Automotive Engines ME 444
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This 62 page Class Notes was uploaded by Princess Rolfson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 444 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/207540/me-444-michigan-state-university in Mechanical Engineering at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Piston Piston Ring Dynamics CAE Mikhail A Ejakov Analytical Powertrain Department V Engine Engineering Ford Motor Company October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 1 Outline 1 Introduction Piston Piston Designs Piston Rings Piston Ring Designs Analytical Tools Used at Ford Motor Company CASE System P SLAP Model Conclusion October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 2 INTRODUCTION Cylinder kit Assembly of Internal Combustion Engine Ring Pack Gas Flow Dynamics Piston Ring Pack Dynamics and Tribology Piston Dynamics and Tribology Top Compression Ring Second Compression Ring Oil Control Ring Rail Oil Control Ring Expander Piston Tribology Study of Friction Lubrication and Wear Rod Assembly I r Crank Angle e 39 October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 3 Piston Rod Assembly Nomenclature Ring Grooves Piston TOP COMPRESSION RING Pishzm Liner Wrist Pin SECOND COMPRESSION RING Rod Assembly 01L CONTROL RING 31 October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 4 PISTON NOMENCLATURE A 39 D O m F HF Q October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 5 Piston Regions mm wwhwwe Crown Dish or Bowl Bowl Lip Top Land 2nd and 3rd Ring Lands Compression Ring Grooves Oil Ring Groove Pin Retainer Ring Groove Pin Boss Crown Thickness Undercrown Surface 0 Return or Drain Holes Skirt Skirt Tail Boss Spacing Pin Bore Diameter Skirt Length Lower Skirt Length Compression Height Total Length PISTON PISTON DESIGNS AND CLASSIFICATION PURPOSE OF THE PISTON Transfer of energy of combustion gases into translation motion of the piston and eventually into rotation motion of the crank PISTON CLASSIFICATION TYPE OF ENGINE Diesel Two Stroke Gasoline Four Stroke Gasoline SIZE OF THE ENGINE Large Medium Small TYPE OF DESIGN Conven onal Articulated October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 6 PISTON PISTON DESINGS AND CLASSIFICATION cont NUMBER OF PISTON RINGS TYPE OF PISTON CROWN TYPE OF PISTON SKIRT TYPE OF OVALITY October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 7 6 W KJ W U 2 E U C gt D 01 E ct C O 4 2 D 025 C O 4 2 D KJ W63 TYPES OF PISTON CROWN J I39 9 W 2 K October 2007 TYPES OF PISTON SKIRTS Piston Type Full Skirt Full Skirt Full Skirt Slipper Elliptical with Slde Panel with Side Panel 39Box Type39 G Ital O nds Direction A A A 4 A Section Through Pin Bore Axls I Skirt Width Wlde Wlde Wlde Narrow Narrow Skirt Elastlclty Large Large Medlum Low Medlum October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 9 Top Land Conical Head with Constant Ovality Piston Pin Axis Plane TSATS Plane Top of 8km Skirt Barrelled with Tapered Ovality Grade Point 7 Bottom of Skirt J Assembly Clearance CyIinder Bore Surface gt Gil Ring Groove Bottom Surface of Bi Ring Groove 11 no li h Y 1 ii I 1121 We may 1113 Skirt Profile T EHT Piston Skirt 1 i October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 10 TYPES OF PISTON SKIRT PROFILE II39Zlil Ring Gro ove Bottom Surface of I Oil Ring Groove Skirt Profile Pioton Skirt Bottom of Shir quot gti TAPER Gil Ring Groove Bottom Surface of Gil Ring Groove Ym Km TilI Yu YTE H3 i 33 quot5113 1 Skirt Profile YNP SET r Piston Skirt l39 r 39 if NP Bottom of Skirt Li X PISTON DESIGN ISSUES DURABILITY PISTON INERTIA PISTON MASS PISTON TEMPERATURE HEAT TRANSFER ENGINE NVH PISTON SLAP FRICTION LOSSES LUBRICATION ENGINE EMISSIONS October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 11 1 PISTON MOTION Axial Lateral Piston Tilt FORCES ACTING ON THE PISTON Pressure Forces Inertia Forces Friction Forces PistonLiner Contact Forces PISTON DYNAMICS October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 12 