New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Principles of Food Science

by: Sally Deckow

Principles of Food Science FSC 211

Sally Deckow
GPA 3.99

Rhonda Crackel

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Rhonda Crackel
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Food Science & Technology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sally Deckow on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 211 at Michigan State University taught by Rhonda Crackel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/207544/fsc-211-michigan-state-university in Food Science & Technology at Michigan State University.

Popular in Food Science & Technology


Reviews for Principles of Food Science


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/15
FSC 211 Fall 2012 Review for Exam 1 DRAFT This review sheet covers the MAJOR topics LIKELY to be included on Exam 1 This sheet is not guaranteed to be all inclusivequot and you should not expect exam questions to be phrased exactly as found on this review sheet NOTE there will be NO SPECIFIC NUTRITION questions Details on exam length and format will be provided at the inclass review session on Tuesday x I a P 9 No specific questions on the overview of food science No specific chemistry questions that would require Iisting such as elements found in foods functional groups etc 0 Carbon Oxygen Sulfur Sodium Potassium Hydrogen Nitrogen Phosphorus Calcium Chloride o Hydroxyl OH Carboxyl COOH Aldehyde CHO CarbonylKetone in the middle of backbone CO Amino NH2 What is pH What is the pH range for most foods Why is this relevant 0 pH is the negative log of the hydronium concentration 0 Most food is acidic with a pH close to 7 o This is important to how we can digest food we don t want the acid in our stomach to neutralize Describe the behaviorfunctionality of water in food Think about polarity H bonds acidbase properties amphiprotic solubilitysolvent etc 0 Water is important for chemical and biological reactions 0 Because water has polar regions near the oxygen and near the hydrogen this means it39s Amphiprotic it can bond with all other polar molecule Because of this water can act as an acid or base Consider H20 gt H30 OH39 Hbonds allow waterto be a truly unique substance It allows L H20 molecules to be closer together making the substance more dense and creating surface tension 0 The reason why L is more dense than S H20 0 Because water expands when it is frozen it can rupture cell walls causing the liquids to spill out when the food is thawed Solubility of a substance is dependent of temperature and polarity or charge 0 Polar things only dissolve in polar things think water Water activity is the amount of water that is available to BOND Moisture is the total amount of water in a food Water content in food affects shelf life a Freezing drying and preservatives can help prevent spoilage o Humectants are added to food to retain moisture No specific questions about boiling point elevation freezing point depression 0 The lower the vapor pressure the higher the boiling point 0 Temp can be raised to increase vapor pressure Additives to water increase bp and decrease fp 0 Why we put salt on sidewalks If external pressure is increase then bp raises Explain water activity What can influence water activity What is the relationship between food stability and water activity HINT think of some food examplesscenarios 0 Water activity is the amount of water in food that is available to bond 0 This means to bond to bacteria 0 Therefore AW determines shelf life in many cases Identify the major wildldbtul AW is influenced by waterbinding materials obviously such as sugar and salt Ex When I was at Kellogg we would take the AW of food samples in order to get a better understanding of shelf life in relation to product formulas Fillings have a much higher water activity so filled products are more likely to have more problems in terms of shelf life and stability compared to unfilled products such as crackers A water activity of food should generally by Kellogg standards be below 07 Water activity machines can be calibrated using salt water solutions to make sure that we are getting accurate readings n I It 1 quotL of simple and complex CHO Don t worry about listing but understand how related to reactions shown in 8 Simple Sugars are made up of saccharides mostly mono and disaccharides are sweet to taste and are broken down easily 0 Ex Glucose Complex carbs are polymers of monosaccharides bonded in long chains which include starch plants glycogen animals and cellulose plants Carbs are used to energy storage and cell structures Explain the following terms and their importance in foodfood processingpreparationthink about food examplesscenarios Maillard browning 0 Chemical reaction between amino acid and sugar carbonyl group 0 Ex Obviously toast as the bread cooks the sugars combine with proteins in order to give you a browngolden color The toasted flavorquot is dependent on the type of amino acid Gelatinization o Occurs with amylose 0 Steps I Temperature raisedreached I Hot water breaks H bonds and water penetrates starch I Diffusion of amylose chains I Structure is lost and swelling occurs mixture is thickened I A starch paste is formed 0 Suspension 0 Two phases liquid continuous and solid dispersed 0 Ex Gravy Gelation 0 Creating a SOL 0 Steps I Add imbibition heat to a suspension I Bonds are formed between starch molecules I Become a SOL maximum gelation I Cools and becomes a GEL thick SOL 0 Ex Eggs jellies yogurts and meat products RetogradationStaling m Starch reverts to a more crystalline form upon cooling Gritty Cause if a gel is formed wrong then it is fragile and loses it s entrapped water When exposed to freezethaw cycles water is not able to reassociate with starch 1 Ex Baking Ordered gt crystalline disordered state gt Cells start to reorder as soon as cooling begins amylose is almost complete by the time a food reached room temp Hydrolysis OOOlt n o Adds a water molecule breaking a bond Polymers gt monomers I Leaves one hydroxyl one hydrogen Dehydration reaction removes a water molecule by creating a bond 9 The majorfunctional propertiesreactions of lipids Don t worry about listing but should understand reactionsbehaviors covered in lecture emphasis on processing not nutritionphysiological properties 0 Lipids are used for energy storage insulationprotection hormones and in cell membranes 0 Hormones 0 Four ring carbon structure 0 Ex Cholesterol animal cells 0 Phospholipids replace the third fatty acid with a phosphate group o Hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic head Saturated fat saturated with H trans isomer 0 Fatty acids are strait and react with each other making them SOLID 0 Ex Butter 0 Unsaturated fats have one or more double bond cis isomer 0 Causes kink in fatty acids so they are spread out and do not bond with each other making them a LIQUID 0 Ex Vegetable oil 10 Explain the differences structure function behavior stability sources etc between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids Think about food examplesscenarios 0 See above 11What properties do MG DG and PL possess How do they behavefunction in foods Why do they function this way 0 Monoglycerides MG 0 Ex Beverages ice cream o Diglycerides DG a Can make food combine emulsifier 0 Texture consistency 0 Ex Veggie oil 0 Phospholipids PL 0 Emulsifiers 0 Allow fats and water to combine Ex Peanuts egg yolks Cerealsgrains General idea only of compositiondon39t worry about exact this or that Processing of various types of grains major steps and purpose of each Baked goods see highlighted sections on posted document 0 Grains o Germ highest lipid embryo endosperm structure primarily starch bran outer layer high protein a Carbs o Lipids 0 Proteins o Cereals o Cultivated grass 0 Wheat


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.