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Manufacturing Processes

by: Princess Rolfson

Manufacturing Processes ME 477

Princess Rolfson
GPA 3.57


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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Princess Rolfson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 477 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/207533/me-477-michigan-state-university in Mechanical Engineering at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
THE NATURE OF MATERIALS g 1 Atumu Strueture and tne Etements 2 Eundmg between Atums and Meteeutes K 3 CrystaHme Strumures 4 Nenerystattrne Amerpneus Strumures 5 EngrneenngMatenats Importance of Materials in Manufacturing Manutamurrng rs a transfurmatmn preeess t rstne matenar tnat rstransterme And rt rstne behavmr er tne matenar Wnen thnPramrP and etner parameters ettne preeesstnat determmes tne sueeess ettne eperatren Atomic Structure and the Elements Tne haste structurat umt at matter rstne atum en atum rs cumpused a pesrtrvety charged nucteus surruunded by a sumerent number at are bataneed Mere tnan mu etements andtney are tne enemreat bundrng muck at aH matter Element Groupings The elements ean be grouped lnte famllles and the tarnllles by rneans at the F39Erludl Table h m n l the table Nunmetals are un nght Between thern l a transltlun zene eentalnlng melallolds er sermmelals Periodic Table Flguvell PelludlcT hl m ale llsteelunhelna elements Bonding between Atoms and Molecules Aterns are held together ln molecules by varluus types of band a l F39rlmary bundse generally assuclated Wlth furmatlurl of molecule 2 Secondary bonds 7 generally assuclated Wlth attrattlurl between leEEulES F39rlmary bonds are mueh strungerthan secondary bonds Primary Bonds Charactenzed by sirung alumturatum attractmns FuHuvwngfurms mm swam MetaHu Ionic Bonding Amms uf une Ehement gwe up thew uuter wmnn amms uf same umer Ehament m marease mm mm WWW We 3quot 791 WWW m1 bundmg a mm Q f nmama mm a Warm Covalent Bonding g E Emruns are shared as uppused m a she m acmeve a same set uf Ewght Omar k r nmn 9 H A Name urmeemyms a mpnmarvbundmg n smiled WE eisclmns MCnvalem Metallic Bonding Shamng El furm U perme Heme meemvmsm Pumarv bundmg c metaHm e 89 ates he enme unk a fuuter sheH Ehectruns by aH atems Enera Ehemrun uudthat 99 Nu transfer Dr S secundary bundmg Secondary Bonds it e fnr amamen fumes between mu ecmes hanng uf Shamans m Bands are Weakerthan pnmary bands Three e 1 pru rm Efurces 2 Lundunfurces 3 Hydrugenbundmg Whereas pnmary bands mvu ve atmmturatum Dipole Forces Anse m a mu ecme nmp sed uf Wu amms a Each mu ecme therefure farm a dwpu e that attracts Either mu ecu Hume 2 6 Me m secundaw bunmnu a mpmevevces e e or es 3quot cw e e 9 a cum mes e London Forces Attramve fume between nunpu ar mutecutes e atums m rnexeeuxe an nut farm annexes Heneven due m rape muter er exemens m rbtt u t n eteetruns are un une stde e a a a a meme 2 a o Secundaw bundmg Q h Lnnduntuvces E e a s E u Landon mm Hydrogen Bonding Occurs m rnexeeuxes cuntammg hydmgen atums nva ent y banded m anuther atum e g H20 Smce ewemrens m ump ete sneu er hydrugen atum are ah Had an ene see at nuexeus uppustte stde na 3 net pusmve enarge tnat attrams E EEUDHS m Either mutecutes newsman quot quot t a a nu bundmg c nvemeen nenmnu c1 mamgen mm Macroscopic