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Sociocultural Diversity

by: Samson Kemmer

Sociocultural Diversity ANP 201

Samson Kemmer
GPA 3.56


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Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samson Kemmer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANP 201 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/207486/anp-201-michigan-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Naturalization January 24 saying something isn t cultural Oversimplification is being made of behaviors or characteristics to purely biological cause Woman are coy and choosy by nature Saying something is strictly biological or genetic not cultural Being able to distinguish what it is and what it isn t quot 39 39 quot of genesgenetics of religion20d Januarv 24 Obsession with something personify something personify to give anything abstract human qualities power We invest powers into thing and create a value for it Giving power to something where there is none Marx v Religion More we fetishize we forget the smaller details its true value regarding it Material object believed to embody something we cannot Baseball Superstitions story ex genes Saying religion is a fetish but humans put the power there The fetishization of commodities We give commodities moredifferent value than the actual labor that went into them 0 Also can personify something eg the sel sh gene 0 the more we continue to over attribute genetics the less responsible we make ourselves for our created meanings Lancaster s criticism of trends in science sociobiolog and related elds in particular which have compared selected animal behaviors to certain human behaviors and have claimed that the human one is natural Jan m1 What we see in nature is very much caught up in questions of a socialpolitical order we see what we want to see Human aggression linked to a natural trait Common appearance of a trait Finding human behavior in the animal kingdom makes it natural False analogy Bats and Birds Analogous vs homologous traits Analogous is when there is a similarity but no common ancestry and homologous when there is a common ancestry Sociobiologists are observing analogous traits such as the similarities between ants and humans and assuming there is a common ancestry o Ignores animal traits that contradict social values such as bisexual monkeys Either way humans are radically different from other animals so any comparisons are weak oversimplif1cation of behavior and linking that all to genetics Social construction of what is normal 0 What is considered normal is created by those in power and considered the majority o Heteronormativity The idea that heterosexuality is natural What is normal or natural tends to be the behavior sharedvalued by the dominant group Creation of biliary quot 39uiuai ies u 1328 0 Connection with issues 0 Rich v poor 0 Nature v culture 0 Rational v emotional Connection with power self vs other Objectivity amp Subjectivity no such thing as being objective because everyone has a bias due to their perspective subjectivity is often the one thought of as wrong and thus discounted Power tends to be concentrated at one end of the binary such as monotheistic has power over polytheistic often ends up belittling one group while giving power to the other OOOOOOOOOFjOOOOO IA39 39 of this process to power and J groups or ideas o Binaries are not an accurate representation of reality they re socially constructed Monotheistic religions often have many supernatural beings Many cultures do not distinguish between religion and science M ths m holo 39zin creation of m thical ures and environments in reli 39on histo and science 0 Connected to 4 conditions that lead to religionrituals o l easing anxiety or uncertainty about or in the world 0 2 human need to understand the world 0 3 reversion to childhood feelings and emotions o 4 Social need for idea of right or correct behavior within a community 0 Making an item process or development a myth why 0 Religion 0 GodAllah 0 History 0 Christopher Columbus 0 Any historical event sanitize and mythicize 0 Science 0 Similarities between sociobiology and origin stories Storytelling of how a people came to be Narrativea narrativization o Narrative a spoken or written account of connected events 0 Narrativization process of taking what actually happened historicity lfact to what is said to have happened historicity 2 story Histog and science being re ective of the culture which is producing it often more so than re ecting what happened or actual biological patterns 0 The countries of power tell what they want others to think the countries will turn a series of negative events into positive cheery events that supposedly impacted those involved in a positive manner sanitization Actual events most often not told Americanization of Christopher Columbus His discovery of America is perceived as a prologue to US American history Trouillot the discovery of arnerica is an exercise in Eurocentric power because the rst invasions of inhabited lands are considered discovery Using