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Forests & Global Environment

by: Miss Jamal Kris

Forests & Global Environment FOR 220

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Environmental > FOR 220 > Forests Global Environment
Miss Jamal Kris
GPA 3.67


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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jamal Kris on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FOR 220 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/207434/for-220-michigan-state-university in Environmental at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
BULLETIN NO 26 Remsed EXTENSION SERIES MARCH 1925 SWINE FEEDING MICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL G OLLE GE EXTENSION DIVISION R J BaldwimDmector Swine Feeding By VERNE A FREEMAN The greater part of the cost of producing pork lies in the feed consumed The quantity of feed required for a unit of gain in weight varies greatly under the dilTerent conditions met and is materially lessened where one has healthy thri y pigs uses good pasture gives access to minerals and has suf cient protein feed to balance the ration properly Several factors directly related to feeding which will reduce the cost of pork production on many farms of the state are considered in the following pages The principle of a balanced ration is generally recognized Farm grown grains and farm and factory byproducts make up the main part of the rations for most pro table swine production One of the most dif cult problems is to grow or purchase on an everchanging market the amount and kind of protein rich feed that will most economically supplement and increase the ef ciency of such grains as com rye and barley for swine feeding In order to get this subject well in mind a brief review of the qualities of our most common swine feeds is given Balanced rations for swine of dilTerent ages are given showing the amount of protein feed required for best results with com rye and barley Recent experimental work at several stations has shown the economy of supplying minerals to swine Several good mixtures are given in this bulletin along with other suggestions that go with good swine feeding practices FEEDS FOR SWINE Com is the richest in fattening food nutrients of our farm grown grains and when properly balanced a smaller quantity of com than of any of the others except wheat will produce 100 lbs gain Experimental data prove that under ordinary circumstances it does not pay to shell grind soak cook or otherwise treat com for swine feeding except in the case of old dry com or int com Com is very de cient in protein and minerals and requires supplementary feeds for the best results Factory byproducts of com rich in protein do not satisfactorily supplement com Rye and barley should be ground They are both fattening feeds but require much less protein supplement than com Neither rye nor barley gives as rapid or economical gains from the standpoint of pounds of feed consumed per pounds of gain as does corn On account of the irritating nature of the barley hulls a large proportion of barley in a ration may cause digestive troubles in young pigs Rye is not so acceptable to the pig as com or barley EXTENSION BULLETIN NO 26 REVISED and though concentrated in food nutrients it produces very slow gains unless combined with other feeds that tempt the pigs appetite Rye containing ergot should not be fed to bred sows as it may cause abortion Large amounts of ergot may harm hogs of any age Oats contain more protein than the other grains and except for young pigs are nearly a balanced ration They may be fed either whole or ground and are an excellent addition to the ration for starting young pigs Unless the oats are finely ground or fed whole the hulls may cause pigs to have digestive trouble when rations are made up largely of ground oats Oats are one of the best grains for growing breeding stock but for fattening and heavy feeding they are too bulky and carry too much bre to produce rapid gains Middlings are relished by swine and are a good addition to most rations when not too high priced They are a source of both fattening and growing nutrients in such proportions that they are just about a balanced ration for weanling pigs They are required in large quantities for balancing com rye and barley Their relative cost to fattening grain as well as to other sources of protein must be considered before purchasing them as a source of protein They are particularly desirable for part of theration for young pigs Skimmed milk and buttermilk furnish protein and are unexcelled for supplementing fattening feeds They are of about the same value and are particularly ef cient for young pigs and shotes Although when available larger amounts of milk may pro tably be fed pigs the greatest retum is obtained when a proportion not to exceed three pounds of milk to one pound of grain is used About twenty times as much skimmed milk as tankage is required to balance a ration Tankage is an animal product that furnishes an ideal source of animal protein and mineral and usually gives good results in experimental hog feeding work from the standpoint of gains per weight of food