type of noise piston rattle Typical Piston Noise frog creaking r no load ticking piston movement noise origination moment oi noise origination 27 BL crank angle 7 TBS 2 V l n 1 t I t 4 A 41 L TDC speed range 2500 4000 rpm 1000 2200 rpm 700 1200 rpm load range 20 4O 70 1050 zero load noise characteristic clear metallic pattering lullI diesel like hollow sound irregular ticking frequency range October 2007 25 5 kHz 12 25 kHz Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 2 3kHz PISTON TEMPERATURE AND HEAT TRANSFER Extremely Challenging Area Interface of major engine components Multiple physical process Combustion Fluid flow gas coolant and lubricant Component dynamics Non steady state cyclic or transient process Temperature Distribution can be determined through Experimental Methods Computational Methods October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 14 PISTON BLOCK TEMPERATURE AND HEAT TRANSFER II En 39ne Block Metal Tem erature Prediction Coolant Ff Analysis Engine Block Solid Model Cycle Simulation Data u nunw u n Antonieshed Block 3 Piston FE mode ww nn quotl r wwnn n F C3 cle Aver aging Forced Convection Heat Transfer Coe quot with Boiling Effects C ombustion mini2 Thermal Links between Contact Surfaces Detailed Engine Block Metal Temperature Distribution October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 15 Empirical Gil Side BIZ nan mm IIl1orlq Kan39 BORE DISTORION 1 Distortion of Cylinder Bore Shape from a Perfect Cylinder due to Manufacturing Process Mechanical Assembly Engine Loads Temperature Variations and Thermal Gradients Can be steady state and transient Measurement Techniques Experimental Methods Computational Methods October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 16 BORE DISTORION Engine Assembly FEA Model October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 17 BORE DISTORION Post Processor and Its Outputs Best Fit Cylinder Undemrmed Geometry R 45 100 180 x0 0002 003x 0000 v0 437173 005y 1000 20 201533 0052 0000 Defnrmed Geometry R 45104 00599 0059 cuscz 0 000 1000 0000 x0 v0 20 EA or Measure 0 040 7112330 201 533 0036 105159 201 533 0 033 851 207 53 0 030 50555 201533 0 027 3302 201533 0 024 78075 201533 0 020 BE77S 2039i 533 0 017 E1471 201 533 0 014 54 168 201 533 0 0 011 40054 201 533 El 0 39550 201 33 0 004 32256 207 533 0 0 1 24352 201 Z 0 002 417649 201532 0005 710346 201 532 0005 73043 201 532 0 011 3 454 ZO1532 MAX MIN ROUND 0 00055 70 00634 0 00749 0 00545 70 01440 00 805 Bore Distortion Post Processor 0 2 002 02 002 Fourier 3 39 Coefficients 002 02 002 O N October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 18 lm ltOUm Air I wIUHZmZWHOZDLI UltZgtltHO ltOUm O UHWAIOZ OOZZmOI HZAm WOU gtZU OltIHZUmN WOW m HZNmgtOHOZ I nmXHwm nmgt ltOUm O m UHml OZ I nmXHwm nmgt ltOUm O m OOZWOU I WHGHU OltIHZUmN WOW m I ltUH gtUgtltm mZltHNOZltmZ I ltOUgt DO WmUCOI HOZ HON nmXHwm WOUHmm CmHan m ONgtHmuwgtltulIOZ ltmOU On ocmw NOON Ema mp Ema ESQ 05538 Ho PSLAP Model 1 PSLAP is a Ford internal tool for the piston secondary motion analysis It is an ADAMST39VI model that performs multi body dynamics simulation 2 The crank is a rigid body and is constrained at a constant rotating speed 3 Combustion forces are applied to the top of the piston 4 The connecting rod piston pin and piston are represented by 3D finite element models Their resulting stiffness and mass matrices are incorporated into ADAMS as flexible bodies 5 The cylinder liner is a stationary rigid body of which the geometry is represented by splines These splines can be used to model bore distortions 6 Contact nodes are distributed on the top land and skirt of the piston Their relative positions to the piston can be adjusted to represent piston profile ULLUIJCI LUU Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 20 P SIAP MODEL cont PISTON MODEL FEA Model id Model CAD Sol S m m a n y D g m R n O L 5 D amp n O L 5 D October 2007 I o in P SIAP MODEL cont PISTON MODE SHAPES d quot 1 39 u V October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 