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Date Created: 09/06/14
Intro to Media Programming and Institutions Notes 922014 AVERAGE TIME SPENT PER ADULT 13 PER DAY Q1 2014 013 0 LIVE TV 0 WATCHING T39MESWFTEDTV C USING DVDBLURAY DEVICE USINC A QII1E CONSOLE USING INTERNET ON A COMPUTER USING A SMARTPHONE LISTENING TO Afvi39FM RADIO Production Distribution Consumption Sections of this course o Historical and technological bases for messages and the institutions that produce them What kinds of messages Who pays for it Who s watching it and how do we know Who s in charge What are the alternatives What s Next 0000 000000 0 Technology and regulation o All of the things that keep taking place with the government of the FCC o Shorthand sense of how it shifts overtime o Broadcast started in the 1920s because broadcasters sent it out they should serve the public interest 0 Regulations to ensure the best public interest 0 The Public Interest I Reagan in the l980 s 0 DeRegulation I Clinton in the l990 s 0 ReRegulation I Bush in 2000 s 0 Went both ways 0 In 2004 the FCC saw an alarming number of Indecency Complaints led following Janet J ackson s Superbowl wardrobe malfunction 0 The fine was supposed to increase from 32000 to 325000 dollars 0 The number of complaints following this has since leveled off over time I Obama now 0 Not going in any direction 0 Minorities own 3 of TV Stations and Women own 6 0 Net Neutrality what happens next 0 Technology and Programming Regulation 0 Previously ABC CBS and NBC owned 90 of viewership every single night I TV was made to attract everyone 0 Now ABC NBC The CW FOX and CBS own less than 40 of viewership every single night I TV is now targeted to a specific audience based on their age and gender I Thousands of stations to attract small niche groups 0 Merger between Comcast and NBC I Previously this would not be allowed because regulations were set up to prevent mergers I Now Comcast is able to produce and distribute it all 0 Comcast wanting to buy Time Wamer Cable I Comcast has 22 million subscribers 0 Largest cable and internet provider I Time Warner Cable has 124 million subscribers I 45 billion dollars Top Internet Service Provider StatebyState After a Time Warner Cable Buyout comcast comcast 3939FiI 39fe15i 39 U 39quot squot c Medl8C039ll rn a gtp onilt 1g 0 The Digital TV Transition 0 Switch to digital TV took place June 12 2009 o FCC Digitial TV Transition crashes and burns literally 0 Google TV Failure I Introduced and killed off in two years 0 Internet TV connected TV I Used to watch Net ix Amazon etc I Use a lot of bandwidth 0 Apple iTV 0 Google Fiber I Answer to connected TV use of bandwidth I 100 times faster than cable internet I Available only in select cities 0 Crome Aereo I Watch live broadcast TV on mobile devices without a cable subscription I Supreme court ruled that this was illegal in June 0 Fall TV Previews 0 Project runway had an ad campaign that got a lot of media attention for running ads featuring naked models 0 It was banned and that caused it to gain even more traction 0 How programs are Produced Distributed and Consumed 0 Sites for news about programming and institutions and technology and regulations I Iwantmediacom I Tvweekcom O I Medialifemagazinecom I Tvbynumberscom o Other websites on moodle are also available Supplementary Reading I The Talk of The Town My Guilty Pleasure o By George Saunders o The New Yorker Feb 3 2003 0 Making fun of how ridiculous television shows are now a days I Spoof of the bachelor and how people will fall for anything as long as the cameras are on I Favorite guilty pleasure is How Weird Is That 0 Group of bureaucrats never fought in war are locked in the Decision House and allowed to select any country in the world for America to go to war with for any reason they must invent on the spot I Dare To Stream 0 Bob goes to Hollywood to track down the future of television and he locates it in his laptop A special report on streaming videos 0 16 minutes 942014 0 Overview Systems of Telecommunication International Comparisons 0 Changes in Technology and Programming Regulation 0 Policies and laws FCC Courts Congress Media Institutions 0 Websites for news about programming and institutions 0 Iwantmediacom tvweekcom