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Brain and Behavior

by: Newton Cormier

Brain and Behavior PSY 209

Newton Cormier
GPA 3.88

Laura Smale

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Laura Smale
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Newton Cormier on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 209 at Michigan State University taught by Laura Smale in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/207553/psy-209-michigan-state-university in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Darwin Along with Wallace announced the hypothesis of evolution by natural selection Darwin thought Reproduction will tend to increase in a population rapidly unless factors limit it individuals of a given species are not identical some of the variation among individuals is inherited not all the offspring of a given generation survive to reproduce The inference is that the individuals with the most favorable traits will increase their probability of surviving reproducing and pas sing on the characteristics Over time the favored genes are most common in the population so selection can change species Couldn39t explain the differences between sexes Then added sexual selectionbright tails of peacocks attract female mates and predators Domestication homology vs heterologyvs homoplasia Evolution leads to diverse forms of life Lamarck said inheritance of acquired characteristics Darwin said natural selection Wallace did not think that evolution occurred in humans because he thought that we were too complex Mendel came up with what Darwin could not inheritance De Vries came up with the mutation hypothesis Convergent evolution Evolution process that responses to similar ecological features cause similarities in behavior or structure in animals that are distantly related example marsupials The main brain structures are the same in all mammals Comparing human and rat brains have all same structures nuclei function cell types etc The differences between human brains and other animals is human brains have a higher percentage of cerebral hemispheres and has many grooves and ssures whereas rat cerebral cortex are smooth The olfactory bulb is larger in rats Neurons are bigger in humans All vertebrates have the features in common but differ in size of the structures This is because all vertebrates descended from a common ancestor Social brain hypothesis suggests that a larger cortex is needed to handle the complex cognitive task of 39 39 39 social 39 391 with other 39 J 39 By Robin Dunbar Sexual Selection and brain size Geoffrey Miller 2000 Based on Darwin39s principle Suggests that natural selection to obtain food and shelter is not likely to account completely for the large brain and complex intelligence of humans He says brain size tripled in our ancestors relatively fast but our ancestors continued to make the same kind of stone ax Only after the human brain stopped expanding did the technological progress develop so brain growth doesn39t correlate with survival bene t So Miller thinks that an additional factor to account for large brains in humans is due to sexual selection for abilities to attract attention stimulate and surprise a potential mate This explains human characteristics such as humor art music language creativity Development and stem cells Developing nervous system begins with a plate ectoderm outer layer then uneven rates of cell division form a groove that will become the midline neural groove Then the development speeds up and the tops of the neural ridges come together to form the tube neural tube The tube divides into three subdivisions forebrain midbrain hindbrain 6 major steps that must occur during the neural development process sequence of stages Neurogenesis cell migration defferentiation synaptogenesis neuronal cell death and synapse rearrangement Neurons are born via mitotic division of nonneuronal cells They are born in the inner surface of the neural tube Cells sort themselves out cellcell interactions Enriched experiences such as learning exercise social life increase the rate of neurogenesis in adult mammals In rats exercise increases neurogenesis but stress blocks it Born along the lining of the ventricles central canal and the aqueduct that connect the ventricles Mostly occurs early in life with exception of the amygdala olfactory bulb hippocampus neocortex quot 39 39 how 39L 39 can affect C New nerve cells migrate after they are born cell migration Cells move with the radial glial cells which guide them to their destination If something goes wrong here a disorderly arrangement occurs and behavioral disorders Move alone a glial scaffold During cell differentiation Once cells get to their destination they express particular genes The cell transcribes a set of genes that it needs Two in uences that may cause this are intrinsic self organization aka cellautonomous independent of neighboring cells and the neural environment aka induction where it is and what its39 neighboring cells are Or other cells release protein that diffuses to the spinal cord and directs some cells to become motoneurons Cells can also be in uenced to differentiate to an area to compensate for missing or injured cells Axon and dendrite growth aka process outgrowth are stimulated by growth cones at the tips of axons and dendrites As they39re growing synaptogenesis is occurring establishment of synaptic connections The outgrowths are called filopodia and the sheetlike extensions are c lamellipodia The filopodia and lamellipodia contract to pull the growth cone in a particular direction Axons are guided by chemicals released by target nerve cells or tissues Synapse growth can be affected by postnatal experience This may be why identical twins aren39t phenotypically identical or one develops schizophrenia The growth cones respond to to the concentration gradients of the chemicals that provide directional guidance Chemical signals that attract growth cones are chemoattractants Chemicals that repel growth cones are chemorepellents Cortex grows from the insideout Develops different outer layers until all 6 layers are present Synapse rearrangement remodeling occurs from late childhood until midadolescence The synaptic