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Structure of a Non

by: Hermina Hoppe

Structure of a Non LIN 881

Hermina Hoppe
GPA 3.77


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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermina Hoppe on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIN 881 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/207379/lin-881-michigan-state-university in Linguistics at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
LIN 881 Study Questions Inoue 1 quotJapanese A story of Language and Peoplequot pp 241 278 39 Answer the questions AS YOU READ assigned pages 39 The answers to some questions are provided following gt eg where the information in the article is outdated 39 JPN Japanese For this reading you are NOT expected to memorize any of the details Just try to get a general idea about the language INTRODUCTION Some gures in the article are outdated l 1 How many native speakers of Japanese are there gt Approximately 1256 million as of 1995 con ned mainly to Japan 2 Where does it rank among the world s languages gt The 6th after Chinese English Russian Spanish amp Hindi ie more than German French 3 Were you surprised about the answer to 2 above Why or why not 2 1 Does the author suggest that a language in uences the people or that people s experience in uences the language 2 What do you think and why Illustrate with examples 1 A HISTORY OF JAPAN 11 The early years Contact with China and the evolution of the writing system 3 1 In the footnote on page 243 the author discusses the Japanese unit of timing How many moras are there in each of the following Tokyo Kyoto Osaka Shinto 2 How many syllables are there in each 4 What were the 3 important things brought in to Japan from China during or before the 6th century gt Chinese characters the writing system Confucianism amp Buddhism 5 1 What percentage of the contemporary JPN vocabulary is SinoJPN gt 55 Shibatani 1990145 2 Why was it difficult to write JPN using Chinese characters gt JPN and Chinese are different types of languages JPN is agglutinating while Chinese is isolating JPN therefore requires various in ectional endings e g for tense but not Chinese Also the word order is different JPN is SOV while Chinese is SVO 3 How did the ancient Chinese and Korean scholars solve the problem gt For content words N V Adj Adv they used Chinese characters kanji with corresponding meanings and read them in Japanese ways For functional elements P in ectional endings they used kanji that had similar sounds in Chinese regardless of the meanings 6 1 What are the two simplified sets of symbols syllabaries called that were created based on kanjz39 gt H iragana and katakana 2 How were they developed gt H iragana from the cursive style of a kanjz39 with a similar sound and katakana from just a part of a kanjz39 with a similar sound 3 What are the three sets of symbols generally used for Page 1 of 3 7 1 How many kanjz39 are authorized to be used in newspapers and popular reading materials without providing the pronunciation gt 1945 The information in the article is outdated 2 What would be the advantages and disadvantages of using just kana ie hiragana and katakana or just Romajz39 Roman alphabet to write JPN instead of the current mixed system 8 1 When did various levels of speech e g keigo honorifics and the distinction between men s and women s speech begin to develop gt Early 11th century 2 What does this fact re ect gt Complex social stratification and different statustreatments of men and women 12 The Middle Ages The rise and fall of a feudal society 9 When did first and second person pronouns in JPN proliferate and why gt During the Middle Ages 12cmid 19c because the country was stratified in a complex way and the language re ected it 10 1 When and by whom were the first dictionaries and grammars of JPN compiled in Romajz39 gt By Portuguese missionaries in l6l7c 2 What are the major contributions of these works gt The pronunciation of JPN then was recorded more accurately than ever Also linguistic analyses of JPN from Westerners perspectives 11 What concept was emphasized in the Tokugawa government that is still an important characteristic of JPN society 13 Modern times The Meiji Restoration in 1868 and the road to modernization 12 1 From what language in particular have many words been borrowed into JPN recently 2 From what other languages did JPN borrow words in the late 19th century 3 From where else did JPN borrow words earlier in history 2 THE STRUCTURE OF JAPANESE You can just skim this section if you d like 21 Sentence Formation in Japanese 13 Is JPN related to Chinese and or to Korean 211 Japanese A verb fmal language NOTE In spoken JPN the verb can and often do occur in positions other than sentencefinal contrary to the author s claim They are called postposed sentences which we will discuss later 212 Japanese postpositions 14 1 What are the three types of postpositions in JPN gt case particles those comparable to English prepositions and sentence particles There are actually two other types conjunctive particles which connect coordinate or subordinate clauses and adverbial or semantic particles such as mo also and shika only 213 Question formation Page 2 of3


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