Computng ConceptsCompetencies CSE 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donnell Kertzmann on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSE 101 at Michigan State University taught by Kevin Ohl in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/207404/cse-101-michigan-state-university in Computer Science and Engineering at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Data Encryption 0 General concepts refers to mathematical calculations and algorithmic schemes that transform plaintext into cyphertext a form that is non readable to unauthorized parties 0 Private key Symmetric encryption Exact same key scheme is requiredon both ends of thetransaction To create a key thatis impossible tocrack it needs to fulfill the following requirements Random As large or greater than plaintext Never reused in whole or in part Prosl Simpler algorithm than public key schemes 2 Generally faster than public key schemes Cons 1Does not support large numbers of people well 2 How do you share a key 0 Public key Asymmetric encryption Encryption scheme must be defined however insteadof one key you have two Public encryption key Privatedecryption key This scheme allows for encoding and decoding ofmessages using two different keys A private key and a public key belong to one party and are mathematically related 0 The property that has to be maintained is that a public key is easy to compute if you know a private key but difficultto uncompute A public key is shared with others who use it to encode theirmessages Only the owner of a private key however can decode them Pros 0 Easy to deploy on mass scale 0 Also used with digital signatures What is a digital signature Cons 0 Not as fast as private key encryption 0 Not good for large volume encryptionie masses of data versus bursts of data 0 Transactional v Repository encryption Encryption can be Transactional involves encrypting or decrypting on each side of an insecure channel eg Internet Resourcebased the encryption of an entire resource of data such as a laptop or portable disk data is stored in an encrypted form 0 Encryption tool TrueCrypt o Encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that eavesdroppers or hackers cannot read it but that authorized parties can 0 steganography 39 is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the sender and intended recipient suspects the existence of the message a form of security through obscurity Hardwaresoftware interaction 0 Hardware electronic and mechanical devices 0 software and data nontangible stored in an electronic format files Software computer programs or aggregated sets of detailed stepbystep instructions that tell a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a taskstored in executable files Data the electronic representation of symbols that a computer uses to store facts and ideas which ismanipulated by software programs 0 Filenames and extensions filename descriptive name filename extension programdefined suffix usually reveals what type the file is o SystemSoftware Operating system Utilities Device Drivers Programming Languages 0 application Software word processing Speadsheet Analysis Database Management Other 0 Operating system responsibilities While you interact with application softwa reyour computer s operating system is busybehind the scenes with the following tasks t manages the processor t manages the memory t controls input and output devices It establishes basic elements of the user interface It keeps track of storage Storage management logical vs physical index file fragmentation Acts as a filing clerk stores and retrieves files 0 Remembers the names and locations of all your files 0 Keeps track of empty spaces where new files can be stored Index File Who cares o If index file becomes damaged data becomesinaccessible 0 When you delete a file the OS simply changes the status of the file s clusters entry in the index table to emptyquot and removes the filename from the index file It does NOT remove the data just the references to it this is why it is possible to recover quotdeletedquot files Old data is permanently removed only when the empty cluster is used for the new file you use special file shredder software that overwrite S supposedl Y empty sectors with random ls and 0s you physically destroy the medium A Fragmented Disk 0 As computer files are addeddeleted parts of files tend to become scattered all over the disk These fragmented files are stored in noncontiguous clusters DayOl Computing concepts and competencies 1 Core concepts in computing including information m many r 2 Applying co AFS networked file system provide file storage space 16 for student faculty stuff member quotI i Readings 10 Files Management Tips 1 Organize by file types 6 Be specific 2 One place for all 7 Files as you go Ireate folders in My Documents 4 Nest folders within folders 8 5 Follow the file naming conventions Data Backup is the Best Data Pr 1 Archive business data regularly 2 Create data backups on reliable media 3 Keep updated data backups in a secure offsite location Day02 2 Computing and Computer System Generic components of computer CPU Input Memory A I Output RAM an area of a computer holds everything waiting to be processed to be on permanent basis Tor to be out put when the power off then all its contents are wiped 3 Each digit lor 0 is called a bit 8 bits a byte kilo mega gina tear peat exa 10quot3 10quot6 10quot9 10quot12 10quot15 10quot18 2quot10 2quot20 2quot30 2quot40 2quot50 2quot60 4 CPU microprocessor ALU arithmetic logic unit Control Unit directs and coordinates processing CU Secondary Memory ALU I 5 Integrated circuit an electronic circuit board with transistor and other electronic components etched into it A device that can 6 Motherboard All electronic components are mounted on or connected together by a system board called a motherboard 7 Storage Basics storage medium contains dat A orage device r cords and retrieves dlta from a storage medium Magne ic Op ical Solid State Magnetic Storage Stores data by magnizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface hard drive floppies tapes But is prone to i Optical Storage Stores data as microscopic dark spots on the disk surface 10 reflects light differently i Coated with but susceptible to Three categories 1 Read only ROM prerecorded 2 Recordable R allow the user to perform his own recordingonce 3 Rewritable RW multiple recording ROM CD 1 hour low quality DVD gt2 hours high qualitynot HDTY HDDVD 1quot23 hours of HDTY quality BLURAY gt2 hours HDTY quality Solid State Storage technology stores data in a nonvolatile erasable low power chip Read and writes data electricalycurrent The chip s current is arranged as a grid where each cell contains two transistors acting as faucets Offer faster access than magnetic or optical media VeryDurableCould be open or close Comparison Criteria Versatility can it access data from different media Durabilityhow susceptible to damage Storage capacity Speed access time the average time it takes a computer to locate data and read it Data transfer rate amount of data that moves per second Reading How to Choose Component for Building a Computer 1 Outline the benefits you re seeking from building your own computer Basic System Home system A Gamer s Rig Music Sound MixingProducing Video editing suite Server System
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