Tchng Sub Mat Diverse Lrn
Tchng Sub Mat Diverse Lrn TE 407
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margie Swaniawski I on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TE 407 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/207520/te-407-michigan-state-university in Education and Teacher Studies at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
EPE in Science and Science Education Here are some thoughts about the parallels between the parallels between what scientists do in the natural world and what we are asking you to do with the students that you interviewediand the implications for how you write your clinical interview report The general idea is that you are developing a theory or model of your students thinking like the models that scientists develop of the natural world Scientific Models of the Natural World The power of scienti c models lies in the way that they can help us see connections among apparently different and unconnected phenomena Let s take the four topics we have discussed so far as examples Topic Apparently Unconnected Phenomena Models That Explain Observations f 39 Bouyancy AlkaSeltzer demonstration Conservation of mass Colored solutions Archimedes Principle Wood oating on water Helium balloons Strange Days Forests destroyed by carpenter ants Connections between top Disfunctional howler monkey predators and other societies populations in ecosystems Absence of young poplars in Yellowstone Erosion of stream banks Condensation and Water on outside of glass Conservation of substances water cycle Water disappearing from puddles and mass in physical changes Clouds Changes of state of water Rain Weight gain and loss Growth of plants Conservation of atoms and Movement of food in plant stems mass in chemical changes Weight loss in people Photosynthesis Cellular 1 39 quot In all these cases there are other possible explanations for the phenomena but they don t help us understand the hidden connections So learning science is partly a matter of learning how to use models to make those hidden connections Scientists make those connections in part by suggesting that there are hidden mechanismsifor example movements of atoms and moleculesithat are responsible for the observable phenomena Science Education Models of Students Thinking In science education we need to understand BOTH the science content and how our students think about the natural world So the clinical interviews that you have just completed are like scienti c investigations except that the topic of investigation is the language and behavior of your students Your taskifor this assignment and in the future as a science teacheriis to construct models that show the connections among the different things that they said and did Objective for Astronauts Collect the most informative rocks from the moon EPE for Astronauts try to ll in blanks from video Observations or experiences examples phenomena data Patterns laws tables categories gener alizations gr aphs Explanations m etaphor s analogies models theories Astronaut EPE Initial Looking at rocks Goal OPM Characteristics of rocks Characteristics of landforms Clues about origins from characteristics of rocks Clues about origins from nature of setting Theories of Moon s origins Fission theory The moon split off from the fastspinning earth 2 Capture theory The moon was a wandering planet captured by the earth s ravi 3 Coaccretion theory The moon and earth accumulated together from the same materials in space Theories of origins of rocks Anorthocite A piece of the moon s primordial crust Theories of development of lunar landscapes highlands least disturbed ltl Application Modelbased Reasoning Inquiry Finding and Explaining Patterns in Experiendu Q Analyzing Lee Silver s Teaching in Terms of Principles of Science Teaching Principles Lee S17ver O zer exampIes osm rle or negative Teaching for understanding 1 WYDIWYL 2 Usefulness and connectedness 3 Arguments from evidence Teaching for motivation 4 Learning as socialization 5 Expectancy times value 72910 Page 2 Origins by Peter Tyson Whence our moon Was it a chunk of Earth ung off in our planet39s early history Did the Earth capture a small roaming planet in its gravity grip Or did the moon fashion itself alongside our world from the same planetary batter One of the Apollo program39s chief scientific goals was to give lunar researchers the means to decide once and for all between these three main theories of how the moon formed What transpired in this quotbattle of the Big Threequot after the last Apollo mission ew in 1972 surprised just about everyone The story provides a revealing glimpse of the workings of the scientific process while at the same time opening a window on the origins of what one lunar researcher has called quotone of the most peculiar bodies in the solar systemquotithe moon The Big Three Human beings have surely wondered about the moon since they had brains big enough to do so Many cultures from ancient times to the present day have even worshipped it as a deity The Greeks were perhaps the first to study our satellite scientifically Using Earth39s shadow on the moon during lunar eclipses as a guide the thirdcentury BC astronomer Aristarchus estimated it lay 60 Earth radii away It was a remarkable guess in fact the distance varies between 55 and 63 Earth radii or 220000 and 250000 miles The biographer Plutarch went so far as to posit that people lived on the moon whose dark regions the Greeks thought marked oceans and the bright areas land Their belief survives in the Latin namesimaria seas and terrae landsiby which we know these dark and light regions In the 1870s Charles Darwin39s son proposed that the Earth ung off a portion of itself that became the moon Modern scientific study of our neighbor began in 1610 when Galileo training his spyglass on the moon became the first person to see the dark and light regions for what they really were vast plains and rugged mountains respectively Galileo s famous trial for heresyifor insisting that the Earth revolved around the sun rather than vice verseiapparently kept Descartes from publishing one of the first theories about the origin of the moon until 1664 long after his own death His theory was essentially an early version of the planetcapture theory Descartes left a fuller explanation