sociobiology to explain social behavior For example Darwin naturalized Victorian social behavior Power inherent in naming something or creating a fact 0 Those in power define facts or events 0 Removes it from its context and ignores the complexities surrounding it Also distorts importance of the event such as Columbus s discovery in 1491 Racg January 31 0 Folk theory people fit in distinct groups genetically similar Race is determined by 0 our genes common sense Referentialism ideology things that are said not what is implied as a biological construct race is a social construction culturally Critical theory supported by genetics biological explanation There is no such thing as a biological race The African continent holds all genetic diversity Europeans Asians etc are subsets of that population Humans have not been separated long enough for there to be genetically distinct races Two individuals of the same race are as genetically different as two individuals of different races Racism 0 Folk theory only exists in isolated areas individuals are the issue 0 O O o Behavioral or Structural dynamicspower between groups 425 I I m not racist but this person is personalism culture of individualism I Referentialism Words have a single meaning and we must use them correctly Think Monoglot standard I Monoglot standard if there is more than one variety of forms of language than one is right and one is wrong Semiotic play allows the blame to be attributed to oversensitive listeners Moral panicsMetaculture The repetition of an individual s usually politician or celebrity racist comments A way wellintention people can spread racismstereotypes White Virtue If I identify someone as a racist that makes me a better person Resource discrimination statistically white families were able to build net worth and pass it on to generations African American and Hispanics were discriminated against so much that they weren t able to obtain mortgages I Positionality perspective based on personal experience 0 Critical theory looks at big picture still a large issue wherever you go structural issue as well 0 entangled in laws structural racism and subconscious speech covert racist discourse institutionalized 0 Global ineg ualities o socialized medicine only allows those people of a certain citizenship to receive health care s 0 First world demand as a cause of third world poverty Free Zone USJamaica March 23r lecture WalMart vs small locally owned businesses WalMart factories in other countries with wages close to nothing and very poor working conditions Discussion of who is human those who are considered not human are often those living in third world poverty gMarch 301 Powerful countries are imposing their own rules and cultures on smaller helpless countries which creates a larger gap between first and third world countries Cocaine and economic deterioration in Bolivia Gendered aspects of global migrationsz povertyJ and sexually transmitted diseases 0 Global migration women migrating to peripheral nations to work while having to leave their families behind 0 Poverty due to the control and power of majority countries that they impose on minority countries 0 STD s are a result of poverty in 3rd world countries Social strati cation o Caste system 0 Some will have more power than others 0 United States 0 Increases when populations adopt agriculture 0 IMF World Bank WTO free market role in creating global poverty conditions of loans Subsidies o Subsidies in developed countries make it impossible for farmers in underdeveloped countries to compete the Jamaica video IMF loans put countries in debt which hinder the capacity to export while currency devaluation hinder their ability to import because it reduces purchasing power expired chicken Low food quality compared to Jamaican producers powdered milk 0 O 0 Three of the IMF loan conditions the opening of the country s borders to foreign competition and investment the removal of subsidies on domestic commodities and a reduction in spending on domestic health and education Neoliberalism the ideology that advocates the dominance of competitivedriven markets as critiqued by Farmer Adherence to the laws of supply and demand bene t the rich and deprive the poor Domestic copporate policies Wal mart example Intentionally overworks employees often off the clock Health insurance is too expensive Pushes employees to receive welfare fires anyone conspiring to form a union discriminates against woman and minorities receives subsidies from the government to open new stores Leaves vacant lots Countless environmental violations Exploits lowwage workers in China Bangladesh Honduras and other countries Covers upignores crimes on its property Someone deleted this but it was a SPECIFIC answer straight from the professor in the 427 lecture Quiz 7 Walmart promotes the use of publicly funded healthcare and takes quick action to eliminate any union related organization Cultural change 0 4 25 CC articles Reconfiguration of land women traveling from 3rd world to 1st world countries to find jobs Quickdrastic loss of cultural knowledge and means