The World of Media
The World of Media JRN 108
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Cristian Upton on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JRN 108 at Michigan State University taught by Michael Stamm in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/207395/jrn-108-michigan-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 15 Mass communication researchfrom content to affects 1 Defining mass communication research a Researchers have developed a systematic study of media technology and content the forces that shape and create their creation how and why people use media and the impact of media institutions on individuals and society b Basic and practical mass communication research i Practical research aims to help media organizations increase their audiences ii Basic research aims to create more theoretical understanding of human communication using mass media c Approaches to mass communication research i Begins with a paradigm which is a set of assumptions about the nature of human behavior Dominated by two paradigms ii Social science approach 1 Research approach that emphasizes theory building and quantitative methods for testing theory 2 The origins of this approach lie in an effort to adapt scientific methods to the study of human behavior iii Criticalculturalapproach 1 Studies the connection between media and the society along with the impact of those connections on culture d Types of research methods i Qualitative 1 Look at symbolic meaning that individuals assign to media content based on their own perspective Qualitative methods include participant observation indepth interviews and textual analysis 2 Detailed focus on a small number of cases 3 Used in the quest to understand the relationship between humans and their media 4 Used when want to get in depth reports 5 Participant observation a Research where researchers observe research subjects in everyday behavior 6 Textual analysis a Research where researchers interpret texts to find the social meanings underlying them 7 lndepth interviewing a Subjects are selected for study several detailed interviews are conducted at different times b Focus groups i Allows a researcher to collect indepth information 8 Not large enough to accurately represent large social groups e Quantitative 2 P5 5 Uses statistical analysis of media content or responses of individuals as a way to categorize media content The content and responses are assigned numbers Quantitative method includes experiments surveys and content analysis Select people through random methods allowing researchers to make generalizations from the data Does not give an indepth understanding Experiments a lnvolves application and manipulation of a treatment given to groups of people and then tests the result i Causation 1 The process by which one or more factors result in the occurrence of an even behaviors or attitude A variety of factors cause human behavior 2 Experiments occur in artificial settings their results may not represent everyday behavior Survey research a lnvolves randomly selecting a small group of people called a sample from a larger group called a population and asking them questions from a questionnaire i Protocol Content analysis that contains instructions that researchers use to assign units of content to categories that in turn receive numbers The instructions contain detailed steps every coder most follow 2 Considered reliable when several coders use it to categorize the same content and agree on how the content should be categorized Used to understand human behavior The role of theory in research Developed as researchers collect and analyze data and then draw generalizations that explain the role of media in shaping individuals societies and cultures A social science theory is a set or related statements about people s behavior that PWN Categorize phenomena Predicts the future Explains past events Gives a sense of understanding of why the behavior occurs 5 Provides the potential for influencing the future behavior iii Social science theories are based on hypotheses 1 A theoretical statement of a relationship between a causing agent and a resulting action behavior or attitude iv Critical theory is often concerned with issues of mass media s relationship to social economic and political power f Research and public policy i Researchers can have an effect on public policies related to mass media g Research and media organizations i Media managers use research to understand what their audiences want to decide what that should charge their advertisers and to develop news and information ii TV news departments also use research to gather viewers and showing them videotapes of various anchors 1 Suggests which anchor should be hired iii The audit bureau of circulations conducts research to measure circulation for almost all US daily newspapers and for some weekly newspapers iv Nielsen media research estimates how many people watch a TV show 2 Mass communication research in American life a Effects model i Mass media effects research studies the influence of media content on audiences and how powerful that influence might be ii Media s impact is dependent on many factors b History of effects research i Began during WWI 1 2 Powerful effects a Efforts to mobilize their citizens in support of the war and to discourage the populations in enemy countries b Magic Bullet Theory Propaganda efforts during WWI suggested that media were allpowerful Propagandists believed that you could simply hit individuals with information as though it were a bullet and it would have powerful and immediate effects Limited effects a At the beginning of world war II the US government again used communication to develop support for the war effort Carl Hovland The media have limited effects on individualsinterpersonal impact is more important in influencing attitude and creating change This approach recognizes that individuals interact with one another as well as respond to the media messages they receive 3 Moderate effects a Early 1970 s b Media content had a greater impact on people s behavior than limited effects studies suggested but the impact was not as great as was found by the