Introduction to Forestry
Introduction to Forestry FOR 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jamal Kris on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FOR 202 at Michigan State University taught by Pascal Nzokou in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/207433/for-202-michigan-state-university in Environmental at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Intro Forestry7 The art science and business of managing forests as to yield on a continuous basis a maximum quality and quantity of forest products and services For human bene t Forester 7 Engage in a broad range of activities including timber harvesting ecological restoration and management of protected areas Tree Structure and Function What is a tree 7 Not shrubby sometimes height required to be at least 20ft unbranched for at least several feet above the ground recognizable crown Anatomy 7 The study of the structure or components parts of the tree Physiology 7 The study of biological and chemical processes functions occurring inside the tree as it develops Plant tissues 7 Smaller complex structures that make up a plant and allow it to function Dermo ground and vascular Outer bark 71 anatomy of the stem The tree s protection from the outside world PhloemInner bark 7 2 anatomy of the stem Produced to the outside of the cambium next to the bark It moves sugars down from the leaves The cambium 7 3 anatomy of the stem The growing part of the trunk Produces the tree s vascular system xylem and phloem Xylem 7 Produced on the inside of the cambium it is the wood of the tree moves water and minerals up to the leaves Supports the tree Stores sugars for future use Made up of vessels soda straws Parenchyma 7 A xylem cell Warehouse starch crystals made from sugars Sapwood 7 4anatomy of the stem The tree s pipeline for water moving up to the leaves Heartwood 7 5anatomy of the stem The central supporting pillar of the tree made of dead cells Mycorrhyzae fungus roots 7 the symbiotic relationship of roots with certain fungi where water enters young roots by osmosis Fungi get food plant gets water Stomata 7 Openings on leaves that controls loss of water vapor transpiration and also control gas exchange Guard cells open and close stomata in response to light temperature wind and humidity Open by day closed by night Taproot 7 An enlarged somewhat straight to tapering plant root that grows vertically downward It forms a center from which other roots sprout laterally Tree Identi cation Criteria used for tree identification 7 Where is it growing Plant size and form Conifers vs deciduous leaves Fruit types Bud types Bark Know how to use the key what simple vs compound is etc Study identi cation handout and be familiar with the terms there Forest Ecology Ecology7 The study of organisms and their relationship with their living and nonliving environment Biodiversity 7 The degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem biome or an entire planet number of living organisms in a particular system Alpha 7 The biodiversity within a particular area community or ecosystem The number of given organisms in that area Beta 7 The measure of biodiversity between habitats High bd low similarity Forest structure 7 Spatial arrangement of plant components in an ecosystem Vertical 7 the vert layering of different types of plants in the community crown classes Horizontal 7 horiz variation of in forest structures that cause gaps in the canopy Crown classes 7 Classify trees in forest structure vertical Below are overstory trees Dominant 7 Wide crowns extend above general canopy level full sunlight at top Codominant 7 Form general canopy lv Full sunlight from top none from sides Intermediate 7 shorter crowns extend to canopy Some sun top none from sides Suppressed 7 Crowns below canopy No direct sunlight Shade tolerance 7 The ability of a species to establish grow and thrive in the forest understory in the shade Succession 7 The gradual and orderly process of ecosystem development brought about by changes in community composition leading to the production of a climax characteristic of a particular geographic region Stages of a succession 7 stand initiation new canopies form stem exclusion stronger stems kill weaker understory reinitiation stems can grow now climax Ecological rotation 7 Time for a particular ecosystem to recover to predisturbance condition Depends on characteristic of the disturbance succession cycling Forest Soils Soil forming factors 7 1 Initial material parent material 2 Climate 3 Organisms 4 Topography surface shapefeatures 5 Time Soil texture 7 The relative proportion of sand silt and clay particles in a mass of soil Textural triangle 7 A chart used to identify soil texture types by sand silt and clay Soil structure 7 The arrangement of particles of primary soil particles into secondary units called peds which are classified by size shape degree of distinction Organic matter 7 a property of forest soils Originates from litter and death decomposition of fine roots Improves soil structure increases porosity and aeration moderates soil temperature changes energy source for microbes increases moisture holding capacity and is a source of plant nutrients Cation exchange capacity 7 soil chemical property The ability of the soil to absorb and release cations ions often a form of plant nutrients Soil CEC depends on negatively charged organic matter amounttype of clay and soil pH Forest Insects Ecological importance of