consumed High grade tanlmge which carries from 55 per cent to 60 per cent or more of protein even at a high price per cwt usually lmishes protein at a lower cost per pound than other rich protein feeds that can be purchased at a much lower price It lmishes but little nutrients other than protein and minerals and serves best when it is desirable to use as much as possible of a large supply of cheap fattening food Linseed oil meal soy bean oil meal and ground soy beans are all vegetable sources of protein which are decidedly lacking in minerals Until mineral feeding in conjunction with these foods was tried they usually gave results much inferior to the animal sources of protein On account of their lower percentage of protein and higher test of fattening nutrients it requires about two and onequarter times as much linseed oil meal as tankage to balance a given ration about one and twothirds times as much soy bean oil meal and nearly two and onehalf times as much ground soy beans As a rule these feeds have given better results on pasture than in the dry lot and they have proved better as only a part of the protein supplement along with a protein rich feed of animal origin However recent experimental work indicates that home grown soy beans when properly combined with minerals may have a much larger place in our hog feeding rations SWINE FEEDING where they gow wen good results 00 n uwd L ranon and when very eneap to tworthu39ds othe gran fed Too rnany beans reobee the feed eonsurned dady and gams are slower andleanness T um h of some kmd or pasture should always be rneludedrn aranon wrun whne eorn wr rran Mrclov blue gass u u n F be any eornbrnaaon so handledthat n supphes fresh gowmg feedfmm Eetmpuslms mcamhmaonn wnha mums pmduce park non ecammca y raaon for young pigs and shouldbe supplementedwxm gran to provde for gams EXTENSION BULLETIN N026 REVISED GOOD PASTURE CROPS FOR MICHIGAN Kind of pasture When to Sow Seed pa acre When at it s Best Other crops best suited to supply pasture the remainder of the season Alfalfa Grimm r Spring or summa of 10 to 12 lbs Throughout growing None Best resulm northern gown previous season season obtained if pastured crrnmm lightly and some hay cut Red Clover domestic Spring or previous 8 to 10 lbs Spring summa excqit Rape or sweet clover gown season during dry season and fall Rape Dwarf Essex Early Spring to mid 3 to 6 lbs Summa and fall Clover and blue gass summa of same season Sweet Clova Biennial Early spring in gain 15 lbs Late summer and fall Nme If reseeded White crop of same season and every year more very early spring to palatable if kept down late summer ofnext to 6 or 10 inches high Blue Grass June Early spring with grass 3 to 5 lbs in mixture Spring and fall Rape sweet clover or Permanent pasture s m39 two seasons before asture should be used because it 1 Helps to balance a ration of home grown gains 2 Reduces the gain necessary per pound gain 3 Lessens amount of high priced protein feed needed in the grain ration 4 Increases health and vigor of the swine 5 Produces better pigs for hogging down corn 6 When properly rotated aids in sanitation and round worm prevention For further information concerning grass and pasture mixtures send to the Michigan Agricultural College for Experiment Station Bulletin No 130 PROTEIN REQUIREMENT The feeds commonly used for swine may be roughly divided into two classes Fattening feeds such as com barley and rye that do not carry a suf cient proportion of protein to meet swine needs and growing feeds rich in protein Those of the second group are usually higher in price than those of the first Adding suitable protein feed to the fattening feeds reduces the amount of feed required per unit of gain and adds to the thri and vigor of the animals Even if the protein feed is much higher priced than the fattening feed a small proportion of it usually results in cheaper gains The problem is to feed the proportion which pays best Young pigs require more protein than do the older ones Growing shotes and nursing brood sows will pay for more than will fattening hogs or dry brood sows The amounts of protein feeds given in the following examples of success ll feed mixtures for hogs of diiTerent ages are such that increasing the proportion of protein feed would not materially reduce the total feed requirements for 100 pounds gain As the average weight of the pigs approaches the heavier weight stated for each group the proportion of protein supplement could pro tably be cut down toward the proportion given in the next group 1 WEANLING PIGS 3050 lbs 2 GROWING PIGS 50100 lbs Corn 100 lbs Corn 100 lbs A Oats 50 lbs A Oats 50 lbs Middlings 50 lbs Middlings 50 lbs Supplemented by Supplemented by Tankage 28 lbs Tankage 15 lbs or or Field peas 300 lbs Field peas or cull beans 105 lbs or or Skim milk 650 lbs Skim milk 350 lbs Rye 100 lbs Rye 100 lbs B Oats 50 lbs B Oats 50 lbs Middlings 50 lbs Middlings 50 lbs Supplemented by Supplemented by Tankage 21 lbs Tankage 8 lbs or or Field peas 230 lbs Field or or cull beans 60 lbs or Skim milk 490 lbs Skim milk 175 lbs Barley 100 lbs Barley 100 lbs C Oats 50 lbs C Oats 50 lbs Middlings 50 lbs Middlings 50 lbs Supplemented by Supplemented