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Automotive Engines

by: Princess Rolfson

Automotive Engines ME 444

Princess Rolfson
GPA 3.57

Harold Schock

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Harold Schock
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Princess Rolfson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 444 at Michigan State University taught by Harold Schock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see /class/207527/me-444-michigan-state-university in Mechanical Engineering at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
N E 4 V39 05 gt1 9 0 ME 444 Comment on Lectures 1011 Density and sulfur sets the price of crude oil Sweet crude is a low sulfur fuel that is expensive Crude oil contains about 1000 species crude oil LPG 7 Lique ed petroleum gas propane this is an acronym 142 Re neries in the US Don t make enough nished product Lt distillate gasoline Mid distillate 7 diesel See usage US Asia Europe Supply terminals 7 it is where ethanol and other additives are supplied What does fungible fuel mean All product goes in the same pipeline BP Shell Exxon etc Mixing zones in pipeline are called interfares transmix 100bbls 42 galbbl is atypical mix Gasoline C4 C12 additives and 200 hydrocarbons species Volatility one of the most important property of gasoline Tendency of fuel to vaporize Gasoline volatility is adjusted seasonally Fuel systems have gone from 4060 psi to manage volatility Remines add up to 20 in the winter because of the additional of butane but less energy in butane FE is reduced Antiknock Quality Ability of gasoline to resist knock Espressed as Octure Number Isooctane 100ON 100 nHeptane ON0 mix then ON 65 by volume isooctane and 35 nheptane has an octane rating of 65 Research engine RON 7 600 RPM MON Chevron re nance book Oxygenates see slide 50 of the US gasoline contain 10 ethanol MTBE 7 Methyl tertiary butyl ether they are not biodegratable Ethers can be added at the re nery and mound by pipeline ethanol is hydrocopic and picks up water Cannot be used in current pipelines Ethanol with distillation of gasoline s ethanol a single trap bailing one component at a single component Oxygenates in your vehicle Engine deposits Affects engine performance intake valve top can absorb fuel when cold and cause lean poor operation when starting Ass gasoline contains additives TOP TIER Detergent Gasoline 35 nuts standard only Shell in UI D I D I D I 00 1 O N N D I D I O O N N D I N N N o u 1 9 4 Michigan TOP TIER 7 EPA Additive Concentration 25 detergent concentration from what EPA speci es at or cost of about 1 cent gal with premium at 20 cents gal more E85 7 7083 denatured noxious un t for beverage use ethanol blended with hydrocarbons ASTM D5798 HC needed for volatility in winter for stared Stoic afratio is 10 147 for gasoline Lower heating valve 25 less 12500 BTUlb vs 18500 BTUlb E100 rally is Brazil 95 ethanol 5 water hydroscopic ethanol What are the bene ts of E85 Diesel Grade 2D Grade 1D winter kerosene C10 C22 Diesel cold ow property 3 wax as weather is colder fraction of kerosene increases Winter 50 kerosene outer 100 kerosene in Artic Octane numbers see slide US set poor ASTM 975 speci cs 40 Europe speci cs 51 Alternative Fuels E85 biodiesel post M85 M100 C100 E85 1300 E85 stations 150000 for gasoline What is FAME What must be done to make biodiesel What is B5 B20 B100 Are biodiesel blends made at the re nery or supply terminal What are the advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel Incentives Biodiesel 1gal Virgin Oil 50centsgal Ethanol 50 centsgal What is hydrogenated biodiesel It is a blend able component which could be made at a re nery and moved through a pipline The value of our imported oil is greater than the GNP of Russia After the 1960s the world oil production grew exponentially We are approaching the point where supply will not meet the demand We have consumed about 1 trillion barrels of oil The 1x is another 1 trillion barrels of oil Experts agree we may with increased costs we may have 2x of what we have used Demand could exceed supply either at the end ofthis year 1x or in 2016 2x Options in dealing with the oil shortage issue Improve ef ciency or increasing the mileage of powertrains alternative fuels or reduce driving


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