Structures of Matter Atums and muteeutes are tne bunmng muck When matena s suhmiyfrum tne mutten state arrangmg themse ves mtu une uftvvu t r CrystaHme Nuncrystamne Crystalline Structure Structure W vah aturns are lucated at regular v Unll Eelc bash geumetrl gruuplng er aturns that ls repeated The pattern may be repllcated mlllluns at We wttmn a glven crystal Charamerls u structure ufvlrtually all metals as Well as marry ceramlcs and same pulymers Three Crystal Structures in Metals l Eudyrcentered cum 2 Face centered cum 3 Hexagunal clesepackeu Crystal Structures for Common Metals Ruumtemperature crystal structures fur surne er the cummun metals as Eudyrcentered cum ace c rumlum lrurv Mulybdenum Tungsten Faceccentered cublt Alurmrrurn Cupper ecu Lead Sllver N 71 0 Q lckel Hexagenalclesepackeu HCF Magneslum Tltamum erH J Imperfections Defects in Crystals mperfemmns u en anse due m mabmty uf mm 2 new a g gram mundane m mate s e g addmun uf aHuymg mgremem m meta Types uf defects 3 Surface defects Point Defects mperfectmns m nsia siructure mvmvmg enher mew aspao me a mo aaooa Hume za Pummevms awacancwm mnrpawacancwc mmsmaw a msmaced mquot rvenkex 021220 Line Defects unnamed gruup uf pumt defems thatfurms a hne m the amEE strumure 539 Must mpunant hne defem s a dis055mm mm can take Wu farms dge dws uca mn Screw dws ucatmn 7 Edge Dislocation Edge of an Extra piane uf alumsthat Exists in the iamEE 11 Edge aieimim Screw Dislocation Spirai Within the ianiee meme Wrapped aruund amqu its axis FiEUYE 2 in Line ueiecis n SEYEW disiucaiiun Surface Defects imperfemiuns that Extend in WEI dirE iDnS El farm a buundary E39 Exampies is an interruptiun iii the iamEE siructure surface interruptiuns v Elastic Strain When a erystai Experiences a gradually ihrrea ihri srre u irreiree is VEmEIVEd iattiee strumure returhstei r its eirigihai shape eiastic dEl YmallDVVi With rip permarierit chariee iri pusitiuris pi alums Plastic Strain ir stress is higherthah rurees heiiuihg ateirhs in their lattice pDSlllDHS a permanent shape ehahge ueeurs sri isms siip vim ici Figure 2 ii Deiurrhatiuri er a ENstal structure EPlas1ic ueiurrhatiuri sitar iriwhich aturhsirithe iartice are rurceutu NW2 in riew hurhes Effect of Dislocations on Strain iri the series at diagrams the muvement ur the uiiu i a luvver stress than iri a perfect lattice Flaws 212 Slip on a Macroscopic Scale Sllp uncurs many tlmes uverthruugnuuttne metal En ubleme tuadefurmlngluad thus 2 uSl g in lbl Sm Ems b n r the stressstraln relatlun l Dlslucatluns are a guudrnewsbadrnews Sltuatlun Gum new ln manufamurlng fine metal ls Easler El farm on l sirung astne deslgnerwuuld llke Twinning plane are snlneu in farm a mlrrur lmage unne u her Side rlgmezla Ywnni gli valvlnglnemmlallanmanalarlllcnllvmvlnlage anlne appasne sue annelwnnlng Plane a helm and manenwnnlng Polycrystalline Nature of Metals A black uf metal may cuntaln mllllurls uf individual Elysials called grams Such a sirumure ls called polycrystalline Each gram nas its own unlque urlenta lun but cullectlvely ne randumly urlented n the black lanlce gralns are How an peryehsrarhhe structuresfurm As a Work er merar eners rmmrhe when r state a d begrns re suhdriy rhmvruuar erystars rhmugheurrhe hqurd These erysrars gruvv a d frrraHy rrrterfere WW1 eaeh etheh furmrng at therr rrrterface a surface defame a gram boundary