22 P SIAP MODEL cont CONNECTING ROD MODEL CAD Solid Model FEA Model as g1 m ampgt a 353155 Si l iti E ENEW Elam awagw fquot nannyauntAma an 1 252 Ala IErYMT i g 39 w 4 l I 39 a 3 a I 5n quot1quot w Ifi l am 3933s October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 23 P SIAP MODEL cont CPNNECTING ROD MODE SHAPES October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 24 Piston Side Impact Force i TDC 12 after TDC 24 after TDC 32 after TDC 40 after TDC 2500 I n I I I I I I EMU I I I I I II I 41 S 1500 I 1 g mm 1 Thrust side Q C 00000000 5 03 N 8 Contact force N T 1800 5C I 2 1 E 1700 2 I quot g 0 a f I H m S 1600 o l 1500 I 500 l I I 1400 I E Anti thrust side I C 39II II J r 39I 5 l39 1quot I m 1 000 1820 1825 1830 1835 1840 1850 1620 1300 1980 2160 Crank angle degree I I Crank angle degree VMLUUCI LUUI I IDLUII d lv vll uuuv I39ll Illlvv 39 Piston Skirt Contact Pressure Thrust Side AntiaThrust Side iI1 M m Zoniiar Pressure 25 MPEL Mas Zion attack Prai ure ES i viF a 1 Crank rgle EDI Deg 1 rsai391 gle ZEiiZIiZI Deg Erigu r 31in39 l3939m Eifi m r Eu b h F39Ea39sgaarErML quotw39EiE FCrzl I33 amt 2lZIIin October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 26 Thrust Side Impact Force Signal in time I I I I I I I I I I t 1500 IL 3 E 1000 I m 393 510 El U lllg k uq h lTVH h Ill I I39Fl39 9 l n war fl I Ix x I39Ilhll I Ink In M Log scale dB SCALE Mexican hat N256 Iir39I scale pcolor Thld5 rig E 39 395 E SI E g E E 18 kHZ g E g E E if U 2 LI 3 E rrj E i I E JPJ J T2 144 21B 233 35C 432 504 57395 548 F20 Crank angle deg 7 46L cast iron block assembly October 2007 Sound power level dB 89 E 8 E 33 8 54 52 531230131 101 253 Piston amp Piston Ring D 16m 2000 ynamlcs 2500 o ne thi Bore distortions of all 8 cylinders were measured from th 2 kHz frequency band e nOIsy engine Sound power levels from the 46L cast iron block were calculated rd DCTEVE spectrum Frequen C band Hz Sound Power Level PISTON RINGS PISTON RING DESIGNS AND CLASSIFICATION PURPOSE OF PISTON RINGS SEALING OIL CONTROL PISTON RING CLASSIFICATION COMPRESSION RINGS TYPE OF RING FACE Plain Barrel Face Taper Face TYPE OF CROSS SECTION Rectangular Keystone Bevel Step Bevel Cut TYPE OF TWIST No Twist Positive Twist Negative Twist FREE SHAPE Round Positive Negative RING END GAP With Gap Gapless OIL CONTROL RINGS Single Piece Two Piece Conformable Oil Scraper Steel Rail Multi piece October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 29 E PLAIN FACE gig EE FEL STEP NEGATIVE WET g EEVEL CUT NEGA39I39IVE THE ST BARREL FACE m BEVEL STEP PDSI39I39I39VE T H39ISI39 EEVEL CUT PDSI39I39IVE THE ST October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics TYPES OF COMPRESSION RINGS 3O October 2007 M S aIT O u no M S aIT O u Na u 5 G A u e w 3 S RING END GAPS RING TENSION PRESSURE DESTRIBUTION October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 32 TYPESOF OIL CONTROL RINGS Z piece Oil Control Ring 3 piece Oil Control Ring m N f EEEEEE Er 1 gr C27 j J 3035 x f R3 f f x r October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 33 PISTON RING MATERIALS CAST IRON Grey Cast Iron Intermediate Cast Iron Ductile Cast Iron STEEL Stainless Steel Spring Steel Carbon Steel COATINGS Phospha ng Chromium Plating Thermal Spray October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 34 PISTON RING DESING ISSUES SEALING BLOWBY RINGBORE CONFORMABILITY FRICTION LOSSES HEAT TRANSFER OIL CONSUMPTION DURABILITY ENGINE EMISSIONS I October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 35 in PISTONRING FAILURE MODES SCUFFING MICROWELDING WEAR October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 36 PHYSICS ASSOCIATED WITH PISTON RINGS WI PHYSICAL PHENOMENA RING MOTION AXIAL RADIAL TANGETIAL and TWIST BLOW BY OIL TRANSPORT FRICTION LOSSES FORCES ACTING ON THE PISTON RINGS PRESSURE FORCES INERTIA FORCES CONTACT FORCES FRICTION FORCES 37 October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics PISTON AXIAL MOTION PISTON KIN EMATICS Piston TDC TTDP of Engine Deck I n g 3 O