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Special Topics

by: Hermina Hoppe

Special Topics LIN 491

Hermina Hoppe
GPA 3.77


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Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermina Hoppe on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIN 491 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/207380/lin-491-michigan-state-university in Linguistics at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
SampG Ch 7 page 1 Shrum amp Glisan 2005 Ch 7 pp 189213 Using a StoryBased Approach to Teach Grammar p 189 What are we going to learn about in this chapter 1 explicitimplicit grammar explanations 2 focus on form 3 reformulating grammar instruction 4 a storybased approach to language instruction 5 foreshadowing grammar explanations 6 guided palticipation for grammar explanations 7 The PACE Model Presentation Attention CoConstruction Extension CONCEPTUAL ORIENTATION Communication is at the CORE of L2 learning SFLL What s communication Fill in the blanks 9 The personal expression amp of meaning where amp ideas are exchanged in gesture amp feelings information interpretation negotiation talk writing Communication also involves the development of RELATIONSHIPS between individuals as they use language to create social bonds show sympathy amp understanding amp support each other Communication also involves private talk or communication with the self p 190 Learners need to be able to USE language in a variety of ways amp for a variety of purposes They need to know HOW WHEN amp WHY to say WHAT to WHOM SFLL They need to know pragmatics p 190 p 191 SampG Ch 7 page 2 True or False a Knowledge ofthe language system eg grammar vocab phonology pragmatic amp discourse features contributes to the ACCURACY of communication b Focus on form is critical to making progress as language users Answers a O b O Focus on form largely depends on what learners need for COMMUNICATION purposes rather than on a predetermined grammar syllabus Why should we teach grammar 1 When learning a new language one draws on both one s controlled analyzed amp automatic knowledge Through interactions ie 2way negotiation of meaning analyzed knowledge of grammar gt automatic 2 Because learners already have knowledge of language 3 Grammar instruction raises learners consciousness about the differences amp similarities of L1 amp L2 4 of the 5 Cs ie knowledge of a new language map with road signs 4 Without grammar instruction learners language may be full of inaccuracies gt Their language may not be under stood by others andor may irritate them 5 Grammar is necessary for learners to express complex sophisticated ideas and to look their age What must a teacher do when teaching grammar 9 Create SITUATIONS in which students perceive how grammar is used to make meanings amp the need to use the grammar to communicate in the TL Grammatical structures will become internalized only if the learners are placed in the situation in which they need to use the structures for communicative purpose SampG Ch 7 page3 Eg An acquaintance of yours is visiting ink ii i U iii fix LW Z o ink Litb LoLkii i7LLt5 fA 5wu Emitt l o Compare this way of introducing grammar with those of the following 1 5amp6 9 5amp6 t uid It ll rain 9 I think it ll rain steam 9 li lstmti mid39 It won t rain 9 I don t think it ll rain EL 99 515 ti mi i Evitau 9 Ebtmti mi i LL7 9 Ectti l ij39 3 T wakii i bi ib 8 lim ti mi o T lEElFP uliEClzmij39fJ o S IZL tEL3 j o N p 191 1 The ExplicitImplicit Controversv True or False a Practitioners of the Communicative Approaches have consistently underscored the importance of both form amp meaning b The explicit approach to grammar instruction often involves teacher explanations of rules followed by manipulative exercises to practice the new structure c A potential problem with explicit grammar instruction is that it implies a teacher takes all of the responsibility for understanding amp constructing grammatical knowledge d Sequencing mechanical practice first and then communicative language use has the disadvantage of requiring learners to focus on a form before experiencing its meaning amp function Answers a X b O c 0 d O p 192 SampG Ch 7 page4 True or False a Advocates of the implicit grammar approach believe that learners can acquire language naturally ifthey are provided with sufficient comprehensible input b Scholars such as Krashen Monitor Theory amp Terrell Natural Methods were against this approach c The inductive method cannot guarantee that the learner will discover the underlying concepts or that the induced concepts will actually be correct d As this method is relatively time consuming it may frustrate adolescent amp adult learners Answers a O b X c 0 d O 2 Reformulating Grammar Instruction p 193 REVIEW According to Vygotsky learning is an EMERGING SOCIAL amp INTERACTIVE process situated in CULTURAL contexts eg schools classrooms amp assisted through tools the most notable being language Storybased amp guided participatory approach key to dramatic improvements in teaching grammar FIGURE 71 IMPLICIT GUIDED EXPLICIT EXPLANATIONS PARTICIPATION EXPLANATIONS Learners analyze the grammar explanation for themselves Teachers amp Learners COLLABORATE on amp COCONSTRUCT the grammar explanation Teacher provides explanation for learners p 193 SampG Ch 7 page 5 3 Basic Principles of StoryBased Language Teaching p 194 According to Goodman the whole is always greater than the sum of its parts amp it is the lt whole parts gt that gives meaning to the lt whole parts gt