Anatomy & Physiology Farm Anml
Anatomy & Physiology Farm Anml ANS 315
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theresia Lockman on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 315 at Michigan State University taught by Ralph Fogwell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/207444/ans-315-michigan-state-university in Animal Science at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
EXAM 2 M11511 1oims ofthe skeleton a Muscles provide stability Supplement ligaments b Muscles provide power for movement and resistance 2Protein reserve when diet not adequate a Amino acids used to form different proteins h Topography ofSkeletal Muscle w ar muscles arranged and located on an animal m 39 layers a Super cial located on lateral aspects ofthe skeleton b Deep Located most proximal to the skeleton 39 39 be a To stabilize as along the axial skeleton b 39 o melon c To provide stability and power such as just standing 3Features ofmuscles that control the appendicular skeleton a Prox39mal to the axial skeleton 7 large muscle short tendon b Distal to the axial skeleton 7 small muscle long tendons 39 hm rndnzrzhnd l Tram m Mamn Bug 1435quot Eng man mu Harm i 0mm anxeo rm rat mun wt m 3245 6 Terminolog for Actions orSkeletal Muscle VF an Inn quot39 39 L Iflbl mm the angle of the joint 7 39 ovementofthe distalL angle ofthe joint eAddurtinn 439 w 39 39 39 39 animal Thus movement is edial m rAbductioru quot39 39 39 quotquot animal Thus movement is lateral e attachment and motion a Super cial e Trapezius 0motransversarius b Deep 7 Serratus ventralis Rhomboideus e Pectorals deep Muscles of the Pectoral Limbs 1Scapula EXAM 2 2 llumerus shoulderjointExtension 7 Brachiocephalicus Flexion 7 Te s major Latissimus dorsi A uction 7 Pectorals deep 8L superficial 3 RadiusUlna Elbow Extension 7 Triceps Flexion 7 Biceps Brachii Muscles ofthe Pelvic Limbs Femur llipjoint 7 Extension Biceps Femoris lateral Semitendinosus middle Semimembranosus medial These three muscles are Flexion Iliacus Psoas major Iliopsoas Sartorius Tensor fasciae latae 2 Tibia Fibula Sti e joint Extensio Tensor faciae latae Quadraceps femoris Flexion Hamstring Gastrocnemius Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Allows rapid and homogeneous distribution of calcium to a muscle fiber to initiate contraction For relaxation of skeletal muscle the sarcoplasmic reticulum provides storage for calcium that is removed from troponin Sequence ofevents for muscular contraction 0 Action potential in motor nerve o Neurotransmitter across synapse from nerve to muscle 0 Action potential along musc e o Depolarization of sarcomere and release of calcium 0 Calcium binds to Troponin o Tropomyosin shifts laterally o Myosin binds to Actin and AM Cycle begins 0 Nerve impulse ends 0 Calcium pumped back into sarcomere and AM Cycle stops 1 Consider arrangement ofmuscles a lne insertion 39 Causes the movement injoint Distal to the origin Ratchet merhnnism mminue 2339 an Ion mion polcnlial propagated along sarmlernma Depolarizalion or Tnibules eleelrolonic spread or rurreml l Loul currt How to terminal cisternac of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca39 v released imo sartoplasln 1 Ca39 v boundlby Kroponln Can gurarional change in lmpomyos exposing ADP acrive sites nn Gaclin Relezs nr inhihilion of aeroniyosni wirn link belwcen mainland HMMS Change in bonding forces HMM head rilrs inward pulling aclin 5 ATPase aephosplmrylmes exposed ATP Energy demcnes HMM head HMM had ills back and allzches l0 anorner ADP 39I at Gaclin in Presence nr d active sites tibia When the muscle contracts whatjoint is moved b A muscle inserts on the posterior and what is the type of movement i S 39 e 39 c What is the major function ofmuscle that insers along the axial skeleton i stabilizes vertebral co umn d Name 3 muscles thatare involved in cross bridging between the axial skeleton and anterior appendicular skeleton l Trapezius serratus ventralius splenius rhomboideus 2 Name a muscle thatwill i Extend the hip biceps femaris Flex the shoulder teres major Flex the hock tensorfaciae latae EXAM 2 iv Extend the elbow triceps V Adduct the humerus pecteralis vi Extend the sti e tensor faciae latae Describe the action ofthe structure thatis named F i Ligamentum nuchae holds head up yellow connective tissue ii Triceps causes extension in elbow iii Gastrocnemius Flex sti e iv Trapezius superficial muscle that connects axial and appendicular skeleton adduct scapula CAPILLARIES Blood is a Tissue 11nteistitium of blood Plasma What is blood serum 2 Cells a Erythrocytes 7 red blood cells b Leucocytes 7 white