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Companion Animal Bio & Mgmt

by: Theresia Lockman

Companion Animal Bio & Mgmt ANS 282

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Animal Science > ANS 282 > Companion Animal Bio Mgmt
Theresia Lockman
GPA 3.72

Richard Balander

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Richard Balander
Class Notes
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This 92 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theresia Lockman on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 282 at Michigan State University taught by Richard Balander in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/207445/ans-282-michigan-state-university in Animal Science at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Guie Pi s Kingdom Phylum Class Order Suborder Family Genus Species Animalia Chordata Mammalia Rodentia Hystricomorpha Caviidae Cavia C porcellus The guinea pig is more accurately known as a Cavy There are 7 species of Cavy The domesticated guinea pig has been bred for meat production for at least 3000 years in South America Widely used as a source of food in Ecuador Peru and Bolivia Brought to Europe in the 1600 s Since the mid 1800 s it has been used in research on nutrition pathology genetics toxicology etc It also makes an ideal pet for many people however it is the most allergenic animal that is kept as a pet It is not a pig and it does not come from Guinea Thought to have come from the English coin Guinea which is how much one animal cost way back when Guinea pigs have been used extensively in research on nutrition many infectious diseases including tuberculosis rabies and diphtheria xl gmmma on m 1 Abysinnian rough wiry hair coat Lots of swirls and cowlicks known as Rosettes More rosettes more desirable ngnesiin all colors and color combinations 2 American the most common of the guinea pigs Short glossy fine textured hair Wide variety of colors and combinations 7 3 Teddy short kinky hair thick and lies close to the body Whiskers are also kinked Wide varieties of colors and combinations 4 Silkie Sheltie a longhaired variety No long frontal sweep over head ww39w gum npxgworw COM 5 White Crested short hair but has a white crest on top of head which is a rosette with a clearly defined center on the forehead Primarily in the self solid and agouti colors Self any plain solid color 6 Peruvian longhaired variety Length evenness and balance of hair important Lot of time and effort to keep clean Hair may reach 20 inches Looks like a mop and often cannot tell which end is which 7 Satin guinea pig Fine dense soft and shiny fur Many colors and combinations Baldwin guinea pig nearly hairless Skinny guinea pig nearly hairless also Skinny At least 25 different breeds Guinea pigs are 8 14 inches in length and weigh 1 to 4 pounds 4 toes on front feet 3 toes on rear feet They have short little ears with very little fur on them Their hearing is very sensitive hearing up to 30000 Hz They communicate with high pitched whistles and squeaks Their sense of smell is highly developed and they can identify individual humans by smell Guinea pigs are a prey species and have excellent peripheral vision In the wild guinea pigs live in colonies or clans which usually have one dominant male and up to 10 females More than one adult male cannot peacefully exist in a colony Younger and subordinate males will live on the periphery of the colony or try to entice females to leave and start their own colony Ca in For a single guinea pig should be at least 12 x 24 Bottom should have a plastic tray 3 4 inches or more high to prevent the critter from scattering bedding Do not need a cover as guinea pigs don t usually climb out ofcages A 6quot deep plastic tray retains litter has a textured floor and is corrosion proof for long life Entire top swings open for easy accessibility Ideal for guinea pigs dwarf rabbits and other small animals Overall cage measures 25 X 165 X 14quot high Price 3730 Guinea pigs can be kept outside when the temperature is above 50 F Outdoor housing should have protection from the elements and have a flooring to prevent the guinea pig from burrowing out w m w amu39 y 7 P V mmvhhxmu a hmm 7 7 mum my