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The Science of Astronomy

by: Thomas Konopelski

The Science of Astronomy AST 207

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Astronomy > AST 207 > The Science of Astronomy
Thomas Konopelski
GPA 3.83

Edwin Loh

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Edwin Loh
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas Konopelski on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 207 at Michigan State University taught by Edwin Loh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/207489/ast-207-michigan-state-university in Astronomy at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
HUI r5peo ra cw ss M n Model of Starsi E39 e 39 3 O t g 39 The Hotplate V odel of a Star C 4 I 39 r a Sperm Class 5 39 1 How does the energy from the r OBeAFmeCndessMe I 5 7 hotrplate get to my hand7 7 Hottest stars on le U 39 2 mt ys to make a Absolute rnagnrmde measures g 39 hot plate produce more laced at same distance E A energy per second7 The same 3 anest Ms mm 3 r I ques on apphes to a star SP g 4 aa two yst akea 7 mass r m r ma tudes 2 sLans a factor g x r 5 quot bnght r quotmm er I fainter re rurnrnous7 Model 3 Wha canldotom e e e Tamperature I same hotrplate nne same 7 sze therefore names dwarfs setting bum my and not amp oants U burn my hand7 E l AsunphET aan meme eemmy as1mnumy m 195m M pMAMuacema cawvvapmesmmmmpvadu1s llELLVV7ELEI1ypv nr mn n s r mm s 1984 Model of a Star Temperature Luminosity amp Flux of Stars Thermal radranon also called blackr 7 body when menosrty 7 amount 7 Emmed by snyunng wsrrn of energy per second 7 Bnguta39 fur hunerubjects V d d b h t e Wavelenth changeswah V Pr0 35 Y e 5 ar tempa39ature vquot LRZTA lpeakxT29mmKW39xen39st 39 335531 53km I Flux energy per 39 Sg gg i k second received by a A star or hot plate emits radAauon dated 0 Banh Energy ernrued per second depends quot r m on Areaxro senernm 1987a mun Magellanic Cloud Wm quantity nr quanti es have ennngenv The Copernican Revolution 5 Sept Nicholas Copernicus Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler 1473 1543 154671601 157171630 4 The Celestial Sphere The sun moves into different constellations of the zodiac dquot quot t quotAquot Taurus rise months fror 1w 4 A W a mm quot 1 no A 8 pm W39wa h wig4 1 mm B 4 pm C noon D midnight E 4 am um Motion of Planets Greek astronomers r Explained the motion of the sun moon amp ars successfully aswe did with plastic celestial sphere 7 Their explanation ofthe motion of planets was complicate and wrong What is the motion ofthe sun with respect to the stars West to east about 1 degree per ay Motion ofplanew r Planets usually move west to east with respect to the stars Prograde 7 Sometimes they move backwards Retrograde 7 When the earth is nearly between the sun and Mars it moves bac ar 5 When Venus is nearly between the sun and earth it moves backwards Ptolemy s Model in Syntaxis Almagesl 140AD 4 Delevenl Ptolemy s model 1 How did Ptolemy explain the passing of a day A The earth spins around its axis once B The earth moves around the sun once C The sun spins around its axis once D The sun moves around the earth once Retrograde motion Venus is never seen far from the sun Never seen at midnight How did Copernicus explain Night amp day 0 Venus is never seen far from the sun Never seen at midnight Retrograde motion Copernicus Aristotle The natural motion of base objects is to come to rest The natural motion of heavenly objects is to move in a circle at constant speed Copernicus De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestz39um 1543 7 The Earth is not at the center The Earth is not immobile N h l C 7 The sun is at the center The 1683jgglws planets orbit the sun Tycho Brahe s Observatlons IOn Umniborg Tycho measuredpositions of the planets for 20 years IHighly accumte amp reliable IAccuracy limited by human eye not by instruments Superseded only With telescopes quot 9quot R3 w 5 u ls ITyco measured amp compensated for 39nstrurnent