perhaps ehry a few atoms thrck Grains and Grain Boundaries in Metals Noncrystalline Amorphous Structures Marry marehars are nunUyS LaHrnE Water a d ah have nDnErystaHmE strumures merree rmpunaht ehgrheehhg matehars have heherystarhhe rehhs m theh suhd state Grass Marry washes Rubber Features of Noncrystalline Structures Tvvu features drffererrtrate nuncrys39taHmE Absence er Dngrrange DrdEr m mereeurar strumure 2 Drffererrces m merrth a d hermar expahsruh eharaetehstres Crystalline versus Noncrystalline Flame 2 M Dmererrce m s1mclule belWeErl a crystalllrre and n huh 51 e clvslal s1mclule lslegulal e s1mclule l5 less mm W alllrre materlals Th repeatme arm densell the rmrrcrvstallh Packed rmra dum Volumetric Effects Supwwdn um Hm Hull m WW I r lmmlm Flguvell characterlstlcchaheelhvulurhelurapure metal a crystalllrre slluclulE cumpaled tn the same v E Acwmllln Summary Characteristics of Metals lrhust Crystalllhe structures lh the SEIlld state Wlthuut Exceptlun amp ECC FCC ur HCF uhlt eells u mam u WW F39rupenles hlgh strength and hardness hlgh eleetrleal and thermal Eundu lvlty c metals are generally mettle INTRODUCTION AN D OVERVIEW OF MAN U FACTU RING What 5 Manufacturtng Matenats m Manufacturth Es n mbmmt f Orgamzatmn ufthe Bunk Manufacturing is Important TechnmugmaHy EcunummaHy Htsteneauy unpuuam Technmugyr the apphcatmn uf scheme In pmvtue Sumety and ts members Wth thuse hmgs that us39 are needed ur destred Sumety and 15 members We better What an these pruducts have m eemmen7 They are aH manutaet Manufacturth S the Essentta facturthat makestechnmugy pessmte Manufacturing Economically Important Manutaotunng is one Way by hhteh natiuns create materiai WEaith Manufacturing Historically Important Throughout history hurnan euituresthatwere better at making things were more sueeesstui Making bettertuuis rneant better eratts e wea Ems Better eratts aiioweo penpie to hye better Bettervveapuns auoweo thern to eonouer other euitures in times or eonthet Tu a Significant degreey the histury or Eiviiizatiun is the his tury or humans abiiity to make things What is Manufacturing7 The Ward manufadure is derived from two Latin t umbina inn means made by hand Made by hand aeeurateiy oesenbeo the fabricatiun rnethoosthat were used when the Enghsh wor manufacture was that ruined around 1567 A D Must rnooern rnanutaotunng uperatiuns are Equipment that is supervised by hurnan vvurkers F1guve1 1 a 13 Manuvauurpe 1 1 h as a 1ecpmca1 quot1 11quot pvucess n39uk Apphcatmn urppys1ca1arrd cpern1ca1prpcessesm auerme geumetry prupemes andDr appearance ur a s1ar mg mater1a1 m make pans ur pruducts A1rnps1 aways Earned But as a sequence pr uperatmns 1 M as pr 2 Ewe 1 1 p arrmacmrrre an ecunumm p ess Manufacturing Economically Transfurmatmn ufrnater1a1s1rrm1terns pr greater assemp1y uperatmns changmg 1t shape ur prupemes ur by cumbmmg 1 WWW Either matema s 4 as Manufacturing Industries ndustry cpns1s1s pr Enterp ses and urgamzatmns max p1 an 1 ndusmes can be c1ass1r1ed as 1 r and exp1p1mamra1 resuurces e g farmmg m1er Secundary 1ndus mes a take the uutputs pr pr1rnary 1ndusmes and nnventhem mm cu umer and capna gnu s7 manufamurmg 1sme pr1rrc1pa1acuv1 y 3 Ternary 1ndusmesr semce secmr Manufacturing Industries continued Seccindaryindustnesinciude manufamuring cunstructiun u ii iaii ii Manufactuan inciudes severai industries