Govt & Politics of the World
Govt & Politics of the World PLS 140
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Date Created: 09/19/15
March 12 2012 Pls 140 Professor Carter New Notes for final exam Lecture 8 Electoral Systems Main Questions 39339 Which types of institutions allow the most effective representation of citizens Which affect the representation of diverse groups Participation and Representation 39339 Almost all regimes allow some amount of participation and representation 39339 Democratic regimes face challenge of stimulating and channeling it 39339 Authoritarian regimes seek to constrain or coopt it The Collective Action Problem 39339 Question Why would individuals band together to participate in joint political action 39339 Collective Action Theorists argue that gt Collective action difficult to achieve gt Individual costs outweigh benefits gt Free riding gt Incentives key Fundamental Institutions 39339 Electoral systems 39339 Party systems gt Both provide incentives I Elites to actually represent and Masses to participate in politics Electoral Systems 39339 Formal Institutions 39339 Legal rules to translate vote into office shares 39339 Three types gt Single Member Districts SMD gt Proportional Representation PR gt Mixed Systems SingleMember Districts SMD 39339 One representative per district gt Part of majoritarian system with minorities less likely to be representated 39339 Types gt Firstpastthepost FPTP I Requires plurality I Originated in Great Britain gt Majoritarian I Requires absolute majority 50 1 I Runoff election Case Studv United King4lom 8 United States 39339 Historically both countries have a twoparty gt UK has moved toward twoandahalf party systems liberal democratic 39339 Firstpastthepost in both countries though under different contexts gt UK Parlimentary I Debate about changing from FPTH to AV gt US Presidential Proportional Representation PR 39339 Multiple representatives per district gt Representatives allocated by share of vote a party receives I Closedlist systems voters vote for parties not individual candidates I Openlist systems voters get to vote on individual candidates gt Usually a party must cross a threshold eg 3 or 5 of vote Benefits and Costs of PR Benefits Costs quotGreater Representation quotIndirect Elections quotHigher Participation Rates quotParty Discipline quotIneffective Legislature MixedSystems 39339 Combines SMD with Proportinality 39339 Votes Cast gt One ballot of district representative gt One ballot for party list March 19 2012 PIs 140 Professor Carter Civil Society Interest Groups 39339 Emerged in 19th century alongside mass electoral democracy gt Represent the interests of specific groups of people gt Like Political Parties Interest articulations Aggregation gt Typology of Interest Groups Associational Interest Groups ie NOW AARP Christian Coalition NRA Private Institutional Groups ie GM Anglican Church Nonassociational Interest Groups ie consumer letter writing campaign on manufacturing of dangerous toys Two main democratic models of government interest group interaction 39339 Corporatist gt Fewer groups organized in hierarchical system peaI associations 0 v PIuraIist gt Many groups more open access to government Congressional Committee Iron Trianglea Organized interests Beaureaucratic Agency Social Movements 39339 Pursue participations outside of institutional structures 39339 More informal than interest groups 39339 Usually seek major faster change 39339 First arose during 19505 and 19605 in western democracies 39339 Sometimes develop into interest groups or occasionally political parties Social Capital Comprised of networks and norms of reciprocity 39 Trust generated through social networks Membership in civic networks voluntary associations decrease so does trust and collective action Social capital key to vibrant civil society 0 Networks gt Horizontal are better at generating trust gt Vertical Associations gt Bridging groupings that bring people together of different backgrounds gt Bonding tend to reflect a more homogonous makeup o 00 0 o 00 o 00 0 o 00 Bowling Alone Putnam s articlel 39339 He is saying that people are still participating in a lot of things like bowling but not in a political way Unsocial Capital 39339 Dimensions of social capital gt Some may undermine democracy Equality gt Implications of greater social capital where history of segregation 39339 Traditional social capital and intolerance PatronClient Relationships 39339 More important where formal institutions are weakest 39339 Most important in authoritarian systems though they also exist in democracies eg Japan India 39339 May be only form of participationaccess available to a citizen