexually transmitted disease has a differentiated elementary body stage for transmission reticulate body for intracellular growth Clicker Fort eh chlamydia obligate intracellular pathogen to spread B extracellular bodies are formed that can survive outside of cells Herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus genital herpes by HSV2 Trichomoniasis is as urethritis caused by a protozoa Human Papillomavirus can cause cervical cancer and genital warts A vaccine is available for HPV to prevent cervical cancer caused by HPV POGIL Development and determining outcomes of AIDs caused by HIV infection Clinical treatment occurs when CD4 Tcells decrease from 600900 cells mm3 to less than 250 cells mm3 The HIV RNA copies is in ml and there are 1000 mm3 in 1 ml also the right Yaxis is a log scale in contrast to the CD4 axis About 105 RNA copies are present of HIV during the swollen lymph node stage of infection I would say HIV RNA copies are more sensitive predicted in determining clinical outcome because there number very by log factors of 10 and that HIV RNA is only present in disease however both are used in the next graph The technique that makes HIV quantification sensitive is PCR because it involves exponential multiplication of genomes Reverse transcriptase is essential to turn HIV RNA copies into DNA that can be amplified by PCR After 1 yr there are N300 CD4 Tcells and 10 6 HIV RNA copies in a poor prognosis compared to 800 CD4 Tcells and 102 HIV RNA copies in a good prognosis HIV wouldn t need to be removed for quantification because the RNA should be in much higher copy number than the DNA although it would be easy to do so HIV infection and disease slides was not covered and won t be on exam 39 vector transmitted and soil diseases Vector borne diseases are often transmitted by blood sucking insects Animal transmitted disease have nonhuman vertebrate hosts Zoonosis is an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans e g rabies Enzootic is an endemic zoonosis Epizoonotic is an epidemic zoonosis Rabies is a virus disease transmitted by bites or saliva of infected animals such as bats and dogs Infects central nervous systems and nearly 100 fatal if not treated Negri virus inclusions visible in infected nerve cells Prevention is due to control of disease in animals Treatment is due to postinfection vaccination effective due to the slow disease progression plus antirabies immunoglobulin that allows an immune response before host acquired immune response Clicker Rabies disease in the Us is all of the above it s endemic highly virulent and enzootic Hantaviruses are related to hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola and transmitted inhalation of rodent droppings and urine Highly virulent with fatality rates of 36 Endemic epidemic outbreaks can be caused by population booms of rodents Clicker question Outbreaks of hantavirus in the continental US are caused by C population booms of rodents Rickettsial diseases are caused by Rickettsia bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites closely related to mitochondria Diseases transmitted by ticks lice or ea Typhus was a serious concern in WW1 and caused more deaths than direct warfare Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Ehrlichiosis are diseases that cause ulike symptoms Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted by deer ticks Can cause chronic infections with after an initial circular rash such as neurologic with symptoms resembling multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer s diseases Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases and is cause by Plasmodium protist Malaria is transmitted by Anopheles mosquito restricted to tropical and subtropical regions Control is by control of the mosquito vector by insecticides repellent and screens Treatment is by quinolones but resistance is prevalent artemisinin natural product from wormwood is being developed for production in fermenters Sporozoites are released in blood in the liver an enlarged cell called a schizont is formed schizonts segment into merozoites that infect red blood cells cycles of red blood cells can lead to 48 h cycles of chills and fevers gametocytes are also made that infect the mosquito intestine sporozoites are again formed in the salivary glands of mosquitoes Clicker The relationship between Plasmodium malaria parasite andAnopheles mosquito vector is best characterized as A parasitism because the mosquito does not benefit and is probably harmed by the association SS11 MMG 301 Study Guide for Exam 2 GENERAL COMMENTS In all lectures pay attention to bullets on slides and to the notes you took during class 0 Details of Figures are often not that important unless they were discussed during class 0 As a rule use your best judgement to decide what is very important to know versus what is really detailoriented 0 Questions will be similar to the clicker questions you have had during class 0 Types of questions will be similar to Exam 1 o No conscious attempts to trick you 0 Lecture 10 will be on the exam LECTURE 10 0 Know the endosymbiosis theory and the lines of evidence for it 0 Know why establishing the phylogeny of eukaryotes is difficult slide 4 0 Know what the mitochondrion hydrogenosome and chloroplasts do slides 5 and 6 o Fungi know that the wall is made of chitin type of glycosidic linkage their typical forms lamentous unicellular