Reflections on Learning
Reflections on Learning TE 150
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margie Swaniawski I on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TE 150 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/207521/te-150-michigan-state-university in Education and Teacher Studies at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
TE150 Unit 2 Study Guide TE150 Re ections on Learning Unit 2 Study Guide 21 Lesson Topic Vygotsky s Learning Theory Big Idea The basic idea of the unit is that children learn both from the social environment and about the social environment This first lesson is one view of the way we learn m the social environment namely Vygotskian theory We focus on two main ideas 1 learning through the internalization of cultural tools and 2 scaffolding and the zone of proximal development Key terms cultural tools internalization scaffolding Vygotsky zone of proximal development zpd 22 Lesson Topic Observational Learning Big Idea Observational learning is learning by watching others People can either imitate the behavior they observed or develop expectancies about the consequences of the behavior ie something good will happen to me if I do that because something good happened to him when he did it Key terms Bandura observational learning role model 23 Lesson Topic Motivation Big Ideas Another major factor that underlies learning is motivation There are several factors that affect motivation One is whether students have their own reasons to learn something or they are compelled by someone else ie intrinsic vs extrinsic Another is whether or not students expect to be successful A third is whether students believe that performance at a task reflects personal talentability vs the result of their efforts performance vs mastery orientation Although this topic may seem disconnected from the others as it is not a learning mechanism in and of itself some interesting parallels can be made For example rewards may be good in terms of operant conditioning but intrinsic motivation seems to be more effective than extrinsic Do children create their own rewards when they are motivated intrinsically Do they base their expectancies vis a vis success on a statistical probability learned from past experiences If so how can past failures be overcome In any case motivation has a lot to do with whether human beings will learn Key Terms Entity View of Ability Expectancy and Value Theory Extrinsic Rewards Incremental View of Ability Intrinsic Rewards Learned Helplessness Cooperative vs Competitive Goal Structure TE150 Unit 2 Study Guide 24 Lesson Topic Erickson s Psychosocial Theory Big Idea Erikson s theory is broad and comprehensive but it boils down to a simple idea our personalities emerge from con icts between our own needsdrives and the constraints of fitting into society At each age the details change What counts as society expands from parents to friends to school and beyond What a baby needs is very different from what a teenager needs So in this sense each stage is unique But the repeating theme is that con icts between self and society are inevitable and they can have good or bad outcomes that shape the people we become Key terms Erickson 25 Lesson Topic Learning Histories Big Idea Everything we ve covered so far this unit has been leading up to the idea of learning history An individual s learning history is the sum of their experiences their memories habits and typical patterns of behavior By the time students enter school they already bring along powerful learning histories The older they are the longer and more in uential their learning histories become You can think of a learning history as a wave that slowly gathers momentum until the individual is finally carried along by it By adulthood we rely heavily on our previous learning history to help us navigate the world and solve problems However we re also somewhat captive to it because years of previous learning tend to overshadow new experiences In other words our learning histories bias us to look at the world and behave certain ways Usually these ways are adaptive because our learning histories were molded by experience but they can be maladaptive if our circumstances change 25 Lesson Topic Moral Development Big Idea Kohlberg s research showed that conversations and debates with other people was the surest way to promote moral development 1 the idea that social interaction can cause development and 2 why social interactions work Key terms Kohlberg TElSO Unit 1 Study Guide Pg 1 TE150 Re ections on Learning Unit 1 Study Guide 11 Lesson Topic Statistical Learning Big Idea Out of the constant stream of perceptual information some things happen together more often than others That is some patterns are correlated or associated more than others so much so that the statistical probability of their cooccurring in the future is very high Things that y often have feathers and sit in nests Things on a plate taste good Human beings are very good at noticing these patterns In fact that is one of the main ways we learn It happens whether or not we mean to do it Our brains can t help but pick up on statistical regularities in the environment KEY TERMS statistical learning 12 Lesson Topic Conditioning Big Idea Conditioning is a behaviorist leaming mechanism based on the same principles as statistical learning namely that people readily learn when things cooccur In classical conditioning leaning happens when two stimuli simply become associated e g Pavlov s dog salivated at the sound of a bell once he had learning that the bell signaled dinner In operant conditioning learning happens when consequences are associated with certain behaviors eg if I drive fast I may get a ticket In both cases the more consistent the paring the more readily people learn and attend to it Put another way people give weight to the correlations that hold up They also give weight to the correlations with high salience e g if the reward is a million dollars or the punishment is death Incredibly complex behaviors can result from chains of rather simple conditioned responses KEY TERMS Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment 13 Lesson Topic Comparisons Categories and analogies Big Idea People use similarity to make sense out of the world to group objects to compare on experience to another to transfer learning from one situation to another to form concepts and so forth but similarity is very uid Two things that seem very similar in one respect of situation can seem very dissimilar in another A variety of factors can cause similarity to shift One factor is context eg what other items are in the scene What is the goal of comparison Another factor is how much surface similarity there is People tend to focus on surface features more than deep relational features So they might have an easier time seeing the similarity between an orange and a basketball versus the similarity between time and a river Importantly this is particularly true of children Reliance on surface similarity is very high in childhood and slowly decreases as more relational comparisons become possible aka The Relational Shift Analogical reasoning is continuation of comparisons and categories it s just a more TE150 Unit 1 Study Guide Pg 2 complicated use of similarity Unlike simple object grouping that can be based on color or shape analogies tend to involve two things that have very little in common on the surface yet share many deeper commonalities eg time is a river solar system is like an atom Analogies also can require aligning several aspects of situations or entity at the same time For example when you know how to calculate the interest payments on an installment loan you should also be able to calculate the return on your 401K investments but to do so you have to align all the party of the solution and the new problem correctly Sometimes people are led into making false analogies when there are surface features in common but the underlying relations don t line up Conversely they may miss true analogies because of a lack of surface features This improves with age when people become better at using relational information but even adults have trouble connecting two situations that seem unrelated on the surface KEY TERMS Relational Shift Surface Categories Relational Categories Functional Categories 14 Lesson Topic Piaget s Mechanisms of Learning and Adaptation Big Idea Piaget was trained as a biologist so he tended to see learning in terms of biological processes Specifically he focused on the way individuals achieved fit with their environments Over biological time species slowly adapt to their environments generation by generation with the quotfittestquot individuals surviving to procreate Piaget thought children did the same thing over developmental timeislowly adapting their concepts to the real world by weeding out the weak concepts that didn t fit while strengthening the ones that did As long as a conceptual structure has a good fit children will continue to filter the world through it That is they assimilate new experiences into their existing structures This can involve mild conceptual changethey might reorganize some information like realize tomatoes are fruit without changing their whole conceptual structure for plants But if a conceptual structure didn t fit some new experience children would experience this as a lack of balance or disequilibration and they would have to change the structure aka accommodation Piaget believed that by continually adapting conceptual structures in response to new information children achieved more powerful and accurate representations of the world KEY TERMS A d J t t39 A 39 39 39 A J quot Disequilibration Equilibration Piaget Schema 15 Lesson Topic Learning and the Brain Big Idea It s easy to think of the mind as separate from the brain but they are the same thing So when we speak about learning we actually mean some change in the brain This change can be anatomical neurochemical or metabolic but in all cases it s a physical change The human brain is very plastic That means you re not really born with your brain all set up a certain way Instead your brain is malleableiready to be shaped by experience People lose this exibility as they age and their brains commit to certain organizations
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