insects 7 Nutrient cycling decomposition pollination source of food create wildlife habitat Negatives 7 cause damage pests spread diseases Integrated Pest Management IPM 7 Insect control method uses a combination of tactics to manage pests including silvicultural physical biological chemical regulatory Challenges associated with biological control 7 When predators of insects are introduced they also need to have a predator Can t be detrimental to any other non targeted species Life cycles need to be the same Exotic insects 7 Pests which enter without natural enemies and negatively affect tree growth and survival biodiversity ecosystem functioning economies trade John Muir 7 Founder of the Sierra Club in uential in establishment of Yosemite NP held that all nature is sacrednature is a sanctuary Teddy Roosevelt 7 Progressive resource conservation equal access to resources for all Assigned the most public land Aldo Leopold 7 The Land Ethic The most important environmental work ever written The land ethic is the restraint on the human capacity to modify the environment beyond levels conductive to its own survival and the survival of other species Bob Marshall 7 Created national wilderness area wilderness society Franklin Roosevelt 7 Started Civilian Conservation Corps which built infrastructure on many national forests during the Great Depression gt 2 million men participated Gifford Pinchot 7 trained in Germany Father of American Forestry became lSt Chief of Forest Service in 1905 First scientific forester Rachel Carson 7 Wrote Silent Spring a book on the environmental movement Forest Reg39ons Forest region 7 A geographic zone with a vegetation cover that is fairly uniform in terms of dominant species and stand types know key species and product from each region Northern Coniferous Forest 7 black spruce white spruce tamarack balsam r Wildlife most important resource Pulp and paper Northern Hardwoods 7 same as above beech yellow birch sugar maple hardwood ooringfumiture maple syrup Christmas tree industry Central Broadleaved 7 largest forest region in US white oak red oak fumiture barrels for whisky pallets Southern Forests OakPine forest of the South 7 loblolly and short leaf pine 70 of US pulpwood resins gum most intensely managed Bottomland Hardwood 7 Oaks sweetgum tupelo Baldcypress Hardwood lumber and veneer logs for furniture industry Rocky Mountain Forests 7 ponderosa and western white pines summer range for livestock important deer elk populations importance on protection of water resources national forests recreation Paci c Coast Forests 7 Douglas r most important in the world for wood growth rate and pacific ocean proximity Tropical Rain Forest 7 2500 different species Management Agencies Management agencies 7 President 9 Secretary of Agriculture 9 Forest Service Of ce of the Chief 9 1 Research and Development 2 National Forest System 3 State and Private Forestry l7 Provides scienti c and technical knowledge through the work of the 6 research stations across the US Forest Products Laboratory and the International Institute for Tropical Forestry 2 Responsible for Watershed management Recreation Timber management Wilderness and protected areas Habitatforest grassland management 3 Cooperates with State organizations other local government agencies tribal government private landowners forest users managementprotection issues Management agencies 7 President 9 Secretary of Interior 9 1 Bureau of Land Management 2 Fish and Wildlife Service 3National Park Service 4 Bureau of Indian Affairs 1 Sustain the health diversity and productivity of public lands for future enjoyment 2 Conserve protect and enhance sh wildlife plants and their habitats for the people 3 Conserve scenery and naturalhistoric objects and wildlife therein 4 56 million acres in trust for Native Americans Ownership of forest land 7 62 private 32 federal 6 state More private in east Multiple uses 7 timber grazing animals eat plants wildlife water recreation Private landowners programs FSP Forest Stewardship Council 7 Encourages and develops multiple resource management Assists landowners in multiuse planning FLEP 7 provides assistance to private landowners Frees Landowners CRP 7 reduce erosion on farmed land reduce erosion CRaP EQUIP 7 provides assistance to eligible farmers EQUIP farmers pitchfork WRP 7 restore and protect wetlands Wetland Restore WHIP 7 provides assistance to promote wildlife WHIPs people who hurt wildlife Silviculture and Timber Silviculture 7 The art and science of manipulating forest vegetation to achieve desired objectives 39 quot of quot species I quot39 and growth rate of forests particularly of desired objectives Classi cation by stage of development 7 Seedling 7 Regeneration less than 1 meter 33 ft tall Sapling 7 Trees taller than 1 meter with stem diameters up to 4 inches Pole 7 Trees between 410 inches Mature 7 varies according to species Overmature 7 Losses from mortality exceed additions in volume growth Reforestation 7 Planting trees on land that was previously forested but from which trees have been removed Aforestation 7 Establish trees on land not previously forested Arti cial regeneration 7 Direct seeding on the ground by hand machine or from the air More reliable and in control tree establishment Natural regeneration 7 Seeds carried by wind or animals Seeds layering in litter Seedlings already present Some species sprout from stump or roots How to plant atree 7 Right tree right place 7Plant when