mm mm 7vm um musdc 7 7 dwmmmlo 7 mm mumm 51m i i 7 mnndmth mm mme7 777 Pmm mm mm m mm vow m 7 m 7 humtx mm m wMu39uu m mum km or m 7 7 7 7 a up 5m 7 m mom 0 mm mm 0 1w Vn39cm 534m m xn mm c 1m 7 mu m o W mm mm 01w lol c m 7 mm 7pm ommm WWW Wuquot mud mmamg mm um m m quotmum ubdommnY Wu 1 adovmn mm Mu mun r 74 pun mva mmquot mm mm mm of mm m lesser curvature esophagus commun bxle duct duodenal papxlla mm region fundus re mu mm partlon g descendmg portion duodenum astendmg portion grater curvamre tramvsrse porhon body region pyloric rcgmn u ansversu colon 5pm or ascendmg colon l g mmor curvature 1leum 6 Aleum descendmg colon 39 CECUM ascending colon 39recmm munum shown unmxlcd and shamed for diagrammatic purposes mm It anus Feeding and Diet Guinea pigs are vegetarians Good quality alfalfa or clover hay should be a main food Wheat corn and oats should be fed as a protein source Supplemental fruits and vegetables can also be added to the diet fresh greens potatoes dandelion greens carrots apples pears turnips beets cucumbers kale tomatoes parsley grapes etc Peanuts and sunflower seeds can be given as treats have a high oil content so not too much Guinea pig pellets which contain all the nutrients can be fed as well Guinea pigs are rodents so they have continuously growing teeth that need to be worn down Pellets are hard and will help wear down the teeth Guinea pigs are one of the few animals that must consume vitamin L in the diet as they are not able to synthesize it in their bodies VitaminLdeficiency will result In Scurvy dehydration poor appetite diarrhea rough hair coat lethargy weight loss small hemorrhages on gums joint swelling and lameness respiratory diseases impaired Hemorrhagic skeletal muscle immune system due to scurvy guinea pig Use only fresh food as Vitamin C degrades fairly quickly 30 to 60 days Supplement diet with small chewable vitamin C tablets or drops added to water Guinea pigs practice cophrophagy the eating of their own feces They produce special soft pellets called cecotropes quot which contain the B vitamins and bacteria required for proper digestion These pellets are not the same as regular feces They share this behavior with rabbits Depending on the fur type the guinea pig should be brushed on a regular basis to remove dead hair Long hair daily and keep clipped around the anus to prevent it from becoming matted with feces Short hair weekly or more often Diseases Respiratom diseases are the most common problem of guinea pigs Antibiotics and extra vitamin C will usually get them through these problems May occasionally see enlarged lymph nodes in the neck usually a Streptococcus infection abscess Usually need to be drained and treated with H202 and topical antibiotics Pregnancy toxemia Commonly seen in stressed heavily pregnant GP that are 56 days or more into the pregnancy and carrying 3 or more fetuses Acute death may occur with in 24 hours with no previous signs of illness Condition may also present as ruffled hair coat lethargy loss of appetite 35 days prior to death In most cases the condition is fatal despite treatment The cause is not known but seems to occur more often in obese pigs Mites and lice are common external parasites nimal safe insecticides can be used 7 Malocclusion dental problems if teeth grow too long Footpad Infection Common in guinea pigs housed in cages with wire floor 7 fecal material of the wire increases the problem Symptoms include swelling of 7 the affected feet lameness and reluctance to move Heat Stress Guinea Pigs are very susceptible to heat stroke particularly those that are overweight land or heavy furred inadequate shade and ventilation contribute Signs of heat stroke include panting slobbering weakness reluctance to move convulsions and ultimately death Urinary Tract infections Bladder stones Interstitial cystitis Reproductiveorgan problemslike pyometra Urine scald can also be the result of inium or aging related problems resulting in decreased mobility Toenails need to be clipped on a regular basis Can curl back around and grow into the pigs foot Reproduction Females are sexually mature betweeniand iweeks old but shouldn39t be bred until they are a at least months old Males are sexually mature at aboutito