e g i apparei beverages chemicais and fund prcicessing Furnurniir nn e prdducticin cif nardware Nuts and baits fcirgingsi cars airpianes igitai umputers piastic parts and cerarnic prdducts Production Quantity Q Tne duantity cif prdducts anade by a factciry nas famhtiES and prcicedures are drganized intu tnree ranges Pruductiun range Annuai Quan it Q LEIW pr ducticin itci inn units Mediurn pruducticin inn tci WEI EIEI its Hign pruducticin WEI EIEIEI tci rniiiicins cif Product Variety P Prdduct variety P refers tci different prdduct types cir rncideis prdduced in tne piant Different prdducts They ave different ea a n fprciduct types rnade in tne factciry is high tnis indicates nign pruduct Variety n f tures are intended fcir different markets Surne have rncire panstnan citne Tne numb Pversus Q in Factory Operations pimqu new i m2 m maumnquanny Figuvei 2 P70 Reialiunsmp More About Product Variety Aithuugh P is a quantitative parameten it is new rnuen the designs differ is nut captured simin by the number uf different designs So product varieiye smaii differences between prudums e g betvvaen car mudeis vwh man cummun pans amung mudeis Hard produd varieiye ruducts differ Hhvaniiaii P n diiu a iarge truck win few cummun pans if any Manufacturing Capability A manufacturing piant cunsis ts ufprocesses and transfurm a certain iimited range uf maienas inm prudums uf increased vaqu Tne three buiiding biucks e matenais prunesses anu sys tems e are the sumem en mu ern manufacturing Manufacturing capabiiityinciudes 2 Physicai pmdum iimitatiuns 3 Preuumen capacity 1 Technological 1 r Tne avaiiabie set of manufamuring processes in the piant Dr umpan Certain manufacturing processes are Suited in certain matenais By speeiaiizing in eenain processes the piant is aisu speeiaiizing in eenain materiais hi i aisu the Expertise enne piant persunnei Examp es A maeni ne shup cannot ruii steei A 5122i miii cannutbuiid cars 2 Physical Product Limitations Given a piantvvith a certain set of processes ur prudumsthat ean be made in the piant ffEEI nanuiing Equipment arid musi be pianned fur prudumsthat iie it i a certain size arid weignt range a as 3 Production Capacity Defined as tne maximum quantity tnat a piant month uryear under assumed uperatin Eunditiuns snins pervveek huurs per Shi direct iabur manning ieveis inthE piant arid se en Usuaiiy measured rit ms of output units suen as tun uf 5122i ur number of cars produced bythe piant Aisu caiied plan Capacity Materials in Manufacturing Must Engmeerwg mater1a1s ean oe dassmed mm CINE Elf WEE bash EatEgDHES 2 1 Meme 2 Cerarmes 3 Powers Toer hermst es are owerem Toer rneeoamea1 and phys1ca1prupen1es are o1ss1rm1ar oroeesses that ean be used tn proooee pruductsfrumthem In Addition Composites Nunhumugeneuus m1gtlttures or he utherthree ma 1 to mm 1 mom muwnwm minimum mmp 4tni F1 uve13verm mam on basm ma1er1e1 WPEs 1 composn comowmr mmw ms 1 Metals UsuaHy auoye Wmeo are eornooseo uftvvu or more P PmPN E Tvvu bash gm ups 1 Ferruus metatse oaseo my van eornonses abuut 75 or meta1 tunnage 1n the worm o roos e1ernems and me1ra11oys ammmom eo pen magnesmm mckek sHvEr tm t1tan1um Etc a 2 Ceramics Comooonos untammg metaHu ano nunmetam Ehements Typm nunmeta mtrugen a Dr semhmetamc Mu Ehements are oxygen no earoon Fur pmcessmg ceramms owe mm 1 CrystaHme Erarm 54 oes Tradmuna ceramms soeh