remodeling affects prefrontal cortex last and prefrontal cortex is essential in inhibiting behavior delayed brain maturation may contribute to teenage impulsivity So development of psychiatric problems such as schizophrenia or mood disorders in adolescent age tells us how vulnerable this developmental stage is Chemoaffinity hypothesis Roger Sperry 1940s The retinal axons know which part of the tectum to connect to The evidence to support this is that when he cut the optic nerve on the frog he rotated the eye 180 degrees and when the frog regained eyesight it behaved as though the eye was still in its normal place so it was going the opposite direction for food and stuff In later years it was discovered that cell adhesion molecules in tectal membranes direct the retinal axons to the roughly appropriate region of tectum When a third eye was implanted there was alternating stripes of innervation from the two eyes Sensitive period Period during development that an organism can be permanently altered by a particular experience or treatment If an animal is kept in the dark for several weeks during development it will be blind This is most during the early period of synaptic development in the visual cortex During early development synapses are rearranged in the visual cortex and axons for diff eyes compete for synaptic places Coding Sensory events are presentedby action potentials Very low thresholdhighliy sensitive very high thresholdless sensitive Adaptation Receptor response can decline even if the stimulus is maintained Mirror neurons in premotor cortex track movements of others The effective synapses might grow stronger at the expense of ineffective synapses Hebbian Synapses Synapses that grow stronger or weaker depending on their effectiveness in driving their target cell Autism Developmental disorder of social competence Impaired social interactions and language narrow range of interests and activities Perservate nodding head etc actively avoid eye contact with other people and have trouble judging other peoples39 thoughts Looking at faces activates the amygdala more than average and the amygdala is the place of fear They have a smaller corpus callosum Asperger39s syndrome Difficulties understanding social interactions but no lost language capabilities Dif culty interpreting peoples emotional facial expression but are good at observing detail Alzheimer39s Disease Changes in the brain occur as we grow older Associated with a decline in cerebral metabolism Dementia appearing before age 65 senile dementia Remaining physically and mentally active can reduce Alzheimer s Marked reduction of metabolism in posterior parietal cortex and some portions of temporal lobe Senile plaques and neuro brillary tangles canbe observed after death Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder including intellectual disability and facial abnormalities stunted growth In some cases the child could lack a corpus collosum Impairments in language and ne motor skills even when FAS has not been diagnosed but if the mother still drank a little bit during pregnancy Senso Systems Receptor cell Responds to particular energy or substance in the internal or external environment and converts this energy into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane Restricted range of responsiveness Speci c nerve energies the receptors and neural channels for the different senses are independent and each uses a different nerve energy One particular sensation each Generator potentials local change in the resting potential of a receptor cell that mediates between the impact of stimuli and the initiation of action potentials Steps between the arrival of energy at a receptor cell and the initiation of action potentials in a nerve fiber involve these local changes Resembles excitatory post synaptic potentials Initiated at axon terminal Pacinian corpuscle Skin receptor cell that detects vibration Generator potential can be studied here Vibration produces graded electrical potential with an amplitude that is directly proportional to the strength of the stimulus When the GP gets big enough an action potential is generated and therefore has reached threshold Coding Rules that action potentials in a sensory system re ect a physical stimulus Neural codes are limitedbecause each action potential is always the same size and duration so sensory info is recorded by number and frequency of the action potentials the rhythm in which they occur etc Sensory Transduction Receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane transducers converts one form of energy to another form Receptor cells are transducers who convert energy around us into neural activity that leads to sensory perception ZygoteEarliest cells are totipotent they can form an entire organism PSY 209 Exam 3 Review 113010 Ch 12 Difference of brains of heterosexual and homosexual men INAH is twice as large in heterosexuals The size of the INAH in homosexual men was not different from the women s size of the INAH Gene difference Family patterns Linkage between male relatives 82 of homosexual brothers share a set of 5 markers No brothers02 chance of homosexuality Goes up 5 with each older brother Finger length 2 101 and 4th finger Men have smaller ratio than women in general Homosexual women have smaller ratio than heterosexual women Laterality Men are more likely to be left handed SCN twice as large in homosexual men than heterosexual men Men and women have same size SCN on average Ch13 Food we absorbed is used for energy storage primarily When blood glucose level decreases glucagon is released When it rises insulin Insulin causes a feeling of satiety Ghrelin stimulates feeding leptin reduces feeding Ghrelin comes from arcuate nucleus Ch14 Infradian rhythms are longer than a day seasonal etc ultraradian rhythms are less than a day Circadian rhythms are about a day 25 hours Day length seasonal changes body weight changes can in uence rhythms Circadian timekeeping input clock and output Ifyou put something into a constant darkness or constant light the clock rhythm will still persist but will shift more towards its natural rhythm SCN is the time center the retinohypothalamic tract runs from retina to hypothalamus Ifyou remove