Research on Civil Society January 18 2012 PLS 140 Professor Carter 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 The Modern State State of Nature SON Hobbes quotwar of every man against ever man in which life was quotsolitary poor nasty brutish and short Individuals are gt Free amp equal gt Subjected to constant fear amp insecurity gt Most rely on own individual strength for protection In SON there exist no common authority Common Definitions of the State gt The state quotis a huge community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory Max Weber Two Common Factors A specified territorial scope The use of force or threat of force to control What is the State Set of ongoing institutions gt Develop amp administer laws gt Generate and implement public policies gt Territorial boundary gt The state is NOT a nation government or regime I Government s comet go I Bone structure of the body politic because it provides a structure for the society Characteristics of the Modern State 4 types Territory Sovereignty 39339 Legitimacy 39339 Capacity Bureaucracy Territory is an area with clearly defined borders to which a state bys claim 0 No unclaimed territories remain Sovereignty lmplies a state s ability to govern over a given territory 0 External States equal participation within the realm 0 Internal a state that has domestic issues Legitimacy in the recognized right to rule 0 Traditional 0 Charismatic o RationalLegal Capacity Bureaucracy diversion of a state that implements proceduresregulations 0 Required to run complex functions military consumptions 0 Central to Rationallegal legitimacy implemented standard legal manner Origins of the Modern State 39339 Europe 15th Centuries o The Peace of Westphalia 1648 O Principle of state sovereignty establishes gt gt Modern states 18th amp 19th centuries I Modern armies taxation Spread of Modern State gt Europe exported modern states through colonial conquest I First wave 16th century in Americas I 2ND Wave Mid19th century in Asia And Africa 39339 Causes of new state formations gt Ethnic seccesion Two views of Modern State 39339 Contractarian February 22 2012 PIs 140 Professor Carter Market Economies 0 Market economy an economic system in which individuals and firms exchange goods and services in a largely unfettered manner 0 Nearly universal since end of cold war 0 Capitalism the combination of a market economy with private property rights Market Essential Roles of States Providing security Establishing and enforcing property and contract rights Creating and controlling common currency 0 Within or across nations ie euro 0 Most essential roles involve providing public goods Beneficial Roles of States 2 State provision of gt Infrastructure 39 Education 0 Health care 2 Prevention of regulation of monopolies 2 Intervention to correct market failure gt Market Failure when markets do not perform their expected function like the US housing market and how it crashed Politically Generated Roles 2 Taken on because populace demands them for example gt Improved working conditions 39 Policies to redistribute income 0 Environmental protection Economic Voting 2 Voters sanction or reward politicians based on assessments of the economy gt Measures GDP GNP unemployment and inflation 2 Sociotropic vs egocentric pocketbook assessments 2 Retrospective vs prospective 2 Just beginning to test these theories in developing world Key Economic Debates 2 Keynesianism vs Monetarism gt John Maynard Keynes Fiscal policy to revive demand during economic down turn gt Milton Friedman Monetary policy during economic crisis 2 Development economics vs neoliberalism gt Importsubstitution Industrialization ISI Trade by protectionism to grow industries gt Comparative advantage Gains through trade by focusing on goods that are produced efficiently Keynesianism 2 John Maynard Keynes most prominent economist of mid20th century gt State should intervene in economic downturns 39 Government deficit spending stimulates demand gt Managed capitalism could smooth out boom and bust cycles maybe provide continuous full employment gt Keynesian policies adopted in most Western countries Monetarism 2 By 1970 s new economic situations stagflation 2 More government borrowing not solution 2 Milton Friedman and other monetarists key to economic growth is monetary policy 2 Governments must reduce amount of money in circulation 2 Society must accept natural rate of unemployment Development Economics 2 Considered how state could intervene in economy to stimulate rapid industrialization and growth Managed capitalism for developing countries Importsubstitution industrialization ISI S initially successful Most developing countries pursued