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Physical Geography

by: Lenore West

Physical Geography GEO 206

Lenore West
GPA 3.79

N. Moore

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N. Moore
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lenore West on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 206 at Michigan State University taught by N. Moore in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/207446/geo-206-michigan-state-university in Geography at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Geography Exam Four Points to Cover 10 points missingso expect some more random questions 1 Evidence that the Earth was hit by Theia a Moon made from crap left over when the Earth and Mars collided 45 billion years ago the colliding body is known as the Greek titan Theia who was the goddess ofthe Moon b Both the Earth39s and Moon39s core contain the same silicon isotopic material showing that they were one body until separationthe Moon also has a similar composition c The Moon39s orbit and the Earth39s spin have identical directional courses 1 Samples from the Moon show that the surface was once molten caused by the collision 2 BIFs Banded iron formations a Pieces of Sedimentary rock usually from Precambrian age typical segment has continual thin layers of silver iron oxides and either magnetite or hematite that alternates with bands of reddish shales and cherts b Formed when bluegreen algae releases oxygen during photosynthesis and dissolved iron combine to make thin layers of shale and chert 3 Is it weird to have a lot of oxygen on Earth a No it39s not weird to have a lot of oxygen on Earth we have approximately 21 of it in the Earth39s lower atmosphere by volumeat an altitude of 25 km Along with methane it makes up most of our quotdry atmosphere Without oxygen life as we know it wouldn39t exist because it39s an essential part of photosynthesis and respiration Thus having oxygen at an altitude of 25 km is necessary for our survival b Important element in environmental science for living things the atmosphere and our Earth rocks 4 Layers of the EarthInner core outer core mantle crust a Inner Care a hot solid ball of iron mixed with nickel and other stuff probably growing as the planet cools i The inner core is theorized to be solid with a density of about 13 grams per cubic centimeter and a radius of about 1220 kilometers b M a hot super gooey layer of spinning liquid sheets and iron alloys that we think gives rise to the geomagnetic eldgtabout 7000 km in diameter i The outer core is liquid and has a density of about 11 grams per cubic centimeter It surrounds the inner core and has an average thickness ofabout 2250 kilometers c Mantle the thick gooey layer of liquid hot magma that oats between the crazy hot core and the surface layer moved by c0nvecti0ngt2900 km thick i comprises about 83 ofthe Earth39s volume It is composed of several different layers ii The upper mantleexists from the base of the crust downward to a depth of about 670 kilometers This region of the Earth39s interior is thought to be composed of peridotite an ultrama c rockmade up of the minerals olivine and pyroxene The top layer of the upper mantle 100 to 200 kilometers below surface is called the astheno sphere Scienti c studies suggest that this layer has physical properties that are different from the rest of the upper mantle The rocks in this upper portion of the mantle are more rigid and brittle because of cooler temperatures and lower pressures Below the upper mantle is the lower mantle that extends from 670 to 2900 kilometers below the Earth39s surface This layer is hot and plastic The higher pressure in this layer causes the formation of minerals that are different from those ofthe upper mantle d Crust the think 10 km surface layer that39s mostly solid rock composed of several giant plates or quottektonsquot basalt rich oceanic crust and granitic rich continental crust 5 Movement of the San Andreas faultin California a It39s atransform fault that is 1300 km long and is 10 km wide in some areas connects the East Paci c Rise southern divergent boundary and the South Gorda Explorer Ridge northern divergent boundary 6 3 Tectonic boundary movements a 14 major plates that move approximately 6 cm per year b Divergent boundarywhen plates pull away from each other and a new crust is made which means that oceans get wider or new ones are created on land it39ll make a separation that will get taller over time and then the land mass will break away 8 water will ll the space between time Iceland along the MidAtlantic ridge Convergent boundarywhen plate dives under another crust is destroyed and then put back into the Earth Subduction Zones since mountains and volcanoes are usually found where the plates converge 3 types 5391 i Oceanic Continental oceanic plate pushes into a continental plate C plate lifts and makes a mountain range while the O plate39s subducted underneathearthquakes sometimes follow the uplift because the 0 plate breaks into small pieces and later move alter being stuck in place for a long period oftime Oceanic Oceanic two oceanic plate converge and create a deep oceanic trench when one39s subducted under the otheralso create undersea volcanoes Continental Continental occurs when two continents collide into each other and neither subducts then the crust is either pushed ward or sideways P d Transform boundarywhen two plates slide horizontally and create shallow earthquakes mostly found