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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Psychology & Culture Week 8 notes Class #19 Cognition & Perception Analytic & Holistic Thinking o Analytic Thinking Focus on objects, which are understood as… Existing separately from their contexts Comprised of component parts Understand via use of systematic, logical rules, universal properties Emphasis on model, rules, principles for prediction o Ex) “gravity” as a property o Holistic Thinking Focus on contexts Association between objects, objects & context Objects understood by relationship to context Understand via experience with associations Ex) “gravity” as a contextual force; surgery antithetical to notions of balance o Better understanding of tides, acupuncture Implications of analytic/holistic thinking o Implications for categorization Which two go together? Dog, carrot, rabbit Carrot & rabbit thematic categorization (relationship between objects) Dog & rabbit taxonomic categorization (similar characteristics between objects) o Implications for attention Field independence vs field dependence Field independence= attention is independent form field/contexts Field dependence= attention is dependent on field/contexts Analytic thinkers tend to show field independence Holistic thinkers tend to show field dependence Effects on eyewitness to a crime? Analytic= focus on person or car during crime Holistic= broader scene (other people there) Class #20 Implications of Analytic/Holistic Thinking o Implications for tolerating contradictions Logical reasoning vs naïve dialecticism Dog ≠ not dog (cat, horse, etc) Extraverted person ≠ introverted person Opposing truths can be simultaneously acceptable Night & day are related, not at odds o Ex) both can be true High self-esteem has positive & negative consequences Fluid & cyclical reality Ex) Fable of the Chinese Farmer (in book) Inconsistency of the self (Choi & Choi, 2002) U.S. & Korean participants Imagine a random sample of 100 sutdents of the same gender as you & same year in college as you. Assume that you are one of those 100 students You are more polite (rude) than _____ of the other 99 students o Example of consistency: 75 (polite), 25 (rude) o Example of inconsistency: 75 (polite), 40 (rude) o Also did honesty/dishonesty Results: o U.S. participants were more consistent compared to Korean participants o U.S. participants: ~70 polite/honest & ~30 rude/dishonest o Korean participants: ~70 polite/honest & ~50 rude/dishonest o Implications for attributions Dispositional attribution- explanations based on personality, internal attributes Situational attribution- explanations based on others, situational attributes Fundamental attribution error (FAE) Tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations (often erroneously) Otherwise known as the consequence bias Attribution across cultures o Miller (1984) o At what age do people from the U.S. begin to demonstrate the FAE? Pattern of attribution for people from India? Children (8, 11, 15 years old) Describe prosocial or antisocial situation Explain reasons for their behavior Class #21 Thought experiment o Where do you stand to pay for things in a store? U.S. & Europe line in front of cashier (orderly, efficient) Other areas stand around cashier, no line (socialization) Culture & Perception of Time o Monochromic Time Time is linear & discrete Preference for sequences activities Emphasis on the schedule vs the event “When” things will be achieved o Polychromic Time Time is continuous & flexible Comfort w/shifting attention between events happening simultaneously Emphasis on the event (& the people) vs the schedule “What” will be achieved The Pace of Life o Pace of life in 31 countries Which countries have the fastest/slowest pace of life? What are the correlates? Subjects were cities Paris, Rio, Tokyo, Ann Arbor; went to big & small cities in each country Collected data on… Walking speed, postal speed, clocking accuracy in banks Per capita GDP, PPP (what average income can purchase) Indices of individualism/collectivism Rate of coronary heart disease Subjective well-being o Countries & ranking How does this relate to monochromic & polychromic time orientations? Faster pace of life monochromic Slower pace of life polychromic o Correlates of pace of life? Vitality of economy? Better economy= faster pace Individual/collectivistic? More individualize= faster pace Heart disease? Faster pace= higher rate of death from coronary heart disease Subjective well-being? Faster pace= higher subjective well-being
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