with support of West and World Band form 195051970s 02 02 02 29 Neoliberalism 2 Monetaristinspired model embraced by World Bank in 1980 2 Partly based on success of quotEast Asian Miraclequot countries 2 Relied on structural adjustment programs to gt End government restrictions on free trade gt Privatize stateowned industry gt Reduce deficits 2 IMF and World Bank imposed in much of postcolonial world Structural Adiustment Programs lSAPSl 2 Supporters gt SAPS work when properly implemented 2 Opponents gt SAPS not applicable in all settings 39 If it s a weak institution then investors do not have the security to participate in this climate gt Problematic where weak institutions gt Neoliberal approach undermines infrastructure and human development Globalization 2 Globalization the rapid increase in the flow of economic activity technology and communication around the globe gt Debate over its cause Technology or conscious government policies 39 Important to the economy because of the power it gives to capital it gives business power 2 PostCold War some scholars predicted end of the nationstate though states seem to be thriving gt At the heart of issue is capital mobility ie the ability of businesses to quotmove outquot Politics and the Informal Economy 2 Legal system gt Every state has one gt Determines what typed of economic activity is legal under the law gt Sets boundaries of formal market 39 Illegality of drugs and prostitution 2 All states have parts of the market that lie beyond their control gt Black markets 39 Informal economy of crime 0 Le drugs piracy Case Study The United States 2 Free market model gt Stingy gt Compared to other wealth countries US has intervened little in the economy gt Chief champion of free trade and globalization although not always consistent when US interests threatened gt In mid20th century government involvement expanded programs such as Social Security and Medicare have remained 2 Great Recession 20082009 led to largest Keynesian deficit spending in a generation Germany 2 Social market economy gt Combines highly productive market economy a generous welfare state gt Globalization and limits on EU member spending has raised questions about viability caused high unemployment and problems financing social welfare benefits gt Close relationships between private and public sectors Japan 2 Developmental state gt Created national strength in particular economic areas through key ministries gt Led to quotJapanese miracle Japan became world s second largest economy after WWII gt Not an extensive welfare state depended on lifetime employment system 39 Does not spend a lot of money on social security health care and etc gt Economic miracle ended in 1990 bubble burst reforms led to less government control MiniCase Chile 2 Early neoliberal reformer gt Neoliberal success story gt Military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet turned economic policy over to civilian technocrats quotChicago Boysquot they were highly educated the University of Chicago gt Opened Chile up to world market and reduced state intervention February 20 2012 Pls 140 Professor Carter For midterm Cheat sheet allowed one 85x11 Office hours Thursday instead of Wednesday Study before the 27th because review is on the 27th Lecture 6b Political Identity Reca from2 15 o Explaining Identity 0 Primordialsim o lnstrumentalism o Constructivism 0 Nations and national Identity 0 Nationalism 0 Civic amp Cultural Nationalism I Emergence I Types I Aims Jihad vs McWorld Barber 1995 2 McWorld gt Market imperative I Informationtechnologyimperative 0 Resource imperative O Ecological imperative 2 Jihad gt Subnational players I Cultures religious sects dissenting minorities gt Often fighting against forces of globalization gt Struggle to affirm identity and ward off imported institutions Nations amp States 0 Nation state 9 Sovereign state comprised of one nation 9 Homogenous o Multinational State 9 Many different nations in one state 9 Different approaches to diversity gt State embraces or represses gt Multiculturalists vs assimilationist Ethnicig 2 Ethnic groups see themselves as having commonalities but do not seek a state gt Political goals recognized and autonomy 39 Ethnicity is not always political Politicization of Ethnicig 2 What leads to ethnic mobilization gt Relative deprivation 39 US example 39 Class intersects with race gt Political or economic uncertainty 39 Regime change Religion 2 Religious groups identify based on religious membership or beliefs 2 Political goals similar to ethnic groups gt Conversion low when religious identify carries Case Study Nigeria 2 Hausa Yoruba Igbo identities primarily socially constructed in 20th