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Reflections on Learning

by: Margie Swaniawski I

Reflections on Learning TE 150

Margie Swaniawski I
GPA 3.59

A. Hall

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A. Hall
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margie Swaniawski I on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TE 150 at Michigan State University taught by A. Hall in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/207516/te-150-michigan-state-university in Education and Teacher Studies at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Theme 2 Learning Happens in Individual Brains amp Minds 21011 How learning occurs in individual brains and minds Brains are the cognitive processes how things happen technical Minds are the quotwhyquot things happen emotional Theorists and researchers believe that the physiological basis for most learning and much cognitive development lies in changes in the interconnections Learning involves a Strengthening synapses b Forming new synapses c Eliminating synapses Neural Plasticity change in the make up of the brain connection between the brain and the environment Three Mechanisms 1 Anatomical brain cells physically connect to each other 2 Neurochemical more chemical activity 3 Metabolical change in basic body functions through learning or experience Bad News bad experiences triggers the brain to associate that to future learning Good News good experiences can lead to beneficial effects on the brain and behavior 0 O Plasticity is a characteristic of the human brain When we are born our brains aren t all set up a certain way Our brains are malleable ready to be shaped by experiences As experiences shape our brain our brains commit to certain organizations based on these experiences ex Language 0 This makes children especially receptive to good experiences and vulnerable to bad 0 O 0 O o o O 0 Critical Periods windows of opportunity that seem to open and close with respect to some kinds of learning and development Periods for sensory development ie seeing hearings etc and learning a first language Such periods do not seem to exist for academic subjects Why do teachers need to know about Neural Plasticity 21511 Model 1 IP Model Encoding storage amp retrieval Flow of information through system 39239 Sensory memory 39239 Shortterm memory working memory 39239 Longterm memory Quality of encoding affects how well info is stored amp received Encoding Putting information into memory Computers use binary to store information To encode information you must first attend to it Types of Encoding 39239 Rehearsal conscious repetition ofinformation over time to increase the length of time information stays in memory Keeps info in working memory Not good for keeping info longterm Levels of Processing Memory occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep Deeper processing better memory 0 0 Storage Retaining info over time 39239 Sensory Memory holds info for only a second 39239 Shortterm Memory holds info for 30 seconds without further processing 39239 Longterm Memory hold information for a long time relatively permanent Retrieval Process ofaccessing stored info 39239 Serial Position Effect Position infoitems are presentedlearned can affect how easy or difficult it is to retrieve info 39239 Primacy Effects Easier to remember itemsinfo learned first EX First couple directions first items on a list 39239 Recency Effects Easier to remember itemsinfo learned last or most recently Recall vs Recognition 39239 Recall learner has to retrieve previously learned information without any cues EX Short answer fill in blank with no word bank 39239 Recognition learner must identify previously learned info EX Multiple choice fill in blank with word bank Forgetting When we fail to retrieve previously learned info 39239 Decay Theory retrieval failure is due to the memory fading or decaying over time 39239 Cue Dependent Forgetting retrieval failure is due to lack of effective retrieval cues 39239 Interference Theory retrieval failure is due to other info getting in the way Model 2 Embodiment Cognition Glenberg Model When we remember we reexperience A115 senses involved quotDoing requires drawing on memories We don t remember things perfectly What we do remember connects with current things that we know 39239 Reperception Our memories are constructed from what we perceiveour experiences When we remember what we are quotrep erceiving events from our past 39239 Meshing We use past perceptions memories to help us understand what we currently are trying to understand 39239 Suppression Sometimes we want to remember something we aren t currently experiencing We need to block out suppress current perceptions so our memories can reperceive something that is not in front of us 21711 What is Memory Memory is the ability to bring back information you once learned it is also the place you store information Which models explain this The IP Model amp the Glenberg Model Computers vs human brain Computers can hold more memory than brain they have the ability to do so amp for longer periods of time How do people remember how to play a musical instrument IP don t think about doing it just remember How do people remember how to bake an apple pie Embodied Cognition reperception How do people remember where they parked their car at the mall IP amp Embodied Cognition encoding amp suppressing 2 22 1 1 Three Levels of Knowledge 39239 Rote Knowledge Devoid of all meaning Ex Driving a car riding a bike Shallow surface knowledge 0 Have some understanding but disconnected bits ofknowledge Cannot use or apply it 0 Deep knowledge Understand relationship among parts and the relationship of the parts to the conclusion Understanding ofparts to whole and whole to parts Understand who conceptual system 0 Four Reasons for the Shallowness Why might students think about course material in a shallow way 1 In early stages oflearning about a topic Quit prematurely More interested in being correct than in understanding material Thinking about something else FSNN Hyde amp Ienkins Experiment Rating words based on their pleasantness vs rating words on how many e s 5 Key Principles for Teaching w Memory in Mind Anticipate what your lesson will lead students to think about Use discovery learning carefully Design reading assignments that require students to actively process the text Design lessons so that students can t avoid thinking about the lesson s goal Design tests that lead students to think about and integrate the most important material P H WN 22411 Development as a Dynamic System Dynamic Systems Theory Development isn t as smooth and consistent as we like to pretend it is it s very complex Developing humans are quotcomplex systems with many individual mental and physical parts These parts grow through interaction with the environment 39239 Multicausality rain example Our behavior is not caused by any one single factor Nested time scales Ex What causes rain How does a baby learn to walk 39239 SelfOrganization Behaviors aren t quotprewiredquot Behavior emerges Instead there s a patter of stability and instability in behaviors that eventually leads to new behavior emerging Behaviors emerge in their own time 39239 Circular Causality Current behavior is in uenced by past experiences acting out that behavior creates new experience which will in uence future behavior


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