exure the biggest error Revolving steel ua rant rn radius 1588 Brass azimuthal quadrant 65 cm radius ca 1576 Great quadrant 15 82 When the Sun Dies 8 Oct 39 Sun will use up the hydrogen in the center in SByr 39 Center of sun must shrink to get hotterto balance New schedule O ice hours 10131017 7 JaekBaldwrn 3270 BPS Observing weather permitting 7 Fri ampSat 9 001100prn 7 MSU observatoryForest ampC 11 g Rd Com position of the sun In center hydrogen is halfused up inexiuo 7 r ihnul o V 7 MW 01 02 03 n as M w on 09 In minim A Balancing Act A1 astronomical objects do a balancing act aeeeierahnn tn ehange the met en The Earth does a balancing act What prevents the Earth from collapsing7 e B The stranth nfthe materials 0 Atnms ehange their directmns nfmntlnn 1 What prevents the Earth s atmosphere from being dense at my feet but sparse at my head7 B The strength nfthe matmals c Atnms ehange their drreehnns n frnnhnn 1 A Balancing Act Gravity vs Gas Pressure What prevents the Earth s atmosphere from being dense at my feet but sparse at my head A Gas pressure B The strength ofthe materials Atoms change their directions ofmotion Force of gravity balances gas pressure Force of gravity GMZR2 Force of gas PvnkT k is Boltzmann s constant k Rnurnber in a mole Details m is rnass ofgas particle P nmkrmNM lrrnrw F area P R2 MkTmRZ M kTmR Balance GMmRkT We are watching the birth of the sun The notyet sun is a gas cloud slowly shrinking It is getting A warmer B cooler l The sun s choice How does the sun produce energy at the present time Fuse hydrogen to produce helium gt Fuse He to produce carbon Fuse carbon with helium Fuse neon Fuse oxygen FIDO r The sun s choice Why does fusion of helium require a higher temperature A Helium is heavier B Helium has 2 protons C Helium has two neutrons r The sun s choice Why does fusion of helium require a higher temperature A Helium is heavier B Helium has 2 protons C Helium has two neutrons With more charge it takes higher speeds to bring two He nuclei close enough to lse 39 Carbon has 6 protons Sun as a mainsequence star HgtHe in the core 39 TZISMK Fuel will last another 5 Radius phutnspherem Lununusrty Temperature He bumlng off and gravity wins K We 1 at does the sun do to a mm H djust for gravrty s Victory The sun s choice Sun does a balancing act I RTkGNLm Sun ust produce energy to replenish the energy r di away LfHgtHe shuts off sour e of ene rgy to maintain pressure shuts The sun s choice Sun does a balancing act I RTkGMm Sun must produce energy to replenish the energy radiated away gtHe shuts off Sun sh rinks ore ofsun gets hotter Balanee restored Inert He eore H He burning shell Inert H Sun as a subglant 5 Byr from now H is gone in the core The neverending battle between gravity and g Radius 39 ess eHo d esthe Phu usph ehw sun adj St W QM l Wt burningfuelto ks Temperature lnertHe eore HHe burning shell Balanee restored lnertH Sun as a giant H is gone in the core The neverending battle between gravl and pressure How does the sun adjust Wrthout bumlng fuel to erature up E 0 Balanee restored Inert He core expands A few looMyr later ll Lununusrty tRadrus rphutuspheream a oi s e Temperature Inert He eore H He bumlng shell Inert H Sun as a giant Later H is gone in the core veRadlus V phnt pha39em39w r 1 The e 1 between gravlty a d a s ure 0 d E r u keep temperature up pressure VnRT would Temperature fal andg Wm H H m h l nertHeeore a m e as He bumlng alanee restored shell Inert He core expands inert H The sun s choice Sun doesabalanelngaot I RTkGMm Sun must produce energy er 1 would fall and gravity uld win Core shnnks gets hotter T200MK Sun Burns Helium Later H is gone in the core amp shell is exhausted Lunnnusrty vRadlus 39 ph Vnspherehw Wrthoutburnrng fuel to Temperature keep ternperature up pressure PVnRT would fall and gravity would Wm e 9c m me Core shrrnks gets hotter T200MIlt 3Hegtc m the eore tnple alpha proeess Balanee restored He bumlng shell nert


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