on the ocean oor but a couple happen on land like the San Andreas fault 7 Ring of Fireaccording to Wikipedia a 40000 km horseshoe shape ring that39s located throughout the Paci c Ocean lots of earthquakes and volcanic erupts happen home to over 75 of the world39s active 8 dormant volcanoes 452 result of the plate tectonics and collisions movements of lithospheric plates 8 Permian Extinction KretaceousTertiary extinction antrnpoene era a Permianhappened 252 million years ago known as quotthe Great Dyingquot worse extinction because 96 of all marine and 70 of terrestrial vertebrate species became extinctlife on Earth recovery took approximately 10 million years b KTended the dinosaur era Germans named it occurred 65 million years ago at the end of the Maastrichtian ageassociated with the KT boundary thin band of sedimentation visible wherever rocks from that age are exposed c Antropcenemarks the evidence and extent of human activities that have had a signi cant global impact on the Earth39s ecosystems humans have accelerated the rate of species extinction and human activity has increased the atmospheric carbon dioxide content global warming 9 Did humans mammals coexist with dinosaurs a Based on fossil records DNA similarities and differences and species evolution mammals did coexist with dinosaurs for a short period of time before the extinction of dinosaurs The rst mammals evolved at the end of the Triassic period and lived alongside dinosaurs throughout the Mesozoic Era however mammals didn39t evolve like the species we have today until alter dinosaurs were extinct because the rst mammals were so tiny they survived the K T Extinction that doomed dinosaurs The survived off less food and their warmblooded metabolism helped keep them warm 10 How do you measure aging of stuff Is it just radiocarbon dating emical analysis radioactive material in rocks and fossil records has limitations because only 1 of species that lived have been identi ed 11 How does speciation work a It39s the process by which new species originate through mutations natural selection and evolution b Occurs when separate populations of a single species develop into distinct species when no interbreeding between populations occur and they isolate can be a good thing so that species learn to adapt better to their surroundings Galaoagos Finches with different beakssurvive longer 12 Explain the 56 kingdoms of life What are the differences Eukaryotichave nucleus prokaryoticno nucleus b Archea Protista group of organisms similar appearance to bacteria but not biochemicallygenetically that are adapted to live in extremely hostile habitats like hot springs thermal volcanic vents and saline pools singlecelled eukaryotesdiatoms amoebas dino agellates 57 P n s c Mone rasinglecelled prokaryotic organisms that lack chlorophyll but get their energy to survive through fermentation and respiration bacteria cyanobacteria and viruses 1 PlantaePlants autotrophic multicellular organisms that can make inorganic elements into organic compounds by using the Sun39s energy photosynthesis cell walls made of cellulose used to help build stem stree trunks and a central vacuole store water chemicals for growth and metabolism waste poison or ower pigments plantsannuals perennials e Fungimulticellula r ife forms with eukaryotic cell types that are different from plants because of its feeding strategies reproduction growth and physiological organization molds mushrooms and yeast f Animalsheterotrophic multicellular organisms with eukaryotic cell types and they must ingest organic molecules that are already produced to get food two unique tissue types nervous and muscle and most get offspring through sexual A J 39 animals 39 and 13 Explain primary and secondary minerals 39mary minerals are those that come from when rocks are weathered by physical means Quartz Si02 Feldspar KAlSi308 BiotiteKMggAlSi30 10 OH 2 AlbiteNaAlSi3 Os Muscovite KAl3Si3O 1o 0H2ltdominated by Si Al 0 b Secondary minerals are those that come from broken down rocks soil meaning when primary minerals are weathered by chemical means Silicate clays iron oxides aluminum oxides crystalline alumino silcate and cla sgtdominated by aluminum silicon and oxygen 14 Process structure time for rocks picture of somewhere in England r cess constructive destructive processes acting now or previously b Structure rock mass or unconsolidated material mass c Time landforms evolve through stages from continued actions of geomorphic processes 15 Iceland volcano thing what kind of volcano is it How is it different from those in Hawaii Eyjafiallaiiikull a Iceland has about 130 volcanoes but they vary in type unlike Hawaii which is made up of mostly shields It39s a composite volcano most common typetall and conical that39s made of many lava tephra pumice and volcanic ash layers Different b c they are known for steep pro les and periodic 8 quiet eruptions Most of the volcanoes in Hawaii are shields less commonlarge in size but they have low pro les lava travels farther than that of those from more explosive volcanoes i Shields in Hawaii largest and most prominent shield volcano chain in the world characterized by frequent rift eruptions cause y movement of the Paci c Plate ii Shields in Iceland none have erupted within the last 5000 years don39t follow the growth or destruction patterns of other shields 16 What are P 8 S waves P slinky and Swiggle waves in a rope F7 5391 9


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