dormant 7Dig a big enough hole 7Replace existing soil 7Water water water Mulch no owers by tree Intermediate treatments 7 Encourage species we want by release or improvement cutting Encourage growth by thinning Improve forest through insects disease fire Thinning 7 Selective removal of trees for the purpose of improving the health and growth rate of the remaining trees Low thinning understory High thinning overstory Mechanical thinning rows are removed without regard of crown classes Silvicultural systems 7 Long range harvest and management schemes designed to optimize the growth regeneration and administrative management of particular forest types Usually the goal here is to obtain a steady supply of timber Even aged harvesting methods 7 Even aged 7 Trees are removed over short periods of time creating open sunny conditions and resulting in even aged stands Clearcutting 7 Complete removal of all trees at once Seed tree 7 Partial removal Leaves some trees to serve as seed source Shelterwood 7 Partial removal some trees are left standing in sufficient numbers to provide shade for new seedlings Coppicing 7 Rely on vegetative reproduction High grading 7 Remove all good quality trees avoid this Leads to stand deterioration Timber 7 Wood used as a building material lumber Timberland 7 Trees or wooded land considered as a potential source of timber Timber management 7 The application of technical information and business methods to operate a forest woodland or plantation for the production of timber Forestland 7 At least one acre with minimum of 10 tree cover Wildlife Management Wildlife 7 All living things except people that are undomesticated Obligatory use 7 Animal cannot survive in its wild form without trees or forest cover Facultative use 7 When animals may use trees if they are available but can survive without them if necessary Mast crop 7 Plants producing food for wildlife Succession and wildlife 7 The later the forest succession stage the more diverse the species within it Ifyou want a particular wildlife species manage for the appropriate successional stage Carrying capacity 7 Number of individuals of a species that can survive in a given unit of habitat without destroying the habitat Ecotone 7 Transitional area between forest types Edge 7 Place where differing types of habitat come together Forest fragmentation 7 Many forests are no longer contiguous but disrupted islands agricultural and urban development Featured species concept 7 South Certain species is selected for featuring on each unit of forestland and the forest is managed for that purpose Species diversity concept 7 Great lakes Species richness in the ecosystem is sought rather than richness in individual species Rangeland and Watershed Grazing systems 7 Deferred rotation 7 grazing not allowed until range plants have set seed Rest rotation 7 A portion of the range is rested for a full year Shortduration grazing 7 Short periods of intensive grazing from two days up to two weeks Forested range management 7 The management of naturally vegetated forests for the sustained production of forage plant food for animals usable by livestock AUM 7 Animal Unit Month The forage required for one lOOOlb cow in one month Watershed 7 The specific area that drains water into a river system or other body of water SMZs Streamside Management Zones 7 Buffer strips of vegetation adjacent to perennial and intermittent streams or other water bodies such as lakesreservoirs Drainage basin 7 A watershed that collects and discharges stream ow through an outlet or steam mouth Water quality 7 Water from undisturbed forested watersheds is often considered by the public to have excellent quality whereas water from watersheds with various land uses is often perceived as having less desirable quality Pollutants sources 7temperature turbidity DO acidity alkalinity heavy metals toxic substances organic and inorganic chemicals Recreation Management framework for recreation ROS Recreational Opportunity Spectrum 7 A continuum of recreation development and management from primitive to urban Ensures diversity for recreation for people Primitive 7 Unmodified environment fairly large infrequent human interactions no evidence of controls Semiprimitive 7 Predominantly natural moderate to large infrequent human interactions minimum evidence of controls Roaded Natural 7 Natural appearing Low to moderate human interaction controlsfacilities harmonized with the environment Rural 7 Substantially modified Frequent human interactions developed facilities Urban 7 Substantially urbanized large of users highly developed facilities Wilderness 7 Large size minimum evidence of human in uence Forces of nature predominate Outstanding opportunities for solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation Ecological geological or other features of scientific scenic or historic value Concepts Photosynthesis 7 The process of converting light energy into chemical energy which is stored as sugar for food Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplast cells of the leaves Within the chloroplasts are chlorophyll which absorb the sunlight The energy absorbed by the chlorophyll creates carbohydrates glucoseoxygen About 60 of the carbohydrates are transported and used through Respiration 7 in order to provide energy for growth and construction of new cells maintenance and repair of existing cells Respiration yields Carbon Dioxide
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