R F w 6 7 wr October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 38 RING ANALYSIS THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AXIAL PISTON MOTION INTERRING GAS FLOW CALCULATION RING MOTION 3D RING TWIST LUBRICATION ANALYSIS BLOWBY ANALYSIS October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 39 PISTON AXIAL MOTION cont Piston Position 7 Hf cosma mam Piston Velocity 7 rasinat Sjn alkos alj 7 sin2 at I Piston Acceleration j r602 cosat 0032 0032 cotsin2at sin2at f Sin201 f sin2atj JSin2w October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 4O INTERDEPENDENCY AFFECTING October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 41 INTER RING GAS FLOW CALCULATION Conservation of Mass Assumptions PM E Three leakage paths TN Ring end gap 2 1 Ci PN1 Past the ring face TN Through the ring groove behind ng E the ring TN2 Perfect gas law P P Pressure 3 N3 TN3 0 Density R Gas constant PN4 T Temperature TN4 Orifice Volume gas flow model October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 42 INTER RING GAS FLOW 39 CALCULATION cont Mass Flow Rate A Flow area P Pressure TTemperature y13 Ratio of specific heats Critical Pressure Pc i 0546 P1 Actual Mass Flow Rate mact Kcmtheor Orifice discharge coefficient 065 October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 43 RING MOTION CALCULATION RING AXIAL MOTION mrj 2 F Fistan K x M M a K 1 quot six i Forces acting on the ring Pressure Force Inertia Force I Friction Force fg Lubrication Squeeze Force Lubrication Adhesive force Cylinder EurE October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 44 1 Ring Collapse Conditions 3 ressu re at me We hi trir39g g gllmlw f E 3 a s pressure belew Uan NDFIMAL HIPJG BEHA JIDF RINGRADIAL MOTION RING COLLAPSE fa V51quot a a i 9 3 a 4 3 ii I E D v 1 pressure above inertia fert e land aberve if high a f mth HF P inertia quot3951 land V g fnlzacraqe h L I Fl ring A E ressu e tap ring Ila1F I1FIHLI1 39 I agelead e ax I 3 mgr3 gee NEH ring Iancl beluw I P3 ter39ismn mud land ressure ME HT IDWJ RING EDLLAF EE October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 45 Ring Bore Conformability of 3D Ring FEA Model 3D Beam Model 91 Node along the Ring Circumference NonLinear Analysis of Fitting the Ring inside the Bore October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 46 Inter ring Gas Pressures and Ring Motion 54L V5 21 EN GENE HUME LTJ39J39EH Fl LTIl G CUES PHUHE Elm I I I Cylinder Had tantrum11 111CI39LII11IZI IL T I Combusnan Chamber hm III Cylinder Pressure Piston Liner mammal 2nd and Pressure um I I I 3rd Land Pressure 15 I JEIII and 51 711 EmuELI IslHI I SumpPressure II39l I I I TDFIIIIIIHE I I 3nd Fling E 39 I Dil ing a 13 E r i an L I 1 5 i l r39 l 39 Elli I 1 r L II I E an 39 39 quot39 l I I I I I 151 and 54a 73 October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 47 i Ring Motion F39J39 Et l l R5 ng Pack CPLID Jungle 1 JR movieFLinF39ackalil 1 a3939i October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 48 BLOW BY MODELING cont DIRECTIONS OF GAS FLOW ACROSS THE RINGPACK October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 49 E t m n G W O N mm 0 C E m m 5 m m G S m u N L T M l O m L 2 m R M L M m Y F W B m S l a M iliifl w n w 0 m m M M H m L m 5 n D Y E a 5 33 R B D m E m W a amp O I L m R B P cw m W V DU 1 7 D S m m E H m r R M m m 0 U m a S O A E M I 1 PISTON RING LUBRICATION I Hydrodynamic and Asperity Contact Lubrication in RingBore Interaction Determining Factors s Availability of the lubricant Surface roughness vs contact clearance Five Potential RingBore Lubrication Modes Fully flooded Hydrodynamic Partially flooded Hydrodynamic Fully flooded mixed Partially flooded mixed Pure Boundary Tribological Effects I Wear Hydrodynamic Pressure Reynolds equation I Fl lCthH October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 51 Ph llllllll Asperity Contact Pressure Greenwood and Trip Asperity Model Hydrodynamic Lubrication at RingBore Fully Flooded Starved Hydrodynamic Hydrodynamic FH H Lu b