of subsistence due to conquestinvasion global free market forces or the incursion of exploitative practices Native Hawaiians after Captain Cook their means of subsistence was gradually taken from them gt forced to divide up land when owning land was a foreign concept to them Natives are restricted from practicing traditional forms of production and are forced into lowwage labor Cultural loss in Jamaica No longer autonomous lose cultural knowledge and are no longer selfsustaining Conquest genocide and assimilation of Native Americans ethnic violence and ethnic hate stem from the spread of markets and democracies in unstable countries 0 00000000000 O 0000 Cultural ecology 5 adaptive patterns of subsistence Part Three Intro 0 Pgs 8486 in CC book 1 Hunter gatherers depend on wild plants and animals for subsistence live in small groups of 1050 people and lack any kind of structure 0 Men are naturally be careful using the word natural hunters women are naturally gatherers Gathering was proven to be more productive than hunting Older hominids were foragers not separated into huntersgatherers O HuntersGatherers were created in the 20th century elaborate please 0 until 10000 years ago everyone were huntergatherersit was the only formmethod of obtaining subsidence 2 Horticulturalists garden and use slashandburn agriculture while continuing to search for wild foods Population of 50250 individuals More elaborate kinship systems with political structures 3 Pastoralists herdy and pride with skills of war and raiding Have pastures for animals to graze 4 Agriculturalists farming based on use of domestic animals show a strong sense of group identity intense cultivation of permanent land holdings high degree of social complexity Religion takes on a formal structure and is organized as a separate institution 5 Industrialists highly complex display a variety of subgroups and social statues dominated by market economies in which goods and services are exchanged on the basis of price supply and demand 39 adaptat39 Relationshi between stren h of workin class and social su orts Navarro o The greater the working class solidarity the greater the amount and degree of social support Histog of United States legal and ideological approaches to unions and working class in general 0 strong American beliefs in the efficiency of market solutions to social problems 0 legal prohibition of union organization across trades How division of middle and working classes againstwithin themselves hurts both Navarro o illegal for groups to combine their in uence if groups could get past social and political differences they would be a much stronger force to be reckoned with This leads to lower wages and weaker benefits Definitions and beliefs underlying commodi eda socializeda and social justice based medical care 0 COMMODIFIED Health is through goods services determined by market forces bought and sold implies that not everyone has access b c you would have to have money to buy it which gives the impression that some deserve it and some don39t Provides health care for those most able to pay and consequently denies health care to the poor the people who need it the most SOCIAL JUSTICELIBERATION THEOLOGY Healthcare is a human right and should be determined by need we need globally to assess sickest and poorest People who need help most should get access to it first People are sick because of social structure and the ow of trade SOCIALIZED Only for people within borders of the country with access if you are a member of a certain country you deserve certain benefits Farmer says you CANNOT simultaneously hold a view of commodified and socialized medical care Commodified and liberation theology are incompatible cannot be simultaneously held Develo ment and charit Farmer s criticism of these a roaches t0 alleviatin overt March 21st lecture Charity attempts to fix the end result but not the problem it is a bandaid Charity often leaves you thinking of the country your contributing to as inferior Rise in kindness decline in justice not shifting the system just a temporary helping hand In medicine charity underpins the goal of addressing the needs of underserved populations Charity medicine should avoid at all cost the temptation to ignore or hide the excess suffering among the poor pg 153 Development Often imposed by what others think is best for the targeted group in povertydoesn t take into account or re ect the needs of what is best for those in poverty I Assumes progress is linear somewhat culturally insensitive I rejects modern ways of being people in poverty I rejects how poverty got there in the first place Liberation theolo Ch 5 6 Paul Farmer Health is a human right not a privilege Those who are poor and sick should be given treatment first Main goal social justice Belief system underlying social justice Liberation theology argues that genuine change will be often rooted in small communities of poor people and it advances a simple methodology observe judge act Although it is termed simplistic this methodology has proven useful for promoting health in settings as diverse as