In grammar instruction linguistic elements eg words phrases or sentences gain MEANING amp FUNCTION only when they are placed in CONTEXT amp in a WHOLE text In the advicesubjunctive example which constitutes the whole amp which one a part REVIEW gt importance of comprehensible input gt role of interaction from L1 research gt notion of scaffolding in caretaker speech gt contentbased instruction CBI gt authentic texts for L amp R comprehension gt thematically organized conversations gt extended discourse Q from SLA research These approaches all use WHOLE texts rather than fragmented phraselevel amp sentencelevel examples to illustrate amp teach L2 What does each of the following describe a storybased language approach or a transmission bottomup approach a Meaningmaking is emphasized b Fragmented discourse amp artificial mechanical exercises are used Cartoons songs recipes etc are used d The language used is unnatural cognitively undemanding amp dull 0 p 194 p 195 SampG Ch 7 page 6 A storybased language approach stresses natural discourse amp encourages learners to comprehend meaningful amp longer samples of discourse from the very beginning of the lesson What s foreshadowing gt A teacher introduces a lesson with a whole text that will highlight amp make obvious the grammar structure to be taught gt The story is used for recognition first amp then for production gt The story provides an anchoring framework for the new concepts to be learned ie the story anchors the new structure gt The concept is in agreement with the idea of using advance organizers to assist learners Fill in the blanks The process of understanding a story creates a where through interest in understanding it the need to learn s amp responsive is provided As a result from the very beginning of the lesson the teacher and learners are engaged in use of language through joint activities amp interactions By using simplified language pictures amp gestures the teacher s amp guides learners to the story Once comprehension is achieved the teacher can then productively turn the learners attention to various linguistic elements previously encountered amp ed in the narrative anchor problemsolving assistance authentic comprehend emerge scaffold Zone of Proximal Development Foreshadowing of new language elements provides learners with a feel for what is to come p 195 SampG Ch 7 page 7 It is natural to tell a story orally amp interpret their contents amp Extend the story in various ways eg talk about it speculate on things express opinions gt perfect for language teaching A teacher should recycle the storyline through picture displays TPR amp roleplaying activities to deepen learners comprehension Fill in the blanks The organization of stories aids comprehension amp Learners concerning stories in general facilitates their comprehension amp helps establish meaning The framework of the story provides a flow of mental that help learners to assign amp to the form they hear episodic meaning functions retention images prior knowledge One of the best times for the learners to attend to form is after comprehension has been achieved amp in conjunction with their production of meaningful discourse 4 A Model for Inteciratinci Form in a StoryBased Langauge Approach 9 p16 Learners can be guided to reflect on language to create their own meaning The issue is not whether a teacher should focus on form but the issue is HOW WHEN amp WHERE to focus on form in a lesson PACE stands for the 4 steps to integrate focus on form in the context of a storybased language lesson Learners construct understandings of form in COLLABORATION with the teacher amp each other SampG Ch 7 page 8 p 196 41 P PRESENTATION of Meanianul Language p 197 The whole language is presented in a thematic way eg an interesting story a TPR lesson an authentic listening segment an authentic document demonstration of a reallife task eg sport cooking science experiment stageable actions amp events The teacher presents the story ly which facilitates aural comprehension amp the acquisition of amp This parallels what occurs in acquisition The presentation is contextualized storybased language intended to capture learner amp provide opportunity for the teacher to create through of meaning comprehension negotiation form L1 oral interest thematic meaning What should we keep in mind about the presentation gt The story amp target structure are level appropriate gt The structure must be adequately illustrated gt The structure should appear often enough without making the language sound unnatural or stilted gt The presentation should be interactive eg learner repeats key phrases learner acts out as the story is told K WL know want to know learned activities discussions anticipating the content of a reading The goal is to enable learners to stretch their abilities by comprehending new elements of the TL in meaningful texts through the help amp mediation of the teacher amp the tasks during storytelling The presentation may last for part of a class an entire class or several sessions amp may contain prestorytelling activities SampG Ch 7 page 9 p 197 42 A A39I39I39ENTION The Attention phase focuses learners attention on some aspect of the language used during the Presentation 1 Help learners to focus attention on the target form without needless elaboration 6 Who needlessly elaborated or waste of time 6 Who wasted time 2 Ensure that learners are indeed focused on the target form What are the teacher s roles 9 Highlight the lesson objective by asking Qs illustrating example sentences on OH P etc eg