blood cells 0 Monocytes 0 Neutrophils Polymorphonucleocytes 0 Lymphocytes c Platelets Blood Vascular S tem 5 Artery Vein 3 Heart g gt Capillary Tissue gt g 5 Vascular System 1Everything is Systemic that is not pulmonary or Portal 2Portal systems a Hepatic Liver Portal Capillaries in Gastrointestinal tractm in Liver b llypophyseal Pituitary Portal Capillaries in llypothalamus in Anterior Pituitary 3 Arteries Blood is high pressure Oxygen rich except pulmona 0 ng anew X sec 4 Veins Blood is low pressure Oxygen poor except pulmona vein E nijb39x b Capillaries a Diameter of lumen is microns so erythrocytes move single fl 1 e b Wall is endothelium c Allow exchange to and from blood T f1 7 r d Transport blood to venule TYPES at annualquot Cazrm e Patentcy controlled at precapillary sphincter I P quot mquot E 2 W510 um mgunmr Structure of Capillaries k quot9quot Myquot Capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells with and a basement membrane EXAM 2 1 To create the lumen of a capillary an endothelial cell folds or bends to form junction with itself 2 To establish length for the lumen of a capillary the lateral borders of adjacent endothelial cells are joined with varied degrees of rigidity and permissiveness 3 Completeness of the plasma membrane varies among different types of capillaries Some have pores or fenestrations that can open and close Pericytes outside and adjacent to endothelial cells General Functions of Capillaries Capillaries are the only type of blood vessels where exchange occurs between blood and tissue Bidirectional exchange between tissue and plasma Capillaries direct blood from arterioles to venules Length of capillary is about 1 to maximum of 10mm When blood passes through a capillary this is considered tissue perfusion Capillaries are arranged in a network or plexus How and Why is exchange possible 1Thin walled that allows for close intimate relations with the cell 2Small area of lumen 10u high ratio of surface to volume RBC diameter Bovine and Equine56u Human75u Thus RBC traverse capillary in single le procession 3High density close proximity of capillaries blood to cells in tissue 4Patentcy open or closed regulated locally related to the metabolic environment Precapillary sphincter 5Pressure dynamics difference at proximal arteriole versus distal venule end of a capillary Types of Capillaries Three types of capillaries distinguished with 0 Nature of junctions between adjacent endothelial cells 0 Porosity of plasma membrane 0 Integrity of Basement membrane Continuous Discontinuous Fenestrated Most restrictive 9 9 Most permissive 1C ontinuous Complete endothelial cells with tight junctions Pinocytotic vesicles 60 to70nm Passage of watersoluble ions and molecules Locations Adipose Placenta Lung Central nervous system Muscle skeletal smooth and cardiac 2Discontinuous Sinusoidal gaps Basement membrane incomplete or absent Passage of whole cells macromolecules and particles Locations Liver Bone marrow Spleen Mammary glands 3 Fenestrated Small 010 pm openings in plasma membrane Closed with a diaphram Passage of solutes and water Locations Endocrine tissues Exocrine tissues Gall bladder Renal medulla Intestine Synovial membranes 3 A Assume that you are an oxygenpoor erythrocyte in a capillary of a kidney Sequentially describe your path to become oxygenrich and to return to the kidney Rather than specific EXAM 1 PLASMA MEMBRANE A Plasma membrane see figure 2 2 General functions and roles Determines shape of cell Regulatory functions of the cell fuel messengers Protective functions Interactions environment and adjacent cells cells talk to each other A Plasma membrane see figure 23 Average chemical composition 50 Lipid 40 Protein and 10 Carbohydrate 1 Lipid bilayer Three total layers a Polar or hydrophilic molecules on the outer surface that contacts the extracellular matrix uid m on the inner surface that contacts the cytoplasm of the cell b Apolar or hydrophobic lipid molecules between the two layers of polar Thus lipid is a central core of a plasma membrane sandwiched between two layers of protein 2 Receptors for regulators of cellular function such as hormones Also known as intrinsic proteins Generally pentrate the thickness ofplasma membrane and eXtend from outside to inside ofa cell See figure 24 3 Osmoregulation for the cytoplasm and nucleus CELLULAR HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis established and maintained by different solutes Different solutes osmotic pressure Different ions electrical charge ASSESSING HOMEOSTASIS Vital Signs in Livestock Resting state Species Rectal Templ F Heart rate