by Tankage 22 lbs Tankage 10 lbs or or Field peas 240 lbs Field peas or cull beans 70 lbs or or Skim milk 520 lbs Skim milk 205 lbs 70poundsofpeas mm L A m r quantities tobalance a given amount ofcom rye orbarley more gain The weights of com rye or barley stated below are the amounts of each which would be properly supplemented by the amount given for any one of the protein feeds It is usually advisable to use mixtures including several feeds This is particularly true when rye or oil meal is used so that rye will not make up more than half the ration and so that not more than half the protein supplement will be oil meal 2 SHOTES 100150 lbs Corn 100 lbs or rye 220 lbs or barley 170 lbs Supplemented by any one of the following Tankage 12 lbs Field peas or cull beans 75 lbs Oil meal old process 30 lbs Middlings 200 lbs Skim milk 250 lbs The W i 1 A in imp t mam 3 HOGS 150225 lbs Corn 100 lbs or rye 330 lbs or barley 220 lbs Supplemented by any one of the following Tankage 9 lbs Field peas or cull beans 50 lbs Oil meal 21 lbs Middlings 105 lbs Skim milk 175 lbs EXTENSION BULLETIN NO 26 REVISED 4 GROWNG BREEDING SWINE OR SOWS WITH SUCKLlNG PIGS Corn 100 lbs or Rye 200 lbs or Barley 200 lbs s Oats 50 lbs Oats 100 lbs Oats 50 lbs Supplemented by any one of the following Tankage 11 lbs Field peas or cull beans 60 lbs Oil meal 25 lbs Middlings 130 lbs Skim milk 210 lbs 5 MATURE SOWS Between Suckling Periods Corn 100 lbs or rye 400 lbs or barley 250 lbs Supplemented by any one of the following Tankage 7 lbs Cull beans 35 lbs Middlings 70 lbs Skim milk 125 lbs Ground alfalfa 75 lbs or alfalfa hay selffed in racks to balance rye or barley With corn some of the other supplements may pay with the alfalfa selffed These rations show how much of each one of a number of different protein rich feeds are required to supplement a stated amount of corn rye or barley for swine of different ages The amounts of each needed for mixtures can easily be estimated from the above When protein feeds are as cheap as fattening feeds somewhat more protein may be fed without affecting the ef ciency of the ration When they are extremely high in proportion it sometimes pays to feed less protein even though more feed is required per unit ofgain On good pasture the protein rich feed for any of the corn rations may be reduced by onehalf and with barley or a combination of rye and oats it may not pay to use a supplement except with young pigs For fattening swine and carrying dry brood sows on good pasture when protein feeds are very high as compared with corn supplements do not pay even with corn MINERAL REQUIREMENTS Our grains are all lacking in mineral matter for the pigs needs Pasture helps to correct this de ciency as do skim milk and tankage but even with these supplements some additional minerals usually pay A supply of minerals should be kept before swine at all times This is especially important where pigs are fed on poor pasture or in a dry lot Wood ashes nely ground limestone air slacked lime bone meal and acid phosphate have given good results in experimental work in such combination as 1 Pulverized limestone 30 lbs 2 Wood ashes 10 lbs Bone meal 30 lbs 16 acid phosphate 10 lbs Salt 30 lbs Salt 1 1b Sulphur 10 lbs 3 Pulverized limeston 10 lbs 4 Air slaked lime 10 lbs 16 acid phosphate 10 lbs Steamed bone meal 10 lbs Salt 1 1b Salt 101bs If trouble with hairless pigs at birth has been experienced in your community you can insure against it by feeding the brood sows iodine during pregnancy It is o en mixed into commercial minerals but is expensive and is required in such small quantities that it is dif cult to mix under farm conditions SWINE FEEDING A good method is to dissolve one ounce of potassium or sodium iodide in one quart of water Each ounce of solution then contains about 15 grains of the iodide and is suf cient for one sow for one week and should be mixed with her feed in two or three doses Three sows fed together could be given one ounce of the solution mixed in their feed or water three times a week It is probably well to treat the sows throughout the gestation period but it appears that treatment during the last 8 or 10 weels before farrowing is most essential HOW MUCH TO FEED AND HOW TO FEED IT Ten days before breeding time the daily allowance for thin sows should be increased so as to get the sows into a rapidly gaining thriving condition This ushing or extra good feeding of the sow ten days or two weeks previous to breeding will increase the site of the litter Young gilts should carry more esh than older sows at pigging time Gilts and older sows that are in thin condition should be fed separately from old sows in good esh so that the daily feed allowance can be so regulated in amount as to keep them gaining steadily usually about 6 to 1 lb daily during pregnancy without getting any of the sows too fat As a rule brood sows should receive from one to one and onefourth per cent of their weight in grain daily and gilts from one and onehalf or two per cent of their weight Daily exercise and a suf cient supply of protein and minerals in the ration during pregnancy helps to assure strong pigs at birth Just before farrowing and from four days to