for others admitting quotI have not undertaken to explain everythingquot The first moonorigin theory to gain a solid foothold was put forth in 1878 That year George Howard Darwin son of the famous evolutionist proposed that Earth spun so rapidly in its early years that the sun s gravity eventually yanked off a chunk of an increasingly elongated Earth that chunk became the moon Four years later the geologist Osmond Fisher added a juicy addendum The Pacific ocean basin marks the scar left behind where our future satellite ripped away The socalled quotfissionquot theory became the accepted wisdom well into the 20th century as this quirky 1936 Us Office of Education script for a children s radio program attests The DarwinFisher model eventually met with competition from two other theories In 1909 an astronomer with the allAmerican name of Thomas Jefferson Jackson See proposed that the moon was a wandering planet that had been snared by Earth39s gravity like a y in a spider web The third theory advocated by the astronomer Edouard Roche among others was coaccretion In this model the Earth and the moon formed independently side by side as it were from the same material that formed all the planets of our solar system Some clever scientist eventually dubbed the Big Three quotdaughterquot fission quotspousequot capture and quotsisterquot coaccretion Which family member would win out Apollo39s Impact By the end of the Apollo program lunar scientists had elucidated many aspects of the moon39s history giving them clues unavailable to the likes of Darwin or See Selenology the study of the origin of the moon had 72910 Page 3 taken off Most of the new evidence came from the more than 800 pounds of moon rocks retrieved by the American and Russian lunar missions In many ways the moon turned out to be quite different from Mother Earth Anybody can see that of course It39s airless colorless lifeless But the differences run deeper It is compositionally different with fewer volatile elementsithose that tend to boil off at high temperature The moon might have inherited such differencesimaria rocks contain no water for instance unlike volcanic rocks on our planetifrom the impactor The lunar samples also suggest that much of the moon may have once been molten no definitive evidence exists that the Earth ever melted to such a degree And while onequarter its size the moon has but one percent of our planet39s mass and its density more closely resembles that of Earth s mantle rather than the planet as a whole Lunar scientists in the immediate postApollo years explained these discrepancies by postulating that the moon had but a tiny core In 1998 the Lunar Prospector NASA s first mission to the moon since Apollo confirmed that the moon39s core indeed comprises less than three percent of its mass By contrast Earth39s core represents 30 percent of its mass In other ways the Earth and moon have remarkably similar characteristics Studies of radiogenic elements and isotopes in lunar rocks reveal that the two bodies are roughly the same age 45 billion years old They also came from the same neighborhood Unlike those in all meteorites ever analyzed the nonradioactive stable isotopes of oxygen in moon and Earth rocks match like blood types implying the two spheres formed at the same radial distance from the sun Indeed results from Apollo showed the pair to be more intimately connected than previously thought quotApollo tied together for the first time the history of the moon with the history of the Earthquot says William Hartmann of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson Arizona quotIt showed us that we live in a system the Earthmoon systemquot In fact it s a pairing unlike any other in the solar system Our moon is far more massive relative to Earth for example than the satellites of all other planets save Pluto whose moon Charon is half its size The Earth moon system also has an unusually high angular momentumithat is the sum of the our planet s rotational velocity and the speed at which the moon orbits the Earth So how do the Big Three stand up in the face of all the new evidence Not well it turns out The fission theory might explain the moon39s lack of a large core and the oxygenisotope similarity astronomers say but calculations show that the Earth would have to have had four times its present angular momentumia lightningfast rotational speed that astronomers cannot square in their models Add to that the understanding reached decades ago that the Paci c basin formed less than 70 million years ago and therefore could not possibly have spawned the moon and the DarwinFisher model suddenly comes up short See39s capture theory suffers as well The idea that Earth39s gravity caught a rogue planet might explain the compositional differences between the two bodies But then why doesn39t the moon have its own regular sized core And why the oxygenisotope similarity if the two formed in different parts of the solar system Finally most modelers deem the chance that a speeding planet would gracefully ease into Earth39s embrace rather than slam into it or career off into space too remote for consideration Coaccretion led the pack through the 1970s because for one thing it doesn39t require a lowprobability event like capture But today it faces the same problem regarding the core As Hartmann says quotIt39s very hard to imagine the two bodies growing together but somehow the Earth magically gets all the stuff with the iron in it and the moon doesn t get anyquot Even more troublesome experts say the theory cannot account for the enormous angular momentum we see in the Earthmoon system today The Big Whack Rather than clarifying the issue of the moon39s origin the Apollo data only complicated it As Hartmann declared in Origin of the Moon a 1984 book he coedited with two other researchers quotneither the Apollo astronauts the Luna vehicles nor all the king s horses and all the king s men could assemble enough data to explain the circumstances of the moon39s birthquot Many felt something else was needed It came in the mid 1970s when a new theory of lunar origin began to emerge It rose phoenixlike from the ashes of constraints not adequately met in tests of the three other models First Hartmann along with 72910 Page 4
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