Psychology Week 11 Notes
Psychology Week 11 Notes PSY 1113
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elsa Finley-Combs on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Intro to Psychology, Week 11 Notes Socioemotional Development Temperament: Composed of behavioral styles and characteristic ways of responding in people Easy Temperament: In babies, they don’t cry as much unless they are uncomfortable (hungry or tired) Difficult Temperament: In babies, they cry about almost everything. They cry to indicate their needs, but they have more needs than the average baby. SlowtoWarmUp Temperament: These are cautious and reserved. They carefully observe and explore new environments, but once they are comfortable and “warmed up” they behave like easy temperament children. Attachment: Affectional bond developed between a child and child’s caregiver. Scientists Who Studied Attachment: Freud: Believed that babies developed attachment based solely on the need to feed. Harry Harlow: Believed that attachment may be based on more than food. In an experiment, Harlow took baby monkeys from their mothers and raised them with a “mother” made of cloth and a “mother” made from wire. The wire mom held a bottle and the cloth did not. In the end baby monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother. They physical attachment makes the relationship different. Ainsworth Strange Situation: Test created by Mary Ainsworth to observe child behavior when separated from mothers. How do children treat their mother when she is in the room, and how do they react when she leaves and comes back? Different Kinds of Attachment: Secure Attachment: Children consider their mother to be the “home base”. These children will go play away from their mother, but will occasionally revisit her and glance back at her. If the mother leaves, the kids will become upset, but they will become happy again and resume playing when she returns. Insecure/Avoidant Attachment: These children are sullen, lowkey, and calm. They are not outwardly happy or unhappy with mother. They become upset if the mother leaves and happy when she returns, but they don’t outwardly show it. Anxious/Ambivalent: These children show anxiety over mother leaving before she even leaves the room. If the mother leaves, they become furious with the mother for abandoning them. When she comes back the children feel the need to hurt her by kicking or whatnot, but they also want the mother to be close to them. Erikson’s Socioemotional Theory Developmental tasks that happen as children develop. Overall there are 8 stages. These four below occur during early childhood. Stage 1Trust vs. Mistrust: Birth1.5 years. Do children learn that people are generally good? Babies’ needs are often met, so they are trusting. Not all or nothing process. Babies should have more trust than mistrust. Stage 2 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 1.53 years (toddlers) At this stage children discover how to do things and make decisions on their own. However, it is also at this stage that kids may be told that they are not old enough to do things on their own (“you’re not old enough to eat that by yourself” or whatnot). It is at this stage kids learn independence or dependence. Stage 3 Initiative Vs. Guilt: Preschool age, 35 years. Kids are actively seeking out new activities. At this age kids must also learn the concept of guilt. Stage 4Industry vs. Inferiority: Children become more aware of themselves. They become aware of their grades, start becoming aware of what others may think of them, or worry that other kids are better than them. These children are usually of elementary school age. Kohlberg Moral Development, 3 Stages Stage 1, Preconventional: Morality is judged based on rewards and punishments for behavior. Stage 2, Conventional: Morality means acting as good members of society, based on the question “What will others think of me?” Stage 3, Postconventional: Morality can transcend the law, such as in scenarios of stealing money in order to save someone’s life by paying for the medical care they need.