one week alter use only light laxative feeds such as equal parts of bran and middlings ground oats oats and middlings or either bran oats or middlings with only a small portion of com rye or barley These are best fed in a thin slop which should be warm in cold weather Overfeeding or feeding on heavy fattening foods soon a er farrowing o en causes udder troubles Sows in poor condition should have feed increased earlier than the fat ones The grain allowance should be increased as it is seen that the pigs can take more milk Guard against such heavy feeding that the pigs become fat short and chubby for this along with lack of exercise is the cause of thumps With large litters three weels old and getting plenty of exercise the sow should usually be fed as much as she can eat When the pigs are four weeks old they should be eating from a separate trough or selffeeder placed in a creep where only the pigs have access to it Then they get no setback at weaning time and grow continuously It is best to use tempting feeds at first Where it seems desirable to use such unpalatable foods as cull beans cooked or ground rye they should be started in small amounts and the proportion increased very gradually It does not pay to use so much unpalatable feed in the ration that the pigs feed lightly and consequently gain slowly The daily allowance of feed for pigs from this point on will depend upon circumstances If plenty of feed is at hand it usually pays to feed for rapid gains making a quick tumover of the investment With early pigs this also usually means a higher selling price The price paid for hogs on the Chicago market for the last ten years has averaged 81180 for the months of September and October against an average for the same years of 1055 for the months of November and December Shotes that can be nished at a weight of 180 lbs or more and marketed in September or October often net a greater pro t than they would if held until later EXTENSION BULLETJN NO 26 REVISED have the fouovnng advantages 1 Requer 1ess frequent attenuon and save unne 2 S ve labor 3 Keep the mgsfedregularly 4 m h m mtdrl w companments The tags vn11ba1anee then own muons 5 Usually mmease the mile of gam and put the hog to maket earher n 11 r 1t 1 Saves labor of harvesung and feedmg the com andhandlmg manure 2 Consa39ves femhty and dasmbutes 1t even1y on land 3 Produces as vnuen gam as othermethods Imp m39tant factnrs fur the success nr hngg39ng den shouldbe eonadeved 1 A supplememal feed to fumsh protem must be promdedfor best results The eneapest h V andquot 1 ve bbmat m by about onerhalf 1n seasons that these SWINE FEEDING crops make an abundant growth of succulent feed As soon as these crops frost down or dry up the supplementary feed should be increased if not selffed 2 The most desirable hogs are 90 to 150 pound spring shotes well grown on pasture although hogs of any age that are ready for fattening may be used to advantage Pigs and brood sows are o en used to clean up the patch alter the fattening hogs have been moved on Larger hogs feeding with light pigs help to break down com for the pigs 3 A small acreage of an early strain of com that can be fed olT early lengthens the season for quothogging downquot and o en finishes one lot at a higher price in September or early October than would be received later 4 Com should begin to dent and be past the dough stage before the hogs are tumed in Hogs not accustomed to full feed should have com thrown in for them increasing the amount every day for a few days before they are tumed into the com 5 Clean water salt and minerals should usually be supplied at the eld where the hogs do not have to go far alter them The best gains are not made without llly satisfying these needs ESSENTIALS THAT GO WITH GOOD FEEDING l SALT Salt should be kept before swine of any age where they can help themselves at all times Mixing it with the feed is satisfactory when done carefully but too o en irregularities occur and the pigs get too much or to little The mineral mixture may be made up of about onethird salt and kept before them or a constant supply of salt separate from the minerals may be maintained 2 WATER Hogs will not thrive without suf cient water and gains are more costly when it is not supplied abundantly Clean drinking water that is not contaminated by surface drainage is important in prevention of spread of disease and parasites Selfwatering devices that lmish a continuous supply have proved satisfactory 3 SHADE Good shade in the hog pasture adds to the ef ciency of the feeding system 4 HOUSING CONDITIONS Dry well lighted houses that provide comfortable quarters and that can be disinfected and kept sanitary are necessary 5 EXERCISE Pasture affords exercise for breeding swine but in winter the trough should be placed as far as possible from the sleeping pen to force them to exercise 6 DISEASE PREVENTION Constant attention to general sanitation of yards and buildings and watch ness to suppress disease at its first appearance insure against loss It is much cheaper to guard the health of your swine and keep them vigorous than to doctor and disinfect a er sickness gets under way


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