semantic clues focus on meaning eg today syntactic clues focus on form eg verb form p 198 If learners reveal certain learning needs or show curiosity about certain aspects of the language the teacher should allow the grammatical agenda to be set by them Remember ZPD 43 C CoConstruct an Explanation In this phase the teacher assists learners in raising their awareness about the amp enables them to the structure with those in their own language The step features GUIDED paiticipation learners are guided to guess predict amp the target form The teacher should ask wellchosen clear amp direct Qs to help learners discover regular grammatical sound systems order unique meanings of words or language 9 Examples on p 198 contrast cultural form functions generalize hypothesize patterns word p 198 p 199 SampG Ch 7 page 10 Learners should also ask the teacher amp each other questions Over time they will develop the ability to reflect on language amp to work in small groups on grammar problems amp report back to the class about their discoveries Teaching is responsive assistance Assistance needs to vary with the particular problems the learners are having etc Does the coconstruction occur in English or TL 9 Depends on the level of the class amp the target structure 44 E EXTENSION Activities Extension activities should be be related to the of the lesson in some way amp most importantly allow for selfexpression Examples of Extension activities include information gap activities situations dramatizations games authentic projects paired interviews class out of class projects or simulations of reallife situations The activities should give learners the chance to USE the target form in ways that they see as meaningful amp connected to the creative interesting roleplay surveys theme useful writing Extension activities can easily address all the 5Cs How do you do that for example p 199 SampG Ch 7 page 11 5 Elements of StoryBased Language Learning p 200 Storybased amp guided participatory activities all encourage learners to be ACTIVE THINKERS amp HYPOTHESIZERS as they COLLABORATE in the languagelearning activities with the teacher amp with their peers SFLL advocates that learners be engaged in cognitively activities that encourage them to use communication such as guessing intelligently deriving meaning from asking for amp providing making amp testing amp making inferences predictions amp Moreover all of these classroom activities encourage amp interactional use of language by giving learners opportunities to share ask questions amp solve problems ly challenging clarification collaborative context functional generalizations hypotheses information strategies True or False a A distinguishing theme of a story based amp guided participatory approach to grammar instruction is that learning needs to be integrated contextualized amp meaning centered b Integrated amp meaning centered activities facilitate learners comprehension amp retention c The extension activities encourage learners to integrate meaning form amp function while experiencing language in context Answers All 0 SampG Ch 7 page 12 p 201 Which approach to teaching grammar does each of the following describe story baseguided participation or traditional a There is little teacherlearner interaction amp the teacher directly gives explanation b Tasks are sequenced from simple to complex c competence before performance d performance before competence Approximations are encouraged e Learners participate in problem solving process amp higher order thinking skills f The functional significance of a grammatical point often does not emerge until the end of lesson 51 Designing a Contextualized Story Based Language Lesson 511 Selecting an Appropriate Text pp 200201 9 Guiding principles 110 p 202 What s the I Have Who Has game like 9 p 202 512 Creating Extension Activities Creative extension activities are critical for they afford learners plenty of opportunities to develop interpersonal communication What are examples of graphic organizers to be incorporated in Extension activities 9 story mapping character mapping discussion webbing What do graphic organizers do 9 They serve as anchoring devices to help learners organize their thoughts amp ideas concerning the story SampG Ch 7 page 13 p 203 Discussion webbing moves learners from WHAT happened in the story to WHY it happened What is an intertextual activity gt Learners working in pairs or groups to analyze the components of stories by juxtaposing 2 different texts or stories eg characters content plot development style either in L1 or TL depending on the level gt These activities encourage learners to move beyond the mere recalling of events to higher critical thinking skills REVIEW gt The teacher creates a social context that assists amp supports learners in activities that they would be unable to do aloneunassisted gt Instruction assisted performance leads to development unassisted performance Vygotsky p 204 Many learners are not aware of amp cannot use discourse compensation strategies which in turn deters their performance on interpersonal tasks We need to integrate these discourse facilitators amp compensation strategies into our curriculum early in the language learning sequence 514 PACE amp the Accuracy Issue What should a teacher do with errors while participating in extension activities 9 Place an emphasis on MEANINGmaking or SENSEmaking As a debriefing activity the teacher may want to focus attention on some common or frequently made errors


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