medialifemagazinecom tvbythenumberscom 0 105 Cable Networks 0 1849 year olds 0 49th place to 1 0 Week of August 31 2014 0 Top 15 cable networks 0 Viewers 1849 years old 0 Every Simpsons ever marathon put FXX at number 2 for network audience DVR 0 The Blacklist is watched by 108 million viewers live I An additional 169 million views watched it within a week on their DVR 0 DVR s are now in about 49 of all US households Advertising Challenges posed by use of DVR 0 People are fastforwarding through commercials in a way that makes it challenging for advertisers to get their message out 0 They now opt for a more direct form of product placement 0 House of Cards I In one scene there are nine apple products placed on a table shared between two people 0 ReRuns of shows like How I Met Your Mother are now injecting advertisements into scenes I See the Gatorade ad during a run I The add is there for the rerun but not in the original episode Product Placement in TV shows to make up for the commercials that are being skipped Most product placement in 2011 0 American Idol had 577 total products placed in 39 episodes 0 The Biggest Loser had 533 placed in 34 episodes 0 Celebrity Apprentice had 391 over the course of just 12 episodes More than 8 billion dollars spent each year on product placement AVERAGE TIME SPENT PER PERSON PER DAY 0 LIVE TV 0 TIMESHIFTED TV Q1 2014 1 1 013 C LIVE TV Q wA1 lt111rJc HM E3lF39I39i D V Q12o13 USING Dquot fBllJRAY DEVICE uswc A GAME CONSOLE Q12o12 USING INTERNET ON A COMPUTER 0 US In Global Context 0 System has evolved because of the choices that are made 0 When compared to other countries it is easy to see why there is such a difference 0 Historically a lot more broadcasts are done here 0 Much higher percentage of what we watch is actually made in the USA 0 We don t see a lot of other peoples stuff because we make our own stuff 0 We sell our programs all over the world 0 85 of all kid shows and 75 of all dramas are made in the USA 0 Variations are everywhere 39 Commercial media system I Many other countries adopt the US Commercial Media System 0 Factors that Justify Governmental Regulations and Control of Broadcasting o Airwaves are public property 0 Selfinterfering without regulation o Broadcasting has political and social power 0 Relationships between media and government vary drastically I How much of a role does government actually play 0 Classic Types of Broadcast Systems based on Nature of Governmental Control 0 Permissive I Government has no prior or direct control over content I First amendment prevents prior approval before production of content 0 Patemalistic I Government actively persuades the broadcast to promote uplifting and cultural programs I Encourage programs with a cultural benefit I Serve the needs of all groups 0 Authoritarian I Tight media control by the government I Broadcasters Work for the government 0 More Complex More recent Catagories of Governmental Control of Media Content 0 Authoritarian I Media serve the state powerful ruler o Communist I State control censorship o Libertarian I Private media freemarket laissezfaire 0 Social Responsibility I Insure balance and open debate 0 Developmental I Improve social conditions o Democratic Participant I Citizens create content Economic Basis of Program Production Who Pays For It 0 Change of economic basis of program production I Different systems can come and go but this always stays the same 0 Commercial I Advertisers support this I Dominant I 70 billion dollars a year spent on broadcast and cable TV I Cable grew into the 1970s and began to ask people to pay for TV I Notion of Free TV 0 We pay for the advertising with everything that we buy 0 A portion of the cost of the product or service provided is dedicated specifically for advertising 0 License fees I BBC I Customers pay a yearly fee for their service of BBC I There are no commercials 0 General tax revenues I Broadcast supported as a public service Third world countries Supported like parks roads schools Instead of advertising Most of the world s broadcast system is set up like this 0 The Answer will always be A when this is on a test Similar and relatedtend to be 0 Commercialpermissive 0 License fees paternalistic 0 General tax reVenuesauthoritarian 0 Ownership Diagram Authori