the SCN the animal becomes arrhythmic This is proof that the SCN is involved in rhythms If you put the SCN back the rhythms can be regained Entrainment is based on lightdark input from outside Free running doesn t have an input so its natural et lag easier to adjust while traveling east to west Harder to adjust from west to east Easier to have a delay than an advance Sleep EEG records electrical activity in the brain Wakefulness is low amplitude but high frequent NonREM sleep 4 stages higher amplitude but lower frequency REM sleep low amplitude high frequency Orexin is absent in narcoleptics Sleep is the price we pay for plasticity Functional Neuroanatomy lDescribe the neuron doctrine How neurons differ from other types of cells in the body What are the classi cations of neurons by shape and by function 0 Neuron doctrine Concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells Discovered by Santiago Cajal o Neuron is fundamental structure and functional unit of the brain 0 Information is transmitted from cell to cell across tiny gaps synapses 0 Connection specif1city 0 Dynamic polarization 0 Neurons contain mitochondria cell nucleus and ribosomes Unlike other cells they contain input integration conduction and output zones 0 Neuronal shapes 0 Multipolar neurons 0 Bipolar neurons 0 Monopolar neurons 0 Neuronal classifications o Motoneurons innervate muscles or glands o Sensory neurons respond to environment 2What are the 4 types of glial cells Describe one function of each 0 Astrocyte regulate blood ow receive neuronal inputmonitor synaptic activity and modulate neuron activity and synapse formation 0 Microglia migrate to sites of injurydisease remove debris o Oligodentrocyte Form myelin on a few adjacent axons o Schwann cell Form myelin on a single axon 3Draw a neuron and identify the following structures on it dendrites axon terminals nodes of Ranvier axon hillock axon and cell body Nucleus Schwann cell Myelin Sheath Dendrite Aan Nodes of Ranvier Axon Terminals 4What is a synapse And what it contains 0 Space between axon terminals and dendrites Dendritic spine part of neural plasticity o Innervate axon terminals make a synaptic contact with another neuron o Presynaptic membrane 9 Postsynaptic membrane 9 Synaptic cleft 5What are the ventricles why do we need them and what are they full of 0 Chambers run through the brain with cerebral spinal uid Acts as shock absorber exchange between blood and brain 0 Lateral ventricle extends to all four lobes 9 produces CSF 3rd ventricle hypothalamus Lateral vmumln Lalmal vunlncls mam SSLZZLZ r 52m r 39 r 353 1 mm m 0 M New m cupywmuazmv Wm Wm M imimmwmy Wm M 6What do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems have in common and how do they differ What do they have to do with the ght or ight response 0 Both control internal organs and are not subject to voluntary control Sympathetic Nervous System 0 Controls spinal cord thoracic spinal cord smooth muscle 0 It controls the ght or ight response 0 Releases norepinephrine Parasympathetic Nervous System 0 Controls preganglionic neurons below or above sympathetic system cranial nerve sacral spinal cord and the ganglia throughout the body 0 It controls rest and recover response 7Draw a diagram of a humanrat brain and label on it the four lobes of the cortex the cingulate gyrus thalamus hypothalamus hippocampus basal ganglia corpus callosurn amygdala midbrain medulla pons and cerebellum or be able to identify them on a line drawing if you were presented with one and indicate 1 mction associated with each Prlmary Central Midbrain mm sulrus Pm X mal ry mmamsensmy cortex om ital PIIUItary cerebellum ouamry lobeP bulb lTebmporal Cerebellum a e Splnal curd 5plnalmrd Medulla Frontal lobe Responsible for motor activity speech and thought processes Parietal lobe Processes information about touch taste pressure pain and heat cold Occiptal lobe Responsible for receiving and processing visual information Temporal lobe Responsible for processing auditory signals o Limbic System 0 Cingulate gyrus Attention Involved in emotion formation and processing learning and memory 0 Thalamus Where almost all sensory information enters and is then sorted and sent to appropriate areas Hypothalamus Involved in homeostasis emotion thirst hunger circadian rhythms ANS and pituitary gland Hippocampus Involved in learning and memory Responsible for converting short term memory to permanent memory and recalling spatial relationships 0 Amygdala Emotional regulation Involved in memory emotion and fear Part of temporal lobe o Olfactory bulb Sense of smell 0 Basal Ganglia Involved in motor control Include four nuclei 0 Caudate nucleus 0 Putamen o Globus pallidus o Substantianigra midbrain 0 Corpus Collosum Wide at bundle of neural fibers communicating between left and right hemispheres 0 Brain Stem o Midbrain Mesencephalon Voluntary motor control Involved in vision hearing eye movement and body movement 0 O o Medulla Oblongata Responsible for maintaining vital body function breathing and heart rate 0 Pons Motor control and sensory analysis Related to levels of consciousness and movementposture o Cerebellum Involved in regulation and coordination of movement posture and balance 8What do the peripheral and the central nervous system contain respectively 0 Both a part of autonomic nervous systems 0 Peripheral Nervous System Contains 31 pairs of spinal nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves part of the autonomic nervous system and ganglia Nerves lead to and from the CNS through junctions ganglia 0 Central Nervous System Consists of brain and spinal cord coordinating information and activity of the different parts 9What are the cranial nerves and why do we have them ie at a general level what three things do they do for us 0 Connect to brain for three different reasons 0 Relay information from sensory organs to the brain 0 Send information to control muscles 0 Connect to and regulate glands and internal organs 10What are spinal nerves how they are organized and what they do for us 0 Dorsal spinal nerves control sensory nerves 0 Ventral spinal nerves control motor nerves 0 31 pairs 0 Cervical 7 8 o Thoracic 7 12


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