century 2 For most of their precolonial history Nigerian ethnic groups not politically united 2 Came to perceive collective interests as quottribesquot by end of colonial rule 2 Colonial administration eastern missionaries and anthropologist play role 2 National leaders mobilized followings on ethnic and regional bases 2 Coalition of two or three regions needed for national government very unstable 2 Ethno regional conflict has persisted but on more local level 2 Sharia introduced in North under new democracy gt Lessened saliency of ethnicity greater attention religious identity Race 2 People who see themselves as group based primarily on common physical characteristics and common history gt Often hard to distinguish from ethnicity or culture 39 Unlike ethnicity race tends to be an identity imposed by othersoriginally via European conquest and colonialism 39 Political goals good recognition and representation Case Study United States 2 Racial categories have been fluid in the US 2 Racial Identity formation gt Eg Irish Italians Poles Jews others 2 Blackwhite division has predominated 2 Terms quotAsian Americanquot and quotHispanicquot or quotLatinoquot very new before that defined by nationality not race 2 AfricanAmerican movement integrationist vs black nationalist 2 Obama Election gt Historical milestone in US racial history 39 Will racial inequality persist 39 Debates over affirmative action and political representation 0 Who benefits 39 Breakdown of blackwhite dichotomy o Interminority completion 3amp2 2 Race defined by appearance not descent 2 Racial discrimination and inequality similar in Brazil to that found in US 2 Harder for black consciousness to emerge in Brazil gt Racial intermarriage very common creating mulatto population gt Policies supported quotwhitingquot through subsidizing European immigration and intermarriage gt Now racial quotas in place at universities to increase black representation Politics of Recognition 2 Recognition gt Sought by ethnic racial and religious minorities gt Raises the question of stateminority relations and how states can accommodate cultural difference gt Often involves thinking about minority rights gt Tension in liberal democratic systems which focus on individual rights 39 How to balance individual vs group rights Institutional Responses to Diversig 2 How might governments respond to diversity gt Banning public appeals to ethnicity religion other quotsectarianquot identities gt Use institutions to manage diversity 39 Federalism 39 Centripetal vs Consociational approaches PLS 140 February 15 2012 Professor Carter Identity Politics 0 Nationalism came to the fore since end of Cold War 0 Conflict shifts from interstate wars to intrastate conflict between ethnic and nationalist groups I ie conflict between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda 0 Some see nationalism as premodern but most agree that is a feature of modernization 0 Ernest Gellner and Benedict Anderson 39339 Identity in the modern world gt Nation gt Ethnicity gt Race gt Religion Explaining Identity 0 Primordialism o Instrumentalism o Constructivism Where Does Identity Come From 0 39 Primordialism gt Identity groups natural or God given gt Have existed since quottime immemorial gt Can be clearly defined based on such criteria as kinship language culture or physical features gt Political culture arguments Huntington s Clash of Civilizations 39339 Instrumentalism gt Elite theory of identity politics gt Rational choice theory gt Elites manipulate symbols and feelings of identity to mobilize a following gt Without elite leadership people with common traits many not recognize themselves as part of a group 39339 Constructivism gt Emphasizes shifting interpretation of symbols and stories gt Postmodern understanding of political culture as set of symbols subject to interpretation gt Argues that cultures change but societies collectively construct identity not dictated by elites gt ldentity communities imagined Benedict Anderson 1991 Nations 39339 A nation consists of a group of individuals with shared characteristic that seeks selfrule gt Political goal control of a state I Nation NOT same as state 0 Le lbos of Nigeria O Congruence between nation and state 39339 National Identity and Nationalism 39339 National identity gt Refers to people s attachments and loyalty to the nation 0 v Nationalism gt Capitalizes on group attachments to engage members in a political project What do Nationalist Movements Want 0 Territorial autonomy selfgovernment over local area within a state gt Independence or selfdetermination I Nation wants own country I Full sovereignty over its people and territory I Achieving this may require