Respiration Bovine 1015 65 30 Equine 1005 44 12 Swine 102 72 30 Ovine 103 75 19 Respiration is not visible externally in normal animals If respiration is visible there is a problem EXAM 1 CELL CYCLE lt1 M 39 ll 62 DNA 395 Ge content dIVISIOn and creates 2 cells ls 4n G1 DNA Content 2n Z ems 5 6 0 8 G1 is maintenance S is DNA and production synthesis Duration variable may be days or longer 5 G2 and M phases No productive function Duration consistent short G1 short cell life long G1 long cell life G2 the nuclues divides S is DNA replication CYTOPLASM IN MAMMALIAN CELLS C Cytoplasm or Intracellular uid 10 rganelles type of cell amp physiological status 0 Mitochondria makes ATPenergy o Golgi vesicles or bodies 0 Endoplasmic reticulum smooth 0 Endoplasmic reticulum rou h synthesizes secertoryproteins o Ribosomes attached or free dissociated from endoplasmic reticulum Location for most protein synthesis Translation mRNA codes for order ofAmino acids AA tRNAtransports or carries AAto ribosome and to mRNA All products oftranslation are protein 2 Internal environment slight negative charge and the basis for quotnegative membrane pote ntial EXAM 1 SKELETON Inventory of Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Limb External reference Bone Shoulder Scapula Arm Humerus Forearm Radius and Ulna Wrist knee Carpals Forefoot Metacarpals Phalanges Attached to axial skeleton with muscular bridges Bone ofoial Muscle Bone oprpendicular For each jointFig 31 to 35 know the proximal and distal bone Inventory of Appendicular Skeleton Pelvic Girdle and Limb External reference m Rump and Hip Ilium Ischium Pubis Thigh Femur Kneecap Patella Legshank Tibia and Fibula Anklehock Tarsals Hindfoot Metatarsals Phalanges Attached to axial skelton sacrum with ligamentous joints between bones For each jointFig 31 to 35 know the proximal and distal bone SEROUS MEMBRANE 1All organs and glands are covered with a serous membrane generally called serosa 2Features of serosa 0 Single cell layer 0 Avascular no blood supply 0 Impermeable to uid 0 Retains uid to lubricate tissue 0 quotsupports vasculature from intestines 0 Does not provide protection against physical trauma 3Nomenclature according to organgland that is contactedcovered 4Significance of serous membranes a Adhesions b Hernia c Peritonitis Distinct Serous Membranes EXAM 1 Organ covered Serous membrane Brain and Spinal cord Pia mater Thoracic cavity anterior to diaphram Heart Pericardium double layer Lungs Pleura Abdomen amp Pelvic cavities Peritoneum throughout Internal abdominal muscle Parietal peritoneum Kidneys Reproductive system Digestive system Visceral peritoneum Liver amp Spleen Mesentery Connecting peritoneum Omental Ligamentous HERNIA Failed integrity ofparietal peritoneum Viscera quotescapesquot from the abdominal cavity Congenital Most likely are umbilical or inguinal Developmental Postnatal Torn or quotrupturedquot parietal peritoneum In a umbilical hernia the panetal periosteum doesn t close and viscera periostrum escapes abdominal cavity Intestine moves from abdomen into peritonal cavity LONGITUDINAL BONE GROWTH Epiphyseal joint a joint of cartilage synchondrosis Sometimes called quotepiphyseal plate Present during skeletal growth Disappears with cessation of growth Growth ceases with disappearance of epiphyseal joints When present and active effect is longitudinal growth Reappear during repair of fractures Current significance Much current research directed to understand the biology of events in these tissues Affects stature and frame score Traditional significance To distinguish Lamb versus Mutton About 10 to 14 mo quotBreakjoint epiphyseal joint of the metacarpus distal to knee Types of cells to consider EXAM 1 10steoblasts o calcification of cartilage 0 located in outer layer ofnew bone onecell layer pseudoepithelium o Differentiate into osteocytes 20steogytes o Osteoblasts trapped and incorporated into growing and mature bone 30steoclasts o Multinucleated o Motile can move like ameoba o Arise from bone marrow or spleen and are independent of osteoblasts 4Chondrocytes 0 Stem or parental cells for cartilage Differentiate into cartilage o Mitotically active 0 Responsive to hormones Growth ofbone is two dimensional 0 Longitudinal increase length 0 Lateral or Appositional increase diameter and circumference Calcium in Blood Serum Significance 1Role in clotting process 2Reserve pool for contraction of muscle Skeletal Smooth and Cardiac 3Pool for bone growth osteogenesis 4Pool from bone metabolism osteolysis 5Pool for lactation and egg shells 6Pool for numerous metabolic functions Factors that Regulate