Brazil Liberation theology uses the primary tools of social analysis to reveal the mechanisms by which social structures cause social misery pg 140143 Criminalizationa punishment through non treatment example of Russian prisons 0 Increase of tuberculosis in Russian prisons due to nontreatment O 0000 O O O 0000 o Cruel and unusual punishment Tuberculosis is not a part of the inmate s sentence Understanding health and illness through 1328 lecture 0 pg 149150 Farmer o Cognitivist Personalist due to their cultural beliefs they don t believe in that form of treatmentmedicine Poleiresponsibility placed on culture or individuals 0 Structural Poleirecognizing larger forces of power and economics Variety in de nitionsmeasurements of health across cultures 0 Native Hawaiians view of health v Westernized views Hawaiians prefer to seek the Hawaiian practitioners instead of the biomedicine that is encouraged by insurance companies 0 I view health as a continual process that is intimately tied to the larger historical and contemporary political economy and cultural knowledges that interact producing and coproducing meaning McMullen p 13 o Hawaiians link health with land foods and family past and present Incompatibility of health as a human right with health as a commodity o Historically we ve been talking about the rights of people who we consider good enough not all humans othering making people nothuman in relation to self 0 Physicians would be justified in refusing care on the grounds that patients are responsible for their own health The health care systems should help people buy what they want therefore people should be allowed to purchase health care packages that provide limited or less than optional care They should also be allowed to receive health care services that their coverage allowsCh 6 Farmer o Commodified market denies health care to those who need to most It is not profitable to provide health care to the poor Social Justice distributes resources to the poor rst the opposite of commodified When does human rights discourse have meaning1 forcea weight behind it 0 When the focus is on the poor the people who need social assistance the most 0 When they address the rights of the people who are most likely to have their rights violated Scope of medical anthropolog 0 what does critical medical anthropology do that is specialadds to understanding 1 BeliefsPractices Illness or health Central feature of a culture supernatural germ science etc 2 Social organization of healthillness a Recognition of illness labeling men wo spouses don t go to doctors as much variation of complaint vocabulary how we present illness b Presentation of illness physical appearance in Japan they normally wear masks when someone is ill The level of complaint when you don t feel good vocab who do you tell c Management of illness medication doctor how we perceive severity how is it defined in groups social situations who do we seek out to help us heal d Healers who the illness is presented to to help manage illness 3 Using Technologies and findings of medicine and related Fields 314 looking at genetic patterns clinical medicine why are certain people sick Medicalization April 6 0 ex seeing pregnancy as an illness made into a medical problem Takes focus away from the structural factors that are in effect The state of health is abstracted and there is a focus on the return to normal state definitions of health given bydetermined by those in power who aren39t Context how to access it When is it silencedusually members of the society being given the definition Possible solution Hawaii allow health expertise to reside with the people 0 O O o Recontexualize Non compliance o Ignores social structural problems that may prohibit patients such as lack of transportation and says instead that the patients are non compliant when they don t get well from treatment or fail to take medicine etc 0 based on cultural beliefs 0 When we classify a group as not healthy there is a negative characterization idea about the population native Hawaiians Embodiment March 30 0 some kind of bodily manifestation of a larger structural situation 0 A is an embodiment of B where Asome kind of illness and B social structure historyeconomic structure 425 0 Illnesses in Haiti are an embodiment of poverty Evidence from Farmer o Takara s Ghostfears of marriagechildbirth were embodied into her ghost possessions Limitations of historical research limitations of anthropolog39cal research 0 historical research often has to depend on documents and cannot get first hand accounts 0 anthropological research requires a lot of work and investment to get a large picture of the culture at hand even then you may not find informants o Context is lost when a linear view of history is applied SilencingSanitization of historical processes 0 Sanitization retelling history so it seems clean and polished Ignoring the dirty details such as the genocide of Native Americans 0 think about trying to explain some kind of historical event to a child giving them the clean version Pers ective multiple ner 39 39 39 39 and 39 39 