secession gt Control of resources within a territory I ie oil 0 Types of Nationalism 0 Civic nationalism O Eg France United States Cultural Ethnic nationalism O Eg Germany 0 Challenges to civic nationalism O Farright groups antiimmigration movements March 14 2012 Pls 140 Professor Carter Effect of Electoral system on econ Price level inequality distribution Electoral systems and price levels 39339 Majoritarian systems have lower prices than pr systems 0 gt Key question how many votes does it take to win representation in the leg gt Need more voted in Majoritarian system than PR Majoritarian system appeases consumers gt PR system appeases producers prices tend to go up Electoral Systems and Inequality 39339 PR systems have lower levels of income inequality than Majoritarian systems gt Consenses coalition governments are more inclusive this leads to greater redistribution which in turn lowers income inequality Electoral Systems and Redistribution 39339 PR systems redistribute more than Majoritarian ones gt Majoritarian systems produce centerright coalitions PR systems produce centerleft Why Parties 39339 Why do parties emerge gt Constructed by selfinterested political elites gt Two primary goals Career and Policy gt Party is structure through which these goals are realized 39339 Key functions of political party gt Interestarticulation gt Interest aggregation 39339 Model of Responsible Party Governments 1 Parties formulate programs 2 Voters evaluate these programsvote 3 Winning party translates program into laws and policies Challenges to the Responsible Party Government Model 39339 Model is an ideal type reality often does not conform to this because of gt Internally fragmented parties gt Voter ignorance gt Divided or coalition government gt Lack of party discipline Types of Parties 39339 Cadre gt Parties of the elite 39339 Mass gt Emerged from political and economic changes gt Ethnicidentity gt Ideological Linkages between Parties and Citizens 39339 Partisan voter consistently identifies with one party and votes for its candidates 39339 Partisan alignment 39339 Partisan dealignment 39339 Party realignment Party System 39339 Arena within which parties operate 39339 Shaped by gt Number of parties in the system gt Relative strength of parties Types of Party systems 39339 Dominant party system gt Multiple parties exist but one wins every election and governs continuously I Eg India under Congress to 1989 South Africa uncler ANC 39339 Twoparty system gt Only two parties able to win although more may compete I Eg United States 39339 Two and a half party system gt Two large parties win most votes but not enough for majority which requires coalition with third party I Eg Germany United Kingdome 2010 39339 Multiparty Systems gt More than two parties win enough seats and must govern in coalition I Eg India since 1989 Israel Explaining Party Systems 39339 Sociological Explanations gt Party system reflects divisions in society I Eg Europe Business interests led to liberal parties Socialist parties domain of workers 39339 Institutional Explanations gt Electoral system can shape party system gt Eg Duverger s Law I SMDgttwo party system I PRgtmultiparty system Mechanisms Linking Electoral and Party Systems 39339 SMDgt multiparty system 39339 SMD requires plurality or majority gt Political parties must appeal to broad segments of society catch all 39339 PRgt multiparty system 39339 PR requires parties to meet minimal threshold gt Entry costs lower gt Political parties that represent extreme or minority viewpoints that represent extreme or minority viewpoints can win gt Political leaders have incentives to create newthird party not likely to garner enough votes to win I Ralph Nader MiniCase France 39339 Duverger s Law at work gt Move from PR to tworound Majoritarian system gt Two families of parties emerged one left one right gt SMD Majoritarian system leaves socialists and Gaullists as the two dominant parties where there used to be four Party System Institutionalization 39339 Important to ensure gt Stability in interparty competition March 21 2012 Pls 140 Professor Carter Recent Case of Triumph of Civil Society 39339 Zimbabwe gt Once symbol of anticolonial struggle gt Now under Robert Mugabe and ZANUPF political corruption and state violence against opposition parties and supporters gt During 2008 election season attempted to import arms from Chinese supplier 39339 South Africa gt On April 14 2008 Chinese shipped clocked at Durban Harbor carrying millions of rounds of ammunition and weapons headed for Zimbabwe gt South African Transport and Allied Workers Union SATAWU refused to offload weapons gt Religious groups and NGO s demonstrated at