iweeks of age but should be A months old before breeding Females need to be bred around 4 5 months of age Any female older than 1 months that has not been bred should not be bred Between 9 and 12 months of age the pelvic bones will fuse if she has not given birth at an earlier age She will require a caesarean section for delivery of the young if bred after 1 months of age Gestation period ranges from 60 to 73 days Average is about 68 days The female usually sits up while giving birth She does not make a nest She will clean up the young eat the membranes and placenta very quickly after birth The young are fully developed at birth eyes open fully furred and have teeth and can run around a few hours after being born The young will consume solid food within 2430 hours but should continue to nurse until about 3 weeks old at which time they are weaned The female is able to conceive again within the hour after giving birth if a male is present Sows may produce up to i litters per year Litter size varies from one to 8 but typically have two to four Weaning is at 14 to 28 days when pigs are about 200 grams Guinea pigs become sexually mature as early as four weeks of age so it is important to separate the different sexes by then Therefore the males of the litter should be separated from the mother and their sisters directly after weaning It is important to handle the babies soon and often to socialize them to humans Like other animals that are born precocial guinea pigs form their social bonds shortly after birth sometime within a matter of hours so human contact is critical during this time to ensure that they establish strong bonds to people Life expectancy ranges up to 8 years with 46 years average Sexing your guinea pig Female Male 3 weeks of age Sexual dimorphism Reproductiver active Crop that you would find Beak and feather disease Of bird cages Zygodactyly Toucans are Life expectancy general information Parrots that talk Wild toucan falconer True of raptors Toys in a Altricial Consume grit why and what Newcastle disease Fat in its diet Pox on a bird Haggard Small pebbles and stones Seeds in the diet Tiercel Feather picking what causes it what can you do to alleviate it all the things to consider most likely source Bird s oviduct we find Truefalse Pacheco s parrot disease Main hormone Gizzard in a bird Cere Vertically transmitted Salmonella do Egestion Illness in pet Grit that is consumed by quotHquot antigen and an quotNquot antigen Following fruits and veggies Other pets in the household Highest protein in what food source has what bird needs All seed diet for your pet bird Sprouted seeds Round worms are Digestive tract of the bird Likely to get a disease Bumble foot main organisms prognosis Feather picking in your pet bird All seed diet Wing clipping Your bird is feather picking Psycho things in the bird s environment Physical dangers to your pet bird Phylum thrdata emanates Glass Mam mialzia mammals Order C arniVora Ganugsra Species pautomiuzsz Euorpiegan39 pollexcaf I if Iw is about long as theirs trad if if the same They have tails1 pquot 1 are their popularquot pet arid dogs Thetaare abo39utii 85410 million feir ts Mam pets are howilid earl of m the Uzw39rllii39tjed States been Idozmestii alted s0 Icing i f voinevwere to 4 Find more wallpapers at J J J ti0iyecglaphkn l t Photograph courtesy US Fish 8 Wildlife Servil PFH39H A HI IIF Blackfooted ferrets ance occurred in grassland habitats throughout the Great Plains in 12 states and 2 Canadian provinces and possibly portians sf northern Maxim l hmummmmmrgnmmmmm In1 98 1a b acikh fae ted ferret was killed a ma mag in northwestern n r This event Jilted to ad namiatliic of a39 smial yg noujp of about 130 ferrets eiar Meeteetse in 191824 and offered a1 may he pie for species Research canle united on h39e Mreegteet se ferrets prwided iim portant new iinfarmiakthifon39 on the Iii fe history and behavilorl of secretive Lmzammaa Tragically outbreaks of j39la rue and canine ijstlempier nearly killed all off thge M eetegetse popuflsat39siane The remaining 198 ferrets were taken 1i nta captivity biet weain 391 and iiin39 an save itihje species time these mast fanrets were probe the rarest mammals on earth Pogulation