39 problem with the term bias 0 Everyone has a perspective 0 We can better understand a situation when we listen to multiple perspectives Nai39ve Realisma Ethnocentrism o Naive Realism the notion that reality is much the same for all people everywhere 0 it is the belief that people everywhere see the world in the same way 0 Ethnocentrism a mixture of beliefs and feeling that one s own way of life is desirable and actually superior of others 0 is the belief and feeling that one s own culture is best Otherng 0 us and them 0 Making someone not human in comparison to our self people without voices in poor countries those who don t speak English Exegesis and analysis impmtance of each 0 Exegesis What people say to you Their own point of view does anyone know where in our readings these terms are used 0 they were used in the true nature book Smbolismsmbolicsm bol 0 Symbol Anything that humans can sense that is given an arbitrary relationship to its referent ExplicitT acit CC part I Intro 0 explicit knowledge things that can be told easily like what clothes one wears or written down 0 it is cultural knowledge that people can talk about O tacit knowledge harder to vocalize like big picture ideas for example religion or how a society views the land or how close to stand next to a person while talking to them tacit knowledge are unspoken cultural idiosyncrasies o tacitit is cultural knowledge that people lack words for Knowledge behaviora artifacts o All aspects of culture 425 0 Artifact something physical people shape or make from natural resources 0 Behavior observable BeliefsKnowledge something we share and learn not genetics Ethnography and ethnographic research methods how d0 anthropologists go about answering a speci c guestion 0r describing people 0 Interviewing not always reliable if people aren t honest or if they don t want to talk to you Native Hawaiians and Juliet McMullin Observing helpful to gain acceptance before interviewing helpful in that what people do sometimes says more than what they say 0 o Anthropologist student Natives teachers 0 Gain an insider s point of view 0 participant observation 0 Listening 0 ask people directly 0 doing fieldwork o observations 0 what people say their responses These are topics added to the list during the 425 and 427 lectures General Timeline of Hawaiian History 1 Precontact healthy Hawaiians Feudal system archipelago united by Kamehameha I 2 Cook 39 39 quot J r r 39 quot pi39 quot quot Christianity prohibition of traditional practices cultural losscultural genocide 3 illegal annexation statehood modern problems Syndemic Broadens health beyond medicalbiological factors For example Hawaiians didn t die from disease just because of a lack of immunity but also from removal from their ancestral land not being able to use traditional healing practices etc Insider Point of View Gaining Trust Ex Prostitution Article Many perspectives within a group Exegesis what peop Participantobservation Ex Christmas in the Kalahari Listening must listen and absorb what people are telling you but at the same time you must share and interact Qualitative Harder to quantify More interpretation More perspectives Observation Use of senses Ethnography going out and living among others to find out their culture Quiz 1 True or False 1 Scienti c practice is immune from social influences and it always uncovers pure facts FALSE 2 Some behaviors are truly natural whereas others are unnatural FALSE 3 Science and religion can be used for similar purposesfor example to justify inequality in society or to reinforce certain family structures TRUE Quiz 2 TRUE 0R FALSE 1 According to Jane Hill racism in the United States primarily exists in small isolated pockets or in White supremacy groups FALSE 2 According to Jane Hill educated people who think of themselves as progressive openminded and non discriminatory are capable of supporting the projects of White racism TRUE MULTIPLE CHOICE 3 Roger Lancaster39s discussion of the quotfetishismquot or quotfetishizationquot of genes and DNA can be best summarized by which of the following statements A Genetic research has grown so popular in recent decades that it has become an obsession or fetish of scientific and popular culture B In recent decades a growing number of scientists and much of the popular media have attributed more and more powers to genetic material this process has had the effect of quieting the discussion of the social causes of human behaviors and qualities C Genes are such an important factor in accounting for human diversity that they should receive even more attention in scienti c research and in the popular media Quiz 3 1 Which two of the following statements accurately reflects the points made on the website readings a Since race is not a valid biological concept racism doesn t really exist either b Compared to most other animal species humans have a lot of genetic diversity c Two random Japanese people are likely to be as genetically different as a Japanese person and a Maasai person East African herder d Human populations have not been isolated long enough