Durban Harbor gt Southern African Litigation Center SALC 39339 Mozambique gt Civil society groups in SA disseminate information to civil society groups in Mozambique gt Transport workers here also refuse to offload the shipment gt Ship leaves Mozambique and civil society groups alert partners in Namibia and Angola gt Angola allows ship to refuel and then the ship returned to China without off loading the arms this is an example on how civil society had a big effect on the economy and how they were able to withhold something from it What is Ethnic Conflict 39339 Pursuit in incompatible goals by two or more actors 39339 Goals defined in ethnic term one group must be able to define ethnic terms and why are they discriminated against with their ethnicity Causes of Ethnic Conflict 39339 Insecurity Insecurity and International Relations 39339 Realist IR Theory Security dilemma 39339 Basic premise gt International system is anarchical gt Anarchy is result of I Absence of central authority I Uncertainty gt Preemptive attacks gt Survivamiitary strength Insecurity and Ethnic Conflicts 39339 Uncertainty gt History matters 39339 Fear and Uncertainty Prone Environments gt Geography ethnic isolation gt Government breakdown gt Changing balance of political power gt Redistribution of resources gt Disarmament 39339 Security dilemma result of gt Information failure groups are not able to obtain information on their rivals gt Lack of credible commitments least one group can not sufficiently reassure another group that it will not affect from another agreement Greed 39339 Violence economically motivated 39339 Civil wars occur when gt Rebellion incentives outweigh costs gt Rebellion incentives I Prospect of victory I Capacity of rebel government to reward supporters in future gt Rebellion costs I Opportunity cost of rebel labor I Disruption of economic activity as result of war Greed Findings o 00 Greed theory tested on large dataset of civil wars gt Civil war mostly in lowincome countries gt Natural resources exacerbate conflict gt Countries with larger populations at greater risk for civil war and these last longer gt Degree of ethnolinguistic fractionalization Social Psychological 39339 Realistic group conflict theory 39339 Social identity theory everyone divides their world into social categories and they position themselves in one or more and people generally strive for a positive identity International Dimensions 39339 External national homelands looks at ethnic minority individuals who have migrated to another country so if theyltheir homeland will get involved where they were born 0 International organizations UN or non government organizations or formal organizations that can become involved 0 Regional actors can be neighboring countries or a larger organization like the UN can become involved with the conflict 0 0 0 Democratization and Conflict 39339 Democratizationgtlncreases in Conflict leads to who will have power and what not 39339 Popularrivalries vs Elite persuasion arguments suggests that strong identity attachments are nm instrumentalist argument 39339 Especially likely in context of weak state Conflict Regulation 39339 Prevention gt Set of policies adopted at an early state in a conflict before violent escalation gt Channel conflict into nonviolent behavior gt Short term crisis management vs long term structural prevention 39339 Management gt Attempts to limit or contain the effects of an ongoing conflict January 30 2012 PLS 140 Professor Carter Political Regimes Old Authoritarianism 39339 Closed political system 39339 Absent or tightly regulated civil society 39339 Heavy use of force less effort to secure legitimacy The many names of new style Authoritariasm 39339 Pseudodemocracy 39339 Virtualdemocracy 39339 Semidemocracy 39339 Electoral democracy 39339 Hybrid regimes New Authorianism 39339 Authoritariam amp democratic elements 39339 Frequent elections held 39339 Legal opposition parties but ruling party ensures it always wins 39339 Ideological justification a combination of democratic amp modernizing authoritariam Electoral Democracy ED vs Electoral Authoritarian EA 39339 Both employ elections gt Whether elections are held gt Quality of elections 39339 ED gt Not much emphasis on rights gt Elections free amp fair 39339 EA gt Not much emphasis on rights gt Elections NOT free amp fair variation Key Actors in Hybrid Regimes 39339 Citizens 39339 Rulingopposition parties 39339 Media civil Citizens in SA H brid Re imes 39339 Participate in elections 39339 Universals franchise 39339 Preference falsification gt In theory everyone can participate in elections Opposition parties is SAlHybrid Regimes 39339 Compete against tremendous odds gt