as day hydmus a ummum smeates Madam cerarmcs soeh as a umwna N203 3 Polymers Cumpuund farmed of repeatmg sirumura umts n n farm very arge mu ecmes Three categunes 1 Thermap as u pu ymerse ean be subjected tn mu up e heanng ano eoohng Thennosemng pu ymers e mu ecmes structure 7 cannut be re heated E asmmers 7 shows swgm cant exasne behavmr a as 4 Composites Materwa unswsimg of Wu ur rnore phases that tugethertu acmeve propemes supermr In K EDNS UUJEHIS Phase 7 homogeneous mass of rnatenah soeh as grams of mamma mm 2 snomore m a soho meta Usua siructure cunsws ts of pamdes ur bers of one phase mwxed m a seeono phase Prupemes depend on cumpunents o shapes of cumpunents and the wayt cumbmed tn farm the nn hysma hey ar 3 matena v Manufacturing Processes Tvvu pasc types 1 rnatena nern ene state er cump etmn m a rnere advanced state Operatmnsthat cnange the geometry prupemes ur appearance er the stamng rnatena 2 Assemb y uperatmnsqmn We ur rnere umpunentstu create a new enmy quve1 6 Processing Operations Three categunes pr prunessmg uperatmns 1 Shapmg uperatmnsr aner ne geerneuy pnne s Lamng Wm rnatena Prupenyrenhancmg uperatmns r nnpreve physma pmpemes thhuut changmg sna e 3 Surface prunessmg uperatmnsr m ean rear cuat ur depesn rnatena en xtenur surface enne Wm A ters a matenars shape physma prupemes ur appearance m urdertu add va ue Shaping Processes Four Categories i Suiidi catiun processese starting matehai is a heated iiquid ur semifiui 2 Pameuiate prDEESSing 7 starting materiai Eunsists et powders 3 Defurma iEIH processese starting matehai is a ductiie suiid cummuniy metai 4 Matehai remuvai preeesses 7 starting matenai is a du iie ur brittiE suiid Solidi cation Processes Starting matehai is heated sufficientiy te Wm eta h Exampies metaicas ung pias u muiding Particulate Processing Starling matehais are powders et metais ur ceramics Usuaiiy invuives pressing and SintEring if which powders are that compressed and then e Deformation Processes Stamng Wurkpan s snapeu by appneauen er materwa EXamp Es awerg ne u Extrusmn Material Removal Processes Excess matena removed frum the s Lamng were EXamp Es macmmng suen asturmng dr hng processes Waste in Shaping Processes Desname m rmmrmze was1e m pan shapmg umt uperatmns snnpxy by the Way they Wurk Mes castmg mu dmg and pamcmate prunessmg uperatmns Waste Mme rnatena Termmu ugy fur rmmmum waste preeesses u nu s Lamng materwa s used and nu subsequent machmmg s reqmred Nearne snaps preeesses evvhen rmmmum amount er macmmng s requneu PropertyEnhancing Processes mpruve rneehanreai ur physicai prupertres ufvvurk rnatenai Part shape is net ailered exeept unintentiunaiiy Exampie unintentiunai Warping uta heat treated part Egtlta p rn es Heat treatrnent pt rnetais and giasses rntenng m Sur ce Processing Operations Cieaning r ehernreai and rneehanreai prueesses tn remove dim mi and ether mt cuntaminants frurn the surface r r r r s eh as sand bias ting and physicai prueesses We diffusiun Exterior surface at the Wurkpan Assembly Operations Tvvu ur rnure separate parts areiurned tn turrn a new entit E Types pr assembiy uperatpns i i p imnt Weiding brazing suidering and adhesive pundrng anreai assembiyi rastenrng by rneehanreai rnethuds Threaded rasteners screws bats and nuts pressnttrnd expansion nts Production Systems g Peepiei Equipment and preeeuures used tertne eenstitute