Blackfound ferrets once numbered in the tens cf thousands but widespread destruction if their habitat and exatic diseases in the 1 9005 braught them to the brink of extinction Only 13 remained in 1986 Today they are making a comeback with approximately 750 blackfooted ferrets in the wild and another 250 living in captive breeding facilities 2008 Teday they have been reintrodqu to Iocations within their former range in Wyoming South Dakota Mantana Arizena Celdrado Utah Kansas and Chihuahua Mexican 2008 p ra ir ie dogs make up 90 of a f eii et39s diet A may eat ever 00 raf e in quotas ix n me t0quot eat 9 round xsquimeizljs amatll rabbits and birds Fe nreits came in a variety Of colors albino being the ariigzinal color 0f peth fe rreti sgr brown with spaner black guard haiiirsvain d gff g uard h aiirsgi Patternsare mitts feet panda badger blazes and dark Izegzsand tam l39Miaile ferrets are re ned to as hieibis andiaveragge1mm tso pu and 116 to inches long Female f3rf t8 are called Viill Si and are smdllbr than the males at about 1 a 4 inches long and 391 3 Wu nus Baby farretjs are called 7 kits are canSiered g39g39saduiltis at 562427 moaniths of aev A gwroup 0fquot ferrets called quotquotaa i39zr1iitr m Wmmrt I K w mm g L U Biof h sexes make exece ll ent pets ailuslt zs thrayi will develop a abdor will be estron gerin the male The anal land that cause the odor can be siu ngiicdlliy rem oved Male ferrets also need ta be castrate to elfinatethe Eden It same glia ndgthaLt is iiin an skunk 5 only not nearly as highly dfeave Qped 39Mva le ferrets that have not been In euitere and assented leave riinjse elm along th eiirtravel T hgeiir odfor can be quite strong and off ntsi ve Ferrets in nature are prifmsani y noctunnafl 1 and so do not have a well developed sense of They do have a highly developed of l39 touth and hearing Ferrets have if any sweat leand39 sa and do not tolerate Tternn39penatures above 1F well They need to be provided of water and shade during hot weather ousting Minimum cage size should be 12 24quot 107 high This should be sufficient fora ood an water dish and a place to sleep quotMast feriets2 are quite active and need to he llet out of the to Exercise For quotferrets i ize hauld be 25 x 4quot x 141 quot tall quotFerret39s are esca gev artists Latches on due should floclkf securely 39If not they Will get out Ferrets enjioy watching s around them l Garg easashoul39d be constructed and pzoslit ionjtedsso that they can lookout and see What is gggdi nigh an hers Wicked off in the kitchen and ibath39rmmam aalllilsmall apen ing s thatcnuld lead itotfh39e outside ordins ideit e wallsblOGKed Off 3 Are the toilet l s downwh39e n the rreftsxarewal39bout jf egrnelts Gan climb into trying drink the Ils the bar soa p in an area that is Out of the match ofyour ferret 91 IQ ifO39 b athfrqm counter and can 93th the Stefan dish 39 Iquot siha inserts buckets team ru bbe7r handl gg coastiersi ru ber bands 0er riinikv holders out of the r e th off your 6 Are 31 sponges and Sitiyrofora m39 products in an area w h39erzegy o39uxn ferret n39x39f 5731Ar e hiause plantsQMAQf fE Ei Do you have a fezrretsa fe room your 39hietmje whereyou rife Frets cansta39n t SUTPBEI39V iS iOTn e yetuy r fEFKEtSI caged asleep rin h39ome 9Are u39nsiaiferoaamis blocked Offquot with ferret progf39 barr39iemsi 11fls your 39Isauinrdll fy rbi39om always blocked 39off and off limits to your ferret 111965 yau makesure yotur fferifet39is not iihS iidQ a chair ar ibeer e you sit dgwnquot AnathemaOpenings 39i39n thesicp uch ctrchair wh39emeyoguw r fjern ti Misdesaindw ome inztoGei tiac t staf ng 12 Dt332y6u yawn la39iu nd be o39reitybiu put it ixn39th39e was hing machine ta rk e SUIBfthB E isn39t at algaeping ferret in the clicithifngg or you the cliot hes dryer bef ir lyow run DO MOU the inside Of the heft re yam 1439 Do yen ham a chair that manners Do malt sure all of your fem are accounted for befone yau recline in It ferrets can get crushed in chair and much springs 15 Are there places if fumitum or shelving that your ferret can ellmb and get hurt lf they fall Do you suparvisa them around these item 18 Do you tut cardboard toilet paper and paper towel rolls in half before thmwlng them in a wastebaske39t