mushrooms their major functions in the soil and how they affect life major biomass degraders possible pathogens human uses 0 What green and red algae are primary endosymbionts difference between green an red algae o How secondary endosymbiotic algae differ from primary endosymbiotic algae the two traits that make them different 0 Main attributes of diatoms and brown algae 0 Life cycle of Trypanosoma and the disease it causes 0 Major traits of ciliates and dino agellates o Apicomplexa major traits and simplified life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum 0 Major traits of amoebozoa 0 Life cycle of cellular slime molds o Bullets on lichens LECTURES 11712 Differences between the cell envelopes of Grampositive and Gramnegative bacteria slide 2 Know slides 5 and 6 well General structure of the LPS not the names of individual sugars and LPS functions Know slides 10 and 11 well Structure and function of peptidoglycan not molecular structures and difference between peptidoglycans of Gramnegative and Grampositive bacteria Function of the bacterial cell wall Structure and function of the cytoplasmic membrane Know the different types of transporters what they are made of how they work where they get their energy from How the cell walls of archaea differ from those of bacteria e g no peptidoglycan and outer membrane in archaea Slayers are the most common cell walls how pseudo peptidoglycan differs from peptidoglycan LECTURES 13714 Major properties of capsules and slime layers and their function Major properties and functions of frmbriae and pili Why bacterial motility is important Different types of bacterial agellations How bacterial agella vary from eukaryotic agella Different components of the bacterial agella and how it moves Where the energy for rotation comes from ChemotaXis 39 39 39 39 wise versus 39 rotations and how they affect movement and signal transfer from chemoreceptors to agellum Major elements on phototaXis and aerotaXis The two mechanisms and the associated proteins that contribute to DNA staying compacted in the nucleoid When polysomes form and what they are In which type of organisms intemal membranes can be found and why Function of the different storage polymers Why glycogen is such a good carbon and energy storage polymer Why polyphosphate is a good energy storage compound How sulfur granules are formed and consumed What magnetosomes are made of Main properties of gas vacuoles and the hammer experiment LECTURE 15 All macronutrients and where they are used in the cell How much C and N are needed and in which form they are usually available Definitions of growth factor fastidious organism vitamin different types of media slide 5 difference between selective and differential media Fundamentals on sterilization methods Definition of pure culture aseptic technique Streak plate and spread plate methods Principle of enrichment culture technique Example of bacteria growing on N2 as N source LECTURE 16 Different steps of binary fission Definition of generation and generation time Names of other types of division Key steps in sporulation mechanisms of spore resistance to temperature and other stresses Principle and J39 39 of direct r bacterial count turbidimetric measurements viable cell count by plating and by filtering What best dilutions to use to count bacteria on plates LECTURE 17 0 De nition of generation time 0 Equation for number of cells during exponential cell growth 0 Know the four phases in bacterial growth 0 Why is there a lag phase What happens during the lag phase and what can make the duration of the lag phase vary 0 What happens during exponential growth phase What parameters can make the growth rate vary during exponential 1 growth phase 0 What can cause the end of exponential phase and onset of stationary phase What characterizes the stationary phase 0 What happens during the death phase 0 What can be the reasons why bacteria are viable but nonculturable VBNC o Leibig s law of the minimum 0 Effect of nutrient concentration on growth rate and yield At which nutrient concentration are growth rate and yield affected 0 Key points about chemostats Which parameters in a chemostat control the growth rate and the grth yield 0 What properties de ne steady state in a chemostat 0 Know the effect of varying the dilution rate on chemostat culture parameters Why is the doubling time generation time getting shorter when the dilution rate increases What causes a washout LECTURE 18 o The two main types of starvation survival strategies 0 The four main survival strategies in bacteria that do not differentiate into spores 0 General mechanism of quorum sensing 0 Role of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0 Slide 6 on Microbial biofilms 0 Different ways biofilms can affect our lives LECTURE 19 0 Definitions of the three critical temperatures 0 Definitions and ranges for the bacteria living at different temperatures psychrotolerant mesophiles and thermotolerant mesophiles Know Listeria monocytogenes psychrotolerant mesophile Slide 6 on kinetics of death during sterilization or pasteurization Definitions for decimal reduction time and pasteurization 0 General principle of heat sterilization validation methods 0 Definitions for acidophile and alkaliphile o Bullets on pH effects 0 Bullets on osmotic effects conditions that induce water moving inout of the cell 0 How microbes adapt to osmotic imbalances