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Archaeology Foragers to Farmer

by: Samson Kemmer

Archaeology Foragers to Farmer ANP 362

Samson Kemmer
GPA 3.56


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About this Document

Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samson Kemmer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANP 362 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/207484/anp-362-michigan-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
091811 ANP 362 Thought paper no more than 750 words Push models related to stress pushing towards adopting ag pop n Populations exceed resources Pull models people get reliant on certain resources which pulls into ag Cohen AG Commitment Faulty assumptions of N American trained Archs No one works harder unless have to so intensification must be explained in terms ofpressure Systems approach issues On systems thinking Too focues on external pressures Environment Cultural systems not simple homeostatis systems Cult Sys have lots ofvariability not simply geared to adaptive functioning On Sedentism and popn pressure Not necessarily an easy option addressing Binford Cohens ideas abut popn pressure lacking evidence Sedentism auto correlates with rapid popninc needs to be questioned Demographic pressure felt when social structure comes under threat When social structure is being threatened and not working any more that is a key issue Bender s Approach Social org and obligations are the critical aspect of this shift towards ag Bands move but wider alliances and reciprocity key not autonomous BAND Ext family group egalitarian agegender hierarchy autonomous groups kind of Depending on alliances btvvndif bands greater or lesser demands made on production if interacting they are probably trading And probably food Variety of dif alliance networks binding tribal segments potential for demands beyond single group subsistence role ofleaders food and sedentism Benders approach summed up Alliance structures and people within those systems make demands on economic productivity The obligations to give receive and to repay p 210 Postprocessual Arch 1980s onward Reaction against Cultural as adaptation amp focus on systemic shifts Ignoring indiv as an active agent in culture Ignoring the role symbols play in life Looking at very large time blocks Using etic viewpoint to understand culture Etic outside view Postprocessual Ideals Humans are active agents in creation and change of culture Focus on indiv and small scales ofbehaviorin uences 0 Ethnicity gender indivs fam groups Can only understand material culture within the conteXt of cultures values and beliefs and meaning expressed through symbols Culture is dynamic through time even at a small indiv scale Emic View Postprocessual cont Interpretation ofpast is subjective No single TRUE past Interpretations considered narratives processual and culture history can be seen as agents of colonialism Domesticating the Mind Hotter was the Binford of Postprocessual Long term process from the standpoint that this goes back to people trying to control nature Making the wild more condusive to human means people domesticating animals and themselves Contemporary Arch All 3 Paradigms employed Serve to answer different but related questions Dualistic epistemology either or thin line between Steady state so should be rapid Problem with dualistic forager or farmer and comes up with way of thinking discussing a middle ground where some use domestication and some use of agriculture Low level food production is a wielding term A Ag is a technology Baggage tied to agriculture Idea ofbeing able to control nature Ecosystem engineering Storage as a technology When you plant something you store it because you don t get the return from the plant that same day Social technological and processoterric Different ways to think about things Because people can and have stored before domestication tracking animals isn t a big intellectual leap 11211 South East Asia New Guinea Long term processes Smiths experimenting concept Smiths low level food production model Barkers bombshell Figure 617 barker dates for expansion for east Asian farmers Migration Diffusion Neolithic Package from China via Taiwan 3000bc pottery rice pigs diffused from se asia to polynesia Post 3000 BC Austonesian migration Pottery rice pigs to Philippines and borneo Taro yam pigs to Polynesia New Guniea Barker Discussion Papuan Languages existing people Much evidence for long term in situ development Fig 612 ocean levels borneo connected to mainland in early Holocene Sillitoe Article pig farming Minnegal and Dwyer Article pig farming and bananas Important domesticates taro yam banana sugar cane sage pandanus and pig Sago processed to make our pearls Pandanus is a shrub tree A site compleX located in middle of NG in the highlands Long occupational sequence 8500 BC 1200 AD Much evidence of swamp cultivation Fig 618620 KUK 82007900 BC Palynology Evidence for periodic fire episodes re ecting likely anthro clearing as early as the Pleistocene Pits posthole runnels on slightly elevated levels Evidence of envi mod for cultivation Erosion increase Evidence for taro based on starch KUK 500045 00 BC Evidence of much forest clearing Burning disturbed environments Taro and banana phytoliths Banana thrives in edge environments Circular to sub circular mound bases Taro hills Possibly creating better soil aeration and tech shift in growing KUK 23502000 BC Complex network of ditches at least 2 km Broader evidence of plant use Taro swamp cultivation Banana forest edges Yam uplands and hill slopes Sago Wooden Paddles axes hoes adzes Possible domestic pig KUK post AD 800 Very compleX cris cross compleX of ditches Continued use of other crops Sweet Potato barkers bombshell Pig KUK


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