Use I Boycotts I International arena I Civil society Media Civil society International actors 39339 New style authoritarianism display the quottrappings but not the substance of effective democratic participation 39339 Media gt State owned vs independent 39339 Civil society gt Autonomous 39339 International actors gt Often aligned with the opposition Ruling Parties Menu of Manipulation 39339 Restricting civil liberties 39339 Reserved positions and domains gt Thailand 1991 majority of senate seats appointed 39339 Exclusion amp fragmentation v Disenfranchisement 39339 Vote buying v Intimidation 39339 Electoral fraud Risks of Hybrid Regimes 39339 Mobilize dissidence 39339 Strategic miscalculation Theocracy Rule by religious authorities in the past Christian examples now only existing example is Muslim 39 lslamism gt Arose in the 19th amp 20th centuries as a radical rather than a traditionalist path gt Sought to purify Muslim society from western influences gt Most lslamists believe in adherence to Sharia Law gt Belief that sovereignty rests with God not people 0 o o 0 0 Case Study Iran 39339 Unique in the religion majority of population is of the shite sect 39339 No theocratic roots prior to 1979 Revolution lran had a modernizing authoritarian regime that was highly dependent 39339 Theocratic state established with some democratic elements gt Introduced idea of supreme leader cleric gt Provided for consultation with an elected parliaments amp president I Established Mexico 39339 Party rule established 1924 to prevent personal rule 39339 6 year non renewable presidential term amp regular elections that PRI always wins 39339 State corporatist control of unions etc 39339 Transition to democracy 19882000 Diamond 2002 39339 Index of authoritarian competiveness gt Percentage of legislative seats held by ruling party Freedom House 39339 Measures freedom in the world January 25 2012 PLS 140 Professor Carter Lecture 3a Political Regimes Form subjects to Citizens 39339 Citizen a member of a political community or state 39339 Subjects of Monarchs had little say in their relationship with the state Citizenship rights 39339 Civil Rights ensure freedom equality and Justice 39339 Political Rights Civil Society 39339 NonState sphere of organized activity 39339 Developed along with modern state 0 v Focus on collective private life 39339 Evolution of civil and political rights Political Regime 39339 Broad set of rules that govern political activity gt Stip Regimes 8 Ideology 39339 Ideologies justify regimes existence gt Formal institution that reflect ideologies I Informal exist too amp often in conflict wideologies Democracy 39339 Derived from Greek word demokratia rule of the people gt Demos people gt Kratos Power 39339 Free fair and competitive elections 39339 Civil liberties 39339 Political rights Liberal Democracy 39339 Classical liberalism precursor of modern liberal democracy gt Based on social contract theory locke I Government should preserve the liberties I Citizens choose leaders 39339 Modern liberal Democracy Birth in the 19th century gt Equality notjust legal but also social gt Voting rights expand to all adult citizens Case Study UK 39339 The quotCradle of Liberal Democracy gt Magna Carta 1215 lords limited gt Glorious Revolution 1688 Parliament chooses new king amp growing suffrage gt Parliament elected amp Supreme Social Democracy 39339 Uses liberal democracy as point of departure but calls for the provision of many more social rights Participation Democracy 39339 Form of democracy that encourages active participations from citizens between elections gt Keeps citizens involved gt Focus on decentralizing power to most local form Electoral Democracy 39339 A political system in which elections are held and opposition parties are allowed to compete gt Full civilpolitical rights lacking I Elections w opposing parties held 3 Key Principles of Democracy 39339 Rule of law the state must be limited amp no one can be above the law 39339 Inclusion Democratic rights amp freedoms must be available to everyone 39339 Equality Notion that the rights must be the sameequal for every person no one should have more rights than another person Communism 39339 Alternative to liberal Democracy Origins in the 19th century writings of Karl Marx gt Liberal democracy serves capitalism amp the bourgeoisie not workers they are the upper classman gt Hold concentration of power amp use for selfpromotion gt Material factors drive historical change Case studv Russia Soviet Union 39339 Unexpected revolution Not where Marx predicted a socialist revolution would occur gt Liberal 0 With Stalin totalitarian regime established v After Stalin more predictable communist