for distinct genetic groups to have evolved e The European population in 1700 had a similar amount of genetic diversity as the African population in the same year 2 The author of quotPolyandry When Brothers Take A Wifequot argues that fraternal polyandry is still commonly practiced in parts of Nepal because a there is a shortage of women of reproductive age and an excess of men who want to marry b there are material and economic benefits that follow from the practice 3 According to the example in quotFamily and Kinship in Village lndiaquot massive expansion ofthe cash economy has a led to an overall breakdown in village practices of arranged marriages and patrilineal descent and young people now generally marry based on individual preference b led to societal changes but traditional marriage practices patrilineal descent and family support structures remain strong QUIZ 4 1 Which of the following statements best summarizes the meanings of silence in Western Apache culture in the 1960s according to Keith Basso a The meanings of silence seem to be so different that it is impossible to make a general statement about what causes people to be silent b Silence is associated with situations in which people perceive the relationships with others to be unpredictable or ambiguous c Silence is a reflection ofa general culturalwide distrust of people possibly due to past experiences with conflict among tribes and with Europeans 2 According to the reading for today tattoo artists and employees seem to be a generally aware b not particularly aware ofthe communicative techniques they use in attracting clients and negotiating prices 3 ln Conversation Style Talking on the Job Deborah Tannen observes that in the case of classroom behavior a men tend to be more sensitive to interpersonal impressions whereas women are more focused on informationgathering activities ltthis one is correct I agree A is correct b women tend to be more sensitive to interpersonal impressions whereas men are more focused on information gathering activities QUIZ 5 TRUEFALSE 1 According to Jane Hill linguistic ideologies such as referentialism and personalism are inherently racist FALSE 2 According to Jane Hill the dominant linguistic ideologies held by most middleclass White Americans provide an understanding of language which accounts for silences absences and the cocreation of meaning among speakers FALSE MULTIPLE CHOICE 3 The linguistic ideology called quotreferentialismquot includes all M which one of the following main ideas a words refer directly to things in the world b statements are either true or untrue c what is not said is as important as what is said d the meanings of words are stable and thus words must be used properly QUIZ 6 1 According to Paul Farmer the thing which Acephie and Chouchou had in common was a personal attributes b similar racial appearance c gender d socialeconomic status 2 In the Introduction and Chapter 1 Paul Farmer discusses all M which of the following concepts a terrorism of money b structural violence c diseases of affluence d economic rights 3 According to Paul Farmer neoliberalism is best summarized by which of the following a An ideology which promotes a competitiondriven market model of economic and social relations b An ideology which promotes opportunity and equality in political and social realms c A course of action which has resulted in reductions in poverty and inequality across the globe d A course of action undertaken by the world s most powerful nations which has improved the human rights status of the poor particularly in Central American and the Caribbean Quiz 7 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1 point each 1 When a government receives a loan from USbased international lending agencies IMF World Bank etc it must agree to all of the following except The opening of the country s borders to foreign competition and investment The removal of subsidies on domestic commodities The passing of laws which establish a minimum wage A reduction in spending on domestic health and education 510 575 According to the associates and former managers included in the film WalMart39 The High Cost ofLow Price which fthe following statements represents WalMart s policies WalMart provides opportunities for career advancement that do not discriminate based on gender WalMart supports families by providing affordable healthcare options for all of its employees WalMart actively supports and enforces fair labor practices including safe conditions in overseas factories and overtime compensation d WalMart promotes the use of publicly funded healthcare and takes quick action to eliminate any union related organization ON 0575 TRUE FALSE 12 point each 3 Of the three approaches to addressing suffering that are discussed in Chapter 5 charity development and social justice Paul Farmer sees all of them as equal in their ability to alleviate suffering over the longterm and to bring about positive change for those in poverty FALSE 4 According to Paul Farmer it is possible to view health care both as a commodity and as a basic socialhuman