powerful effects researchers Therefore the impact was labeled moderate n Cultivation research 39 Looks at the effects that TV viewing has on how people perceive the world The theory states that heavy TV viewers are more likely than light viewers to think that the world is as it is presented on TV Heavy viewers perceive the world as being more violent then it is ii Effects and Contingencies 1 As researchers refined the model they realized the importance of contingent factors a Effects that are caused by contingent or indirect variables rather than by the direct impact of media content 2 Political Effects of Mass Media a The relationship between politics and mass media continues to be an important one for mass communications research in the United States and other democracies b Agenda setting i Media research seeks to understand the relationship between readers determination of important issues and politicians and the press treatment of them The research focuses not on how media cover an issue but how they set an agenda for issues they cover ii Media can affect politics by influencing what the public considers important c How important an issue is to individuals or its salience i Salience interacts with media coverage d And issue is obtrusive if an individual can experience something about it directly e Three characteristics of mass media produce powerful effects on people i Cumulation 1 The increasing effort of media across time ii Ubiquity 1 The experiencing of media messages almost all of the time iii Consonance 1 The presentation of a consistent unified picture of the political world f People in the majority assume they are in the minority i Effects a person s outspokenness 3 Dependency Theory a Mid1970 sSandra BallRokeach and Melvin Defleur b Sates that media organizations individuals and groups in society are mutually dependent The mutual dependency between media and individuals contributes to the effects that each group has on the other 39 Selfunderstanding Social understanding Action orientation 0 iv Interaction orientation v Solitary play vi Social play d Varies from person to person across time and activity to activity 4 Uses and gratifications research Tries to identify why and how people use various media and what types of rewards they receive from media content is known as uses and gratifications research Five categories seem m to classify most important people s media uses i Surveillance 1 Attending to events that may be important to a person Decision making 1 Person consults media to help solve a problem or answer a question Socialcultural interaction 1 When people discuss what they saw on TV or read in the paper Diversion Personal identity 1 People use media to analyze and come to terms with emotions thoughts and attitudes ltE39 iii Transmission theory 1 Using information theory the ShannonWeaver transmission model views communication as a technical process involving a source an encoder a message and a receiver 2 Applied to all human communication 3 3 Channel a A way of transmitting a message from person or group of people 4 Channel noise a Interference in a communication channel i Static on the radio 5 Semantic noise a An interference with the communication because of misunderstanding about the meaning of words or symbols b Not as easily reduced or ended because it involves underlying meaning 6 Feedback a Signals sent in response to a message Can be verbal or nonverbal b Helps reduce semantic noise iv Content studies 1 Gatekeeping a A person who controls the flow of information into and through the mass media b A variety of factors can influence their decision 2 Social influences a Warren Breed interviewed 120 newspaperjournalists during the early 1950s i Socialization process 1 Reporters learn patterns of behavior by observing others and by learning to recognize the systems of rewards and punishments in the newsroom b Fairness and balance can become difficult when sources become more like friends than sources 3 News gathering a News net The typical routines that a reporter uses to gather news Because reporters often go to the places repeatedly the traditional news net sometimes omits certain types of news Influences on Content a Individual factors i A journalist s perceptions affect the decisions to include one source instead of another b Organizational factors i Socialization processes and work routines that are found within media organizations ii Interaction between journalists and people from outside the organization c Market Factors i Forces outside the organization such as government regulations economic competition and consumer demand d Ideology i Ideology influences media content 1 Ideology is the collection of values beliefs and symbolic meanings that a group of people share Because Ideology shapes that group s view of the way the world works it influences the content created by members of the group Ideology is associated with the power some groups have to shape social reality 4 CriticalCultural media studies a Primary concerned with the way people make meaning from media technologies and cultural texts i Cultural textany humanmade thing that people in a culture find meaningful ii Cultural practices How people incorporate media forms into their everyday lives and communities b Early criticalCultural media studies research in the US i Chicago Schools 1 Pluralists social reforms believed that modern media could make possible a truly democratic community a One who espouses coexistence and cooperation among different elements of a power structure 2 Progressive generation had great hopes about the effect of media on modern society a Group of individuals in the early 1900s who championed political and social reform ii Frankfurt School 1 Developed out of traditional Marxist thought a Believe that only revolution not reform can accomplish change 2 Believed that within a capitalist society art could not be a revolutionary force iii Birmingham School 1 Semiotics is the study of signs a Signs are anything that stands for something else 2 Brought semiotics together with Marxist theory c CriticalCultural Media studies today i Media and culture
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