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chapter 17

by: samantha Flavell

chapter 17 GEO 100

samantha Flavell
SUNY Oswego
GPA 3.8

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CHapter 17
Physical Geology
Rachel Lee (P)
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by samantha Flavell on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Rachel Lee (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at State University of New York at Oswego.

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Date Created: 03/14/16
Ch.17 Sedimentary rocks why do we care? ­sedimentary rocks record what the Earth’s surface was like in the past Types ­chemical/biochemical: formed partly or entirely of material form organic or inorganic chemical  precipitation. ­classic :( physical) made up of broken fragments later cemented together Clastic: made from weathering or pre­existing rock Non­clastic: ­chemical: precipitated from seawater ­biochemical: from shells of organisms ­organic: from plant material Clastic sedimentary rock ­result of several processes ­weathering: generation of sediment by rock disintegration ­erosion: removal of sediment grains from rock by gravity, water, wind or ice Transport: dispersal of sediment by wind, water and/or ice Deposition: accumulation after transport steps Energy and depositional environment ­sedimentary particles require Energy to move  ­high energy depositional environments have sediments with largest grain sizes; as transport  energy drops. The size of the smallest particle carried drops proportionally ­higher energy environments:  steep mountain streams, beaches ­low energy environments: slow moving streams lakes Deep Ocean ­lithification: transformation into solid rock ­ burial: more sediment is added on to a previous layer ­ compaction: overburden weight reduces pore space           ­ sand; 10­20%           ­ clay: 50­80% ­ cement: minerals from ground water that "glue" sediments together Cements *After chemical weathering there is a lot of leftover dissolved ions (Si, K, Ca are among the  most important and widespread) these are generally carried away in groundwater *Evaporating solutions such as these creates the cement in many sedimentary rocks *Carbonate (Calcite) Silicate (quartz) or clay minerals are the most common cementing agents *Characteristics of the rock can be used to infer the environment in which the sediment  accumulated (depositional environment) *A sequence of sedimentary rocks (clastic or non­clastic) record the history of environmental  change in an area. *classified on the basis of texture and composition ­clast (grain) size ­Clast composition ­Roundness (angularity) ­Sorting *characteristics influenced by transport and conditions in depositional environment Grain Size *The average diameter of clasts *With increasing transport, average grain size decreases KINDS OF CLASTIC ROCKS *course conglomerate and breccia’s *Medium sandstones *Fine shales and mudstones CLAST COMPOSITION *Stable end: products of weathering (quartz, iron oxides, clay) indicate conditions in which  weathering is complete *Sediment exposed to weathering for a long time (slow burial; slow sedimentation rate) *Humid environments *Waves or currents reworking the sediment after it’s deposited *Unstable minerals (feldspar, biotite, amphiboles) signify special conditions where not much  weathering occurred *Rapid burial (rapid sedimentation rate) *dry environment Rounding (Angularity) *Only water transport can round grains *grain roundness increases with transport ­well­rounded: long transport distance ­Angular: deposited near source OR not transported by water Sorting *Uniformity of grain size *well­sorted: uniform grain size *poorly sorted: wide variety of grain sizes *indicates transport medium ­wind very well sorted ­Water: waves well sorted Currents moderately sorted ­Ice poorly sorted *Sorting indicates the constancy of environment energy ­well sorted: uniform energy (i.e. a beach) ­Poorly sorted: Variable energy (i.e. an alluvial fan) Maturity *a measure of the degree of “processing” or reworking of sediment ­Textural maturity: degree of roundness of sorting ­Mineral maturity: degree of unstable mineral removal *reflects the amount of weathering that the sediment has undergone *sediments become progressively more modified as they’re acted on by weathering processes,  wither during transport or after deposition *Stable area: sediments mineralogically and texturally mature ­Slow sedimentation rates mean that sediment is acted on by weathering for a long time *Tectonically active area: sediments mineralogically and texturally immature ­Rapid sedimentation rate buries sediment before weathering can break it down Non­clastic Sedimentary Rock *Biochemical limestone: made from CaCO3 shell remains ­Warm (tropical and subtropical) ­Normal­ salinity marine water ­Oxygenated ­Shallow *Rarely distinguishable from precipitated limestone *Organic rocks: made from organic carbon *Coal: altered remains of fossil vegetation ­Accumulates in lush tropical wetland/swamp settings ­Requires deposition in the absence of oxygen Coal *Immature petroleum products ­Biochemically organic sedimentary rocks­formed through different degrees of diagenesis of  organic­rich (carbon rich plant) material *Different types of coal release different amounts of energy when burned *Peat (least productive) *Lignite (soft coal) *Bituminous (moderately hard) *Anthracite (highest grade coal) *Chemical rocks precipitated from sea water *Limestone: ­warm (tropical and subtropical) ­Normal salinity marine water ­Oxygenated ­Shallow *Dolostone: usually limestone that’s been altered by Mg rich fluids after burial *Chemical rocks precipitated from sea water *Evaporties (halite, gypsum, other salts) ­Restricted circulation ­High evaporation rates (characteristic of the subtropics) *Chemical rocks precipitated from groundwater  Travertine (calcite) Limestone *Principle chemical/biochemical sedimentary rock (may also be bio­clastic) *All limestone is made of calcite. It’s a common rock because so many invertibrated animals  have calcite shells *Bio­clastic limestone: rock formed from brokem shell material in a near­shore (relatively high  energy environment) *Crystalline limestone: either reef­framework or deep sea varieties *Inorganic limestone: desert, cave and hot spring deposits (travertine, tufa) formed by  evaporation Fine Grained Limestone *deep sea limestone will not have visible fossils, because they’re made up of the densely­ cemented shells of little bugs Chert *Not to be outdone, there are marine microorganisms that secrete silica shells too *When these pile up on the deep ocean floor, they lithify to become a microcrystalline quartz  rock called Chert (same stuff as the substance flint) Banded Iron Formation *BIF is a finely laminated deep sea chemical sedimentary rock typically containing 15% or more of iron and abundant silica. Iron oxides include both hematite and magnetite *BIF is our most important source of iron for the iron industry.


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