tariiar1 Paternalistic Perrniisisiive I 0W39l7IBI39h iip 1 I 39GD F6i39iquotIi11B TI1 GmrariImant P at agency corporation V quot9 EII LI Ti1iiDnf Goanlifs ilnbilizatioam Cunltuiral Pmru t GInlligh iZ9 I39l39IGIIlfI11t Hegulatiemli Strong Miedairame Weak 1 g Iliicenise femT ax L N Fiunaneiing Government Gouiernrnentt Advertising Tax revenues subsidy At vertisimig lGunNlmraI Prnglrarmmimagz 1 gcaii Ewuca awnaw E2mertainmant Ermtartai iamt 0 Economic Basis of Program production 0 Most important factor of program production 0 Want the 1849 year olds 0 Advertisers target this age group so the shows are also targeted towards them Economic Basis of Program Prodlulction GENERM TAX V V LCENlSE FEES ADVERTISING REVENUES l Owlnerslhilp Government Government Private agency Public Corporations Corporation Goals Mobilization Uplift culture Profit social social control Education control is or side Public service effect Reglulatioln Strong Moderate Wealk in terms of Authoritarian encourage social Content but impt responsibility to support status serve diverse quo groups Programming Ideological Cultural Entertainment Cultural Educational ideological as Entertainment side effect 0 Who Pays For It 0 Commercial 0 License fees 0 General tax revenues 0 Ni Pluralism The Hybrid Mixed Systems 0 Public Broadcasting o The Us government Corporations and Advertisers 0 Hear a lot of discourse about this by Republicans in Congress 0 Europe pays about 80 dollars per person on public broadcasting o The US pays about 170 dollars per person 0 AdSupported Media Losing Ground 0 2004 Advertisers 1758 billion dollars o 2004 US 1784 billion dollars I Cable satellite home video movies video games intemet o 1950s1980s I TV Funded 100 by advertising 0 By 2008 I Advertisers spent 71 billion dollars on TV commercials 0 45 billion on broadcast 0 26 billion on cable I We spent 75 billion on cable subscriptions I For the first time ever more time was spent with paid media than advertised supported media Cable Network Revenue Mix 19992008 bl 55 quot 422 Other 386 sus 40 3 Fees 30 20 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 0 2009 SNL Kagan a division of SNL Financial LC estimates All rights reserved 569 billion 375 billion 2011 Fees Ads 0 State owned TV Channels are privatized by the 1990s 0 Privatization and neo liberalization change in worlclwi d e ow remsnIue may WIPE of nancing zoo2ol14 350 am 250 an 15 me so 0 mi J E Pam ning j dverising J Fees 43 49 Ads 48 43 Public Funds 9 3 0 TV as a public service in Europe 0 Dying in Western Europe 0 Text compare broadcast structure 0 Differences in basic philosophies 0 Philosophy Mandate Mission 0 US To serve the public interest convenience or necessity 0 UK BBC to inform educate and entertain o USSR politically clear purposeful profound prompt informative vivid and comprehensible 0 In England and Russia broadcast is designed to be national 0 In US broadcast is localized 0 System built on local connected into networks 0 Networks are not licensed by the FCC just the local stations are I 15000 local stations 0 Technology and Regulation 0 Technology satellites and computers 0 Regulation ownership rule I No one can own more than 7am stations 7fm stations and 7tv stations I US telecommunications act moved towards deregualation I By 2000 Clear Systems owned more than 1200 radio stations 0 Cost of everything is rising 0 TV production is expensive 0 Short broadcast days 0 Import massive amounts of programs from US 0 Most popular programs Dallas and Dynasty 0 Top Ten illegal Downloads in 2013 0 Top global shows in 2014 o 68 countries with 3 billion Viewers 0 Drama NCIS 0 Comedy Modern Family 0 Soap The Bold amp The Beautiful 0 MIPCOM is the Global Market where it is all sold 0 Global market brings in 7 million dollars each year 0 Global TV Market 0 1989 30 European Channels buying shows 0 Now 1800 European Channels buying shows I 120000 hours of programming 0 Explosion of channels leads to explosion of demand Supplementary Reading I Global TV US Losing Potency I Global TV US Coming Back I The Blazac Age Clones of US TV Programs in Russia 39 US TV and the War on Terror Is US TV better than Propaganda I The World is Watching US TV But not always legally
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