ferrets can get their head shack in them and suffocate Do you malts sure that you heap wastabaskuts with harmful material nut of your fund39s roam 171m your ferret s tnye made out sf hard rubber tlghtly braided mp9 and plastic 00 they play with sturdy stuffed annuals that don t haw small pieces that can be chewed Off Do p hazardous t0 ny39 U2quot ffeiril39Ets health These causes i rfrixi ta tfe an d depregs the Ti piFOtE Gt me ga hiimaKS from iiweather 39pm v idre if and be free drafts F errejtis reach puberty amuimd afiaggre and are llong day breede rs March a Females ltareasse asonatl1 y peryeam oi 39w esztruast an may have litters afl e is an ovuxl iaLtlior and will ovuxl azte 370 to 40 hours after capulh ion and then the estatier is 431 lf copulation ioccxurzsa and asah evfaii s t0 get pregnant then hie wiiIII becomgz mseudioz are sn anit to Litter in ranges from to 1 839 kits average w to 10 Females that are alloweq to remain in heatIan not breed may possibly developa tilastiic anemia from the continuous pro ucltsiion jef aest mgem result in death 1 as as Breed h39er use hxar m ones to bring her out of39lh era39tsz consuwlt39yaur Diseases Canine gistemmr r ferrets are very susceptible Highly contagious virus and usually fatal Vaccination is very important Vasslnate every 2 3 weeks between 6 and 14 weeks of age and then yearly Feline distemgr also susceptible ts the this Vaccine is available In uenza same disease and virus that affects humans Gan pass it back and forth Rabies caused by a rhahgovirus usually rare in pet ferrets Vacsinate With a ferret approved rabies vassine disease aare wiideliy vvaiinizafbile and may include weight less hind quarter Wieaknzesgrsrl wed in the stool 1 or isei zau res anemia quotrenal disease and enlargement of the liver or splieen Aleutian disease is a farm of awovirus thjat af ectrs ink and ferrets it is ottihiie same pawovir ufs for and The rugs ifools39s the ferrets immuineuisystem into over pimduci antibodies 5 can dam age internal there is no treatment oir39 prevention for this vi fr39a39l disease Ga Ied iiemyofp at hytg conditionwhere the muscle af t he heart becomes pro ressiively weaiker and the heart is no loneir strain enough to gume all 011 the b39laeoelL the muscle weakens it stretches and the heart gradually en 1 7 f i like a balloon the blioed beggii tie back up it will accumulate both within and amuind the lun 7 often afs o in the abdominal cavity resulting in eo uigihfinich the moist commonly noticed sign Ifnsuj iinom a 7 39hy pogxlycegmii a Hypeglycvemi ai results toe miucih in39sruflifn whaji cih in turn ca uses the gt zar39 in the btllood to be tam low and i1mportantt organs wil il beigi na to itmrprapieirly quotfuni f i39O sm the brain39s bzl39oad sugar gets dangi39erouzsal39y 39Iow fewests may saizziure 01 go into a cement Adrenal disease a aammoin faner disease resulting from a tumor 19m one or both adrenal igfl ands1 This disease may 313939 be refeznjreid tot as rad renmartiicgism The most comiimon39 sziigjn39 aiezf 15h iis disease is hair loss The hair loss quotcan n ferrefs Ibedy ut usually first ovecursi ant he Wave thetail 39iaasiea off regar39feetand OVEEP the isih39oulld e r b lad ieas L Hquot rd r p is w A 3 9391 1911 m 4ny L 5 J y QJEJIEDIHHE 536211 F 19m Lam manj ztalgge Ukc h m IAYUEJU xsalfgzjms w v Hltgmj WigU1 g Gastmirntestisnal ulcers Stomach ulcers in the ferret can lead to internal bleeding an ulcer are grinding the teeth black tarry steel weight lass lethargy and viomiitinig Ulcers are ca used stressgtquot L bacteria Heliiczse b aetoxr m 39uste laeu or instances as alcohol as rimin or other medicines Ulcers alre fli Tifet reai39teni lnzg39 and Should be treated a qualified veterinarian as seen as ptioimis are neticed Ear mites Q c ana asis saws am fauna in and cats Head shaking mutulhti an ear disuharge and acabbingm and seem1m Santeria Sarcoptas Scabiai causa gamma ll zed ale V Fleas Demndex mites Hbaia r twonn disease me any as in dag mm prevanhtiw triadic1 a Make sure give 39t zrreti 5a hiiai rir ibail39l remedy at least a c39otul39plqe times axweekywhiilse he or shie is s hedldiifnt you have mu flvtf ipilzesferrets and only one or two are sheddiingg you still want to a haiirb39alll