system with factions operating behind scenes 0 Wealth amp productivity declined Gorbachev launched reforms in 1980 s v Soviet Union broke apart Fascism 39339 Appeals to spiritual amp pseudobiological principles gt Society akin to living organism with supreme leader as head 39339 llliberal No sense 39339 Anticommunist 39339 Rejection of materialism Case study Nazi Germany 39339 Transformation of Germany in 1933 National socialists ie quotNazisquot rose to power through elections during the Weimar republic gt Nazi leader Adolf Hitler 39339 Combined fascism with racism gt AntiSemitic policies began in early 1930 s with WWII Holocaust began I Political January 23 2012 PLS 140 Professor Carter Lecture 2b Modern State Strong State a state that is able to fulfill basic tasks effectively I Control amp defend territory I Make amp enforce rules I Protect rights I Collect taxes I Manage economy I Provide full range and high quality of political goods 39339 Political Goods 39339 Security This is the state s primary function It provides a framework through which all other political goods can be delivered 39339 Law A system of codes and procedures which regulate the interactions of the population and set the standards for conduct 39339 Medical and Health care 39339 Schools and Educational Instruction 39339 Critical infrastructure 39339 Money and banking system 39339 A business environment 39339 A forum for civil society 39239 A method of regulating environmental commons Case Study Strong State UK 39239 One of the earliest modern states United States 39239 Unusually created by design rather than evolution gt Articles of confederation the first effort creating state quickly failed 1781 I Constitution created first modern form of federalism Weak 8 Failed States Weak State cannot provide adequate political goods I Prior to the 20th century weak states did not survive now hostile take over s often are rare Failed State a state so weak it loses effective sovereignty 0 Eg Liberia Sudan Afghanistan 39239 Collapsed State an extremely failed state Failed state characteristics 39239 Delegitimizedcorrupt state gt Lack of public services I Human rights abuses o A quotstate within a state 9 Fractionalized elite gt Foreign Intervention I Most are former colonies Moderately weak states 39339 Russia Internal ethnicnationalist conflict weak rule of law v Mexico Drug cartels 39339 India Corruption poverty religious tensions Hindus vs Muslims v China Corruption weak rule of law 0 A democratic regime state does not mean it is a strong state Extremely weak state Nigeria 0 Borders set by colonialism British united as one colony in 1914 0 Largest African Country deeply divided along ethnic v Nationalist mount post WWII gained independence 1960 139 Weak state held together by military rule 0 Electoral Democrat since 1999 State weakness in Africa v Colonialism 39339 Imported model of the state v Wealth resource curse 39339 External sovereignty gt Based on empirical peace 39339 Ethnic heterogeneity PLS 140 GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS OF THE WORLD SPRING 2012 Pointers on Preparing for the Midterm FORMAT OF THE EXAM The exam will be comprised of multiple choice and short answer 35 sentences questions The multiple choice questions will vary in level of difficulty and have different point values to reflect this variation CASE STUDIES The Drogus and Orvis text makes use of a substantial number of case studies in an effort to show how political phenomena work in practice When preparing for the exam please do NOT attempt to remember minute details of each case Instead be able to cite cases that illuminate the overarching theme of the chapter The Modern State Be able to identify and discuss at least one case of a strong state and one case of a weak state You should be able to discuss the characteristics that make these cases good examples of strong weak states Political Regimes Be able to compare and contrast cases of different regime types In particular you should be prepared to discuss one country for each of the following regime types liberal democracy communist modernizing authoritarian and semiauthoritarian Regime Change Be able to discuss one case for each of the following types of regime change revolution military coup Also be able to generally distinguish between cases in which revolution occurred from below and cases in which it occurred from above Political Institutions Democracy Be able to compare and contrast a case of a parliamentary system with a case of a presidential system Also be able to discuss how each case exhibits the strengths and pitfalls of each system Authoritarianism
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