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Intro to Physical Anthropology

by: Samson Kemmer

Intro to Physical Anthropology ANP 340

Samson Kemmer
GPA 3.56

J. Bengtson

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J. Bengtson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samson Kemmer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANP 340 at Michigan State University taught by J. Bengtson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/207476/anp-340-michigan-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
History of Evolutionary Thought 0 ANP 340 Darwin and Natural Selection Western Ideas About the World and Biological Diversity ca 1600 1860 O O Creationism accounts for biological diversity by referring to the divine act of creation as described in Genesis Four related ideas I Separate creation I A young earth Archbishop Ussher says the earth is 6000 years old An unchanging earth and permanence of living things Catastrophism any changes are due to catastrophic events Before Darwin Observations Made 0 000000 Fossils could observe change through time Remnant organs body parts not functioning or needed Vertebrate anatomy template or common ancestor Embryo development common ancestor Plant and animal breedingvariation Struggle for existence in animal world New exploration great diversity Aristotle O O 0 384322 BC ScaJa Naturae or Great Chain of Being Living things are I Ranked I Unchanging I Humans are at the top Great Chain of Being Carolus Linneaus O O O 0 17071778 Swedish botanist Father of Taxonomy I Standardized classification system Systema Naturae 173539 I Hierarchical nested classification system based on phenotypic observations Binomial nomenclature two word naming system for naming species Genus then Species Species are fixed unchanging 0 000000 0 O O O O Buffon I Notably placed humans Within the same classificatory scheme as the rest of species Very Basic Linnean Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Linneaus and Humans French Naturalist 17071788 Considered the possibility of improvement and degeneration in life forms Earth may be up to 75000 years old revolutionary Humans were one species JeanBaptiste de Lamarck 17441829 17441829 0 Philosophie zoologique 1809 0 Species are not fixed I Inheritance of acquired characteristics I Change in environment changes the needs of organisms I their behavior changes I leads to more or less use of a structure arm neck etc I leads to greater or lesser size can shrink or disappear I All these changes can be inherited Also believed in a scala naturae Where species gradually became more perfect o Lamarckian Evolution 0 Georges Cuvier O O O O O 0 17691832 Father of Paleontology Rejected early evolutionary ideas Species did not change but Recognized extinction in fossil record Strong proponent of catastophism 0 Thomas Malthus 0 17661834 0 English economisdemographer 0 An Essay on the Principle of Population I Human population increases tend to surpass resource supplies I struggle for existence not enough resources to keep population up I Human population kept in check by famine war disease I Directly in uenced Darwin s conception of natural selection 0 Erasmus Darwin 17311802 Charles Grandfather 0 English physician 0 Great observer of nature Organic life beneath the shoreless waves Was born and nurs d in ocean s pearly caves First forms minute unseen by spheric glass Move on the mud or pierce the watery mass These as successive generations bloom New powers acquire and larger limbs assume VVhence countless groups of vegetation spring And breathing realms of fin and feet and wing Erasmus Darwin The Temple ofNature 1802 0 Sir Charles Lyell 0 17971875 British geologist The Principles of Geology Champion of Uniformitarianism OOO I The present is the key to the past Provided a backdrop for consideration of biological evolution which Lyell rejected 0 0 Why was Darwin so Successful 0 Born to a wealthy in uential family Married Emma Wedgewood An average studentalways a naturalist Studied Medicine at Edinburgh Theology at Christ s College Cambridge In 1831 at 22 yrs invited to serve a Naturalist on HMS Beagle OOOOO nieVoyage of the Beagle I39i Jana 39 11 y i i p t r K 4 mm 1 5mm 39 m cm mid 1 Hubsquot n i a 53243 Daiwtn39s Finches up Valpamsu quot 39 aye hwu man Maud illands Darwian iinclies Variations on a theme 0 All descended irom one mainland form 0 13 varying species on Islands 0 Variation inbeals 1859 0n the Origin ofSpecies o Moved to the village ofDown in 1836 Began iormulating his ideas about natural selection 0 Published in 185 immediately controversial o 1250 copies sold on first day Why 1859 o Spurred on by Alired RussellWallace 0 Worked in Malaysia 0 1858 sent a paper to Darwin On the tendency oiVarieties to depart indeiinitely irom the original type L39nnean Society 0 1859 THE BOOK 0 AlfredRussel Wallace 0 39 39 h naturalist 0 Published Darwinism in 1889 Wallace Effect r Natural selection can lead to speciation by facilitating reproductive isolation o Staunchly refused to use evolutionary theory to discredit the intelligence and creativity of nonEuropeans On the Originwhy so successful 0 Darwin was incredibly in uential 0 His mechanisms were clear 0 Backed up statements with numerous examples from his time on the Beagle And the time was right 0 Darwin s Theory of Evolution 0 All species are capable of producing offspring faster than the food supply increases All living things show variation no two individuals of a species are exactly alike Because there are more individuals than can possibly survive there is a fierce struggle for existence and those with a favorable variation in size strength running ability or whatever characteristics are necessary for survival will possess an advantage over others These favorable variations are inherited and passed on to the next generation Over long time periods these successful variations produce great differences that result in new species Darwin s Tree ofLife 0 Darwin was willing to entertain the idea of biological change new species could evolve from ancestral forms Darwin and Humans o Descent ofMan 1871 I Humans seem so different from apes because transitional forms have become extinct I Humans are one species but perhaps different subspecies I Seemingly nonadaptive traits are preserved within a species due to sexual selectionreproductive advantage Next section will tie in a bit with first Lab on the 19th now Darwin s contributions included an eloquent argument for evolution in general AND the role of natural selection No one in the 19th C understood the source ofthe variation upon which natural selection worked


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