FH H b g FLUBSOPh g FLUBSPh m a X1 5 E h gt 05ho Film E h lt 0570 5 Q Se aration Q U 5 E hX gt Re U Logation E hog gt Re T 0 Ph Pa 0 Ph Pa L X 5 X 1 quot 5 1 i i x 2 f No 39h T N0 v r 5 As erit 5 Asperlty V z p 5 FR FLU r l Contact FR F LU 5 f Contact 1 0 3 39 l a 53L xax VX VX VX VX a E 3 October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 52 Mixed Lubrication at RingBore Fully Flooded Starved Mixed Mixed Hydrodynamic amp Asperity Contacts Hydrodynamic amp Asperity Contacts 54quot I b b F I I b b E FLUB S3Ph S0Pa g FLUB h SOPa E E F gt 05170 Film E E lt 05ho U 2 hX Ra U Separation g 3 Location E G O 1 K P i g 0 X G X f l hQ j ix I 7 9 FR xZ0 FR 1 LUB g VX VX VX VX a b October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 53 Boundary Regime at RingBore Boundary Lubrication Asperity Contacts only FI I b FLUB5P8 F lt 0510 U hX lt Ra Pb gt1 N0 Hyd r0 dynamic z Pressure 3 FR FLUB October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics REYNOLDS EQUATION 3D Reynolds Equation 3 3 ah apjah ap6Uah6Vgh12dhmin ax u ax 8y u 8y ax y dt 2D Reynolds Equation X D 8613819 ah dhm I W L 6U 12 ax u 8x 8x dt b h LL V m P Lubricant pressure 1 TU u Lubricant dynamic viscosity X b h Lubricant thickness l U Ring axial velocity X Ring radial velocity October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 55 HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION FORMULATION Classical Reynolds Equation 3 3 a h 8p a h 8p 6U ah 6W ah 12 dh mm ax u ax dz u dz ax dz dt p Film pressure u Lubricant dynamic viscosity h Film thickness U Ring axial velocity W Ring tangential veloci o Smooth surface assumption Average Reynolds Equation 3 h3 8p 3 h3 8p ah ah a dh 6U 6W 6U S 12 mm ax x u axj dz Z u dz 3x dz 0 x dt Account for effect of surface characteristics on the hydrodynamic flow and pressure generation Consider surface roughness 6 average pressure flow factors X yand shear flow factor October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics BOUNDARY LUBRICATION FORMULATION Asperity contact interaction shares the contact load Statistical calculation of elastic asperity contact pressure Greenwood ancl Tripp s Model 19am 16f 07677 ZECEF3EJ O C 1 E 1 v2 1 12 1 2 6 Radlus of curvature of E1 E2 asperity peak 77 Surface density of N asperity peaks h 1 h 135 stanclardlzed helght FlV J g dlstrlbutlon 039 V27 039 v Poisson s ratio 7 EC Composite elastic modulus pa Elastic asperity October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics contact pressure 57 Friction Forces Hydrodynamic Friction Boundary Friction Fra Cf JpadAxy A Total Friction F1 2 Frh Fra October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 58 WEAR MECHANISM FORMULATION Different Wear Mechanisms Corrosive abrasive and adhesive Chemical reaction and presence of abrasive substances are not considered Mechanical Adhesive Wear Archad s Wear Equation W U H Hardness of the sliding materials U Sl39d39ng speed w k a Wa Aslplerity contact load padA H k Wear coefficient yr Time rate of wear Elastic asperity contact contributes to ring bore wear October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 59 I 2 i cont39 Wt iston W1t1kl 1 1le Wear of Ring 1 5P1 1 W2 t2 lUpistonl W2ltt2k2 H Wear of Ring 2 W2 2 W3t3Upist0n W3ltt3k3 Wear of Ring 3 W3 K H3 Wear of Cylinder Bore W5 W1ltrBgt W2 r3 W3 r3 gt HUMml HB W303 kB October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 6O Oil Film Thickness Axisym metric Results BASE LINE ENGINE 3131 RPM 1411 WMNI39E39DLD VACUUM 001104 39 f I u C39IL FILM THICKNESS MM E H39 I I I mm I I I Ill 15110 315111 5400 T20 CRANE AWE LE deg October 2007 Piston amp Piston Ring Dynamics 61 OIL FILM THICKNESS MM g o H G 3 U H U N v r r 3Di di CIRCUMF EREN CE DEG menSI October 2007 sto rted bore onal Results wi I th ri CRANK ANGLE DEG 720 0 ng twist IL FILM THICKNESS MM 9 il cathitUIN vrr 360 Piston amp Piston Ring D WI th pl Second R39 CIRCUMFERENCE DEG ynamlcs ston ti Ing It CRANK ANGLE DEG 62 Oil Film Thickness cont
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