a firrn s manufa uring uperatiens preeeuureste Efficientiy aeeernpiisn its type at preuuetien Preuuetien taeiiities Manufamuring suppert syste Eetn eategeries ineiuue peepie tne systems Wurk ms peepie make Production Facilities Tne famury pruductiun Equipment and rnateriai nanuiin stems Pmductiunfaiiities tuuch the preuuet in tne teetery r tne piant iayou t Equipment usuaiiy erganizeu inte iegieai greupingsi Exampies Autumated preuuetien iine Maenine eeii EDnSiS ing et an industriai repet and two rnaenine tuuis Facilities versus Product Quantities paitieuiar missiun er eaen piant Certain types er preuuetien taeiiities are given type of manufacturing Lewpreuuetien e tei 2 Medium preuuetien 7 mm te iEI EIEIEI 3 Hign preuuetien e iEI EIEIEI te gt1 iuuuiuuu Different taeiiities are required fur eaen ettne nree quantity ranges Low Production Job shop is the term used furthis type ot prudumiun faciiity K Aiub snap makes iuvv quantities ot speciaiized and eustormzed produets Products are typicaiiy umpiEX e g spaee capsuies prototype aircraft speciai machine Equipment in aioo shop is generai purpose Laburfurce is mom sum v Designedfurrnaxirnurn exibiim Medium Production Tvvu drtterenttypes uffaciiity depending on prudumvariety Baton producuon Suited to hard productvariety s tups required between batches aciuring ited to soft produet variety Withuut setups between different part styies High Production Often reterred to as massprodumon High demand tor product Manufamuring system prudu iun uftnat prod Tvvu eategorres ot mass produetron 1 Quantity produe inn 2 Fiuvv iine prudu iun dedicated to the uot Quantity Production g Mass production of singie parts on s 1 Equipment is dedicated fuiie ime to tne producion or one part or product e ingie iiiiaciiiiie caiiyi vuives standard macnines equipped Witn speciai to ii g Typicai iayuuts used in quantity production are process iayuut and ceiiuiar iayuut Flow Line Production sequencer e g i production ii Product is umpiex assemin operations seq Wurksta p in ii ii Efficiency Muitipie macnines urvvurkstatiuns arranged in uence to compiete the product tions and equipment are designed Accompiisnedp systemsrpeu Typicai departments i Manutacturing engineering 2 Production pia nning and controi 3 Quaiity contr i Manufacturing Support Systems 3 A cumpany must organize itseit to design the nian and rn V production and satisty product quaiity 5 requirements y manufacturing support pie and procedures bvaiEH a ntrni Overview of Major Topics mm mm mmm suw Rama 1 m ovemewmmuuucnun wsmmanu mam tupms m Fundamemas oYModem Manuracmnng speuacmavscene m 5122mm 5 chammu ma basm EWEEH mmace mwmch manequot mg Hun muduced m a mas umace s Famed mm 90 Tempevames ave amund man39c 3mm F A maman ceH cunmng u wu hunzuma machmmu cemevs summed w an MmE pauet mm mm cuunw momcmnan 2 Muacmn A mum avm permva unmamng and beam emcmnan MHacvun Mam cmpsuv m 3 mm speedmmmg upevanun 21 i i emcmnan MHacvun thmmcmmaph mm muss 522mm m mumme mamas m mamum mum and ammmum mme an a cememed cavbme subwa a phu u cuunes m Kennamem mo new uvsmcunwavevs emevsammace mum mum39c 1EEIEI39F dunng abncauun U1 m ema ed mums undev c ean mum y cunmtmns mm mm m mm Cumuvauun um n Emma oumpaw Aummamu mspensmu m adheswe mun rumpunem Pans pnunu assemmv phu u cuunES m EFD mo


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