Calcium in Blood Serum not ranked 1Vitamin D facilitates absorption of calcium from diet 2Parathyroid hormone Parathormone PTH A polypeptide secreted from the Parathyroid glands Action is Osteolysis L Ca in bone and T Ca in serum done by removing osteoclasts from the surface 3Thyrocalcitonin Calcitonin TCT A polypeptide secreted from the Thyroid glands Action is antiosteolytic and osteogenic TCT reduces action of PTH L Ca in serum and T Ca into bone and other tissues Mobilization of Calcium Mobilization ofBone Osteolysis T Ca in serum Disrupt interstitial matrix Came cl Sum gv cmuuA H 3 W 56 an TYNE fursuyszs Pm PIIEATHnPWAE amid2 3m Osteoclastic Osteolysis Actions ofOsteoclasts 0C Osteoclasts are multinucleated infusion of monocytes Attract osteoclastic precurors Monocytes to periosteum Engulfand destroy organicbone matrix lcium released into the blood Phosphorous to urine Actions ofOsteoblasts O B osteocytes within bone CAMP released due to PTll Reduced osteogenic activity Accumulation of calcium in cytoplasm Reabsorb organic matrix ofbone Actions of PTH Osteoblasts Reduced cell size and osteogenic activity including l synthesis of collagen Activate receptor for PTH and T cAMP Osteoclasts No evidence for PTll receptor on Osteoclasts Action ofTCT Dissociate DC from bone l 0C and T OB size and activity Osteolysis occurs because a grove is created using osteoclasts and is filled byperiosteum SKELETAL SYSTEM AAXial skeleton 1 Ve rtebrae 2 Ribs 3 Ste rnum 4 Skull B Appendicular skeleton mm 1 Percaer antenarjhmb 2 mmmsmar grdh andhmb Pmaf qemzlskelznn Spenes m c ch Tharmc Lumbar 52nd Cacg 521 Ham 51757 7 1a a 5 15721 Caw 49751 7 13 e s 137247 Sheep 45749 7 13 577 4 mm Fig 51755 7 14715 577 4 2472 Human 3 7 12 s s 4 Harse mag 10711 TQtaTIE 01w 13 s leep 13714 575 mg 1415 7a TEtaTMTIS Hum 2 s mafpelws appenmmlzr ska mu Tubersanaler pmafappenmculzr skeletan menu xleum am wnh sternum 7 far stuccure scandal nbs cannenced m m pan af anal skelemn 12 32 444 W W xx 9 Thamncvenebrgg nbs Only half af x nbs mu m duecdy wnh the scemum The anesthatdan39tm Scapula Scapulohumeral Joint Humerus Humeroradioulnar Olecranon Radius Ulna Carpus Metacarpals PhalangesDigitsToes Dewclaw Ilium Coxofemoral Joint Femur Stier Femorotibial Joint Tibia Fibula Tarsus Hock Metatarsal Bones The point of attachment to the body Medical term for the shoulderjoint Largest bone of the thoracic limb Medical term for the elbow This is a process the point of the elbow Two bones of the forearm The wrist bones that make up the joint are Carpal bones and are short bones The longer bones leading down to the toes Phalanges Digits or Toes The most distal part of both the thoracic and pelvic limbs Located medially and is in the same position as the human thumb The largest part of the pelvis There are three parts to the pelvis llium Pubis lshium Medical term for the hip joint Largest bone of the pelvic limb The knee The patella also forms the joint and is termed the sesamoid bone Tibia is the larger of the two and is what you would think of as the shin bone The fibula is smaller and located on the lateral aspect This joint is the equivalency to the human ankle Tarsal bones are the small short bones that make up the joint The longer bones leading down to the digits EXAM 1 Pelvic area A major factor that affects case to deliver offspring Dyslocia dil39 cull prolonged or painful delivery Maximal Horizontalicm x Maximal Venicaucm used to estimate Area cm Should be measured before breeding and certainly before first conception PELVIC AREA Vertical dimension is measured by symphysis pubis and sacrum Horizontal dimension is measured by the left and right shaft of ileum The broad ligament ofthe uterus is the wide fold ofperitoneumthat connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and oor ofthe pelvis Connecting the peritoneum that supports reproductive tract JOINTS Anatomy of oints What is a joint Two distinct bones joinedtogether Articulation What are the types ofjoints A Fibrous joints nojoint cavity Fibrous tissue unites joins bones No movement Examples 1 Syndesmosis splint and cannon 2 Suture skull 3 Gomphosis teeth to mandible B Cartilaginous joints no joint cavity Restricted movement Cartilage unites bones Examples 1 Synchondrosis or Epiphyseal joint Associated with youth and growth Join epiphysis to diaphysis at each end hysis pelvis and between vertebrae C Symphyseal fibrocartilaginous allow movementtwisting een adjacent vertebrae D Synovial joints joint cavity Movement igaments and muscle hold bones together Structural features of synovial joints see figure 57 Articular surface compact one