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Psychology Week 11 Notes

by: Elsa Finley-Combs

Psychology Week 11 Notes PSY 1113

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Psychlogy > PSY 1113 > Psychology Week 11 Notes
Elsa Finley-Combs

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Lecture notes from the 11th week of class!
Elements of Psychology
Jenel Cavazos
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elsa Finley-Combs on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
Intro to Psychology, Week 11 Notes Socioemotional Development Temperament: Composed of behavioral styles and characteristic ways of responding in people ­Easy Temperament: In babies, they don’t cry as much unless they are uncomfortable  (hungry or tired) ­Difficult Temperament: In babies, they cry about almost everything. They cry to indicate their needs, but they have more needs than the average baby. ­Slow­to­Warm­Up Temperament: These are cautious and reserved. They carefully  observe and explore new environments, but once they are comfortable and “warmed up” they behave like easy temperament children. Attachment: Affectional bond developed between a child and child’s caregiver. Scientists Who Studied Attachment: ­ Freud: Believed that babies developed attachment based solely on the need to feed. ­Harry Harlow: Believed that attachment may be based on more than food. In an  experiment, Harlow took baby monkeys from their mothers and raised  them with  a “mother” made of cloth and a “mother” made from wire. The  wire mom held a  bottle and the cloth did not. In the end baby monkeys spent  more time with the  cloth mother. They physical attachment makes the  relationship different.  Ainsworth Strange Situation: Test created by Mary Ainsworth to observe child behavior when  separated from mothers. How do children treat their mother when she is in the  room, and  how do they react when she leaves and comes back? Different Kinds of Attachment: ­Secure Attachment: Children consider their mother to be the “home base”. These  children will go play away from their mother, but will occasionally revisit her and  glance back at her. If the mother leaves, the kids will become upset, but  they will  become happy again and resume playing when she returns.  ­Insecure/Avoidant Attachment: These children are sullen, low­key, and calm. They are  not outwardly happy or unhappy with mother. They become upset if the  mother  leaves and happy when she returns, but they don’t outwardly show  it. ­Anxious/Ambivalent: These children show anxiety over mother leaving before she even  leaves the room. If the mother leaves, they become furious with the  mother for  abandoning them. When she comes back the children feel the need  to hurt her by  kicking or whatnot, but they also want the mother to be close to  them.   Erikson’s Socioemotional Theory ­Developmental tasks that happen as children develop. Overall there are 8 stages. These four  below occur during early childhood.  Stage 1­Trust vs. Mistrust: Birth­1.5 years. Do children learn that people are generally good?  Babies’ needs are often met, so they are trusting. Not all or nothing process.  Babies  should have more trust than mistrust.  Stage 2­ Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 1.5­3 years (toddlers) At this stage children discover  how to do things and make decisions on their own. However, it is also at this  stage that  kids may be told that they are not old enough to do things on their own  (“you’re not old  enough to eat that by yourself” or whatnot). It is at this stage kids  learn independence or  dependence.  Stage 3­ Initiative Vs. Guilt: Preschool age, 3­5 years. Kids are actively seeking out new  activities. At this age kids must also learn the concept of guilt.  Stage 4­Industry vs. Inferiority: Children become more aware of themselves. They become  aware of their grades, start becoming aware of what others may think of them, or  worry  that other kids are better than them. These children are usually of elementary  school age.  Kohlberg Moral Development, 3 Stages Stage 1, Pre­conventional: Morality is judged based on rewards and punishments for behavior. Stage 2, Conventional: Morality means acting as good members of society, based on the question “What will others think of me?” Stage 3, Post­conventional: Morality can transcend the law, such as in scenarios of stealing  money in order to save someone’s life by paying for the medical care they need. 


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