rem edy to all of39 Eerrets will mam each other as well as ltihenr tsxefIveisr1 so even fie r re39ts that are t going tfhirauzgh a spring shed can get hail rballs from cleaning their fuzzy Companions Om the pmlgnt grainer 9f is m ntestinal blnckage Yen scan imaging a close eye an Retina mew an Basically like any type a rubber sum rubber mum v i manage and amm Additi nafll ly marry knew aim anjay hewing an papal plastic and fabric These will all mum gastraifntw nal blackagas if Many plants v and Cafe guriu us anti may chew on the Trauma if plants are L y Feedif in and nutrition Ferrets are carnivores and need lots of animal pirofte39i739n merciel ferret feed is available both in and wet is better the health of the 39tiiecet ih you need to purchase oth er feel piurrehaise a premium brand ef kitten feed e should have preteiii39n freim animalquotsources and contain tel fat Eeirrets no not digest ca1irbehuel lratesa very we jIL eat a 39piii eggce of fruit every once a while as a treat Bananas wiiilfl eaguise astriic bslioati A Ferret39s are lactose inta leran t V so adie not give them scaw ls m ink and only ilfittlle amounts of iiee area they love Do not give ChOIC Ol EaFte Too ber can also ferrets diarrhea so jiimiZt KaiSins bananas prunes oatmeal apples anfd axnythti with bran in treats aren t gee for the either since they can ala use dental problems There are about 936 million cats as pets in the United States living in about 312 million households 775 million dogs National Pet Owners Survey 2010 Cat family felidae This family includes many different genus and species such as the domestic cat lynx bobcat leopard lion jaguar tiger puma to name a few Cats have the foll owi39nq taxonomic classifications Kingdom Animalia Animals Phylum Chordata chordates Subphylum Vertebrata vertebrates Class Mammalia mammals Subclass Eutheria placental mammals rder Carnivora Family Felidae cats Genius F eIis Species Sylivestris wild Catus domestic Subspecies Breed In the taxonomy classification Family is further Subdivi ded into Genus and Species The genus for small cats or domestic cats is felis Many other genus besides Felis appear under the Felidae family See table The Felis genus includes over 35 different Species The domestic or house or barn cat species is catus while the species for the wild cat is Sylvestris There are Subspecies of the Sylvestris species and because the domestic cat is believed to come from the wild cat Catus is often also used as a subspecies classification Thus the domestic cat may be referred as either Felis Catus or Felis Sylvestris Catus gabii Limeli eiii Ll AcinonyX jubatus Gen al lol Catopuma badia Catopuma temmincki Feis bieti Feis caraca Caraca caraca Feis catus Feis chaus Feis margarita Feis nigripes Feis serva Leptaiurus serva Feis sivestris Herpailurus yaguarondi Leopardus tigrinus Leopardus pardais Leopardus Wiedii iiolrlilmnigvn li qlame Cheetah Bay cat Temminck39s golden cat Chinese desert cat Caracal Domestic cat Jungle cat Sand cat Blackfooted cat Serval Wild Cat Jaguarundi Oncilla Ocelot Margay Africa Asia Asia Asia Asia Africa Asia Everywhere Africa Asia Africa Asia Africa Africa Africa Asia Europe N amp S America N amp S America N amp S America N amp S America Lynx canadensis Lynx lynx Lynx pardinus Lynx rufus Ma yaiurus iriomotensis Neofeis nebuosa Oncifeis coocoo Oncifeis Oncifeis Oreaiurus jacobita Otocoobus manu Panthera leo Panthera onca Panthera pardus Panthera tigris i xiame lynx Eurasion lynx Ibe anlynx Bobcat Iriomote cat Clouded leopard Pampas cat Geoffey39s cat Kodkod Mountain cat Pallas39s cat Lion Jaguar Leopard Tiger N America Asia Europe Europe N America Asia Asia 8 America 8 America 8 America S America Asia Africa N amp S America Africa Asia Europe Asia Cat Taxonomy Overview Uncia uncia Snow leopard Asia 15 mmrmn WM ENNIS 7 extinct 39 39 139 j V 7 30 namfa39nn CW quot4quot 4D m Wan exrmct 50 WWW 39 m a mg 50 Human Ereudnnm 120 N39ri ibn Cats descendants of tree climbing Miacis EOL LNL DLIGOCENE M IOCENE PLIOCENE PLEISTOCENE I AL HHMJ I Cheetah Puma I Ir Humrm mium 39 7 Large saber tooth cat I Radiation of the Cat Family Felidae i La Brea tar pits 39 1 quot1 quot


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