right FALSE Quiz 8 Multiple Choice 1 point each 1 According to the recent class readings and films which of the following facts about the global expansion of capitalism on family life a Those working in the cocaine processing industry in Bolivia assist their families by sending money increasing the flow of goods to their home villages and having stable longterm employment b The spouses and children of release Russian prisoners are at risk of contracting multidrug resistant tuberculosis and this risk has increased since the fall ofthe Soviet Union s governmentrun health programs c The increase in the number of First Worldquot women working for pay has been supported overall by the governments of their countries eg an increase in public services and benefits as well as by male spouses eg an equivalent increase in domestic work to match women s work outside the home d The opening of a WalMart store brings overall benefit to local families by supporting secure wellpaid employment with good health benefits 2 According to Paul Farmer the US and Russia have all except which of the following in common a trends in the increased imprisonment of those who commit nonviolent crimes b some of the highest per capita prison rates in developedindustrialized countries c increased criminalization of poverty in the past 20 years d effective programs to prevent contain andor treat tuberculosis in prisons TRUEFALSE 12 point each 3 In the Conformity and Conflictarticle about cocaine production the author shows howthe sale of drugs in the United States and Europe actually benefits the people of Bolivia by providing many jobs in the drug processing industry and lifting them out of rural poverty FALSE 4 According to Paul Farmer the collapse of the Soviet Union and the rise of privatization has led to a weakening of Russia s health infrastructure TRUE Quiz 9 Multiple Choice 1 According to Navarro author of Why Some Countries have National Health Insurance etc which of the following is not one of the reasons why the US still does not provide universal health care 1 point a strong American beliefs in the efficacy of market solutions to social problems b legal prohibition of union organization across trades c the strong divisions political racial religious etc within the working class in the United States d universal or socialized medicine is much more expensive than a marketbased model 2 According to the first few pages of The HealthyAncestor what does it mean to malama aina 1 point a to care for the land by eating certain foods in certain ways b to honor yourfamily by doing a sacred dance c to worship the dead by traveling to their burial sites each week d to strengthen Hawaiian identity by frequently visiting native Hawaiian relatives who live in California 12 point 3 According to lecture and the Introduction to Part III in CC societies generally become a more b less stratified when they begin to adopt agricultural subsistence patterns TRUEFALSE 12 point 4 In the Conformity and Conflictarticle about hunting in the Kalahari the author shows that men s hunting efforts are both more prestigious and more productive than women s gathering efforts FALSE Quiz 10 Multiple Choice 1 Debating what happened on Columbus Day or what we re supposed to call it is a silly waste of time What s the big dealquot This statement is an example of which one of the following 1 point a sanitizing b trivializing c mythicizing d naturalizing 2 Which ethnic group petitioned to make October 12 a legal holiday in the United States 1 point a Spanish b Portuguese c Italian d Irish TRUEFALSE 1 point 3 According to Trouillot October 12 1492 was a significant and celebrated date in Europe beginning in 1493 FALSE Quiz 11 Multiple Choice 1 In the CC article The Founding Indian Fathers the author points to evidence and narrative that the foundation of democracy and the federal system many states with equal power in the US was a modeled afterthe Iroquois League b rst suggested by an Iroquois chief 0 based upon the settlers experience with various European models of civic participation d all of the above e a and b 2 According to lecture and Trouillot a strong focus on historical dates anniversaries and celebrations leads to all except which of the following 1 point a a loss ofunderstanding of the context surrounding what actually happened in the past b the creation or strengthening of mythical figures and symbols 0 the sanitization of history d a better understanding of what happened in the past The process of turning what happened into what is said to have happened is referred to as narrativization literary analysis naturalization chronology 90va Quiz 12 all questions worth 1 point Multiple Choice 1 In m The Kayapo Resistance and Improving Nutrition in Malawi which ofthe following was important in improving the living situations of the local populations 1 point a collaboration among local people and outsiders b loans from international financial institutions 0 national policy changes d the implementation of new programs by outside experts


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