New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Cognitive Psychology

by: Newton Cormier

Cognitive Psychology PSY 200

Newton Cormier
GPA 3.88

Mark Becker

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Mark Becker
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 65 page Class Notes was uploaded by Newton Cormier on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 200 at Michigan State University taught by Mark Becker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/207554/psy-200-michigan-state-university in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.


Reviews for Cognitive Psychology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/15
Cognitive Labs Quiz 2 Review 0 Attentional Blink 0 Main function of attention is selectively choosing some stimuli and ignoring others I Some stimuli are processed and some are not I Mind can only handle only limited amounts of information There is a brief time after paying attention to one stimulus when attention cannot be focused on a subsequent stimulus I This duration is called attentional blink Findings I Identification of second target letter is very low when it immediately follows rst target letter I As temporal separation increases identification of second letter increases Focusing attention on that letter requires time and if second letter appears during that time it is not given attention 0 Attentional blink is associated with cognition stage of human behavior 0 Change detection 0 Basic idea I People do not store many details of a scene in memory I Critical factor is attention 0 In order to see an object change it is necessary to attend to the object 0 Once you know what to look for change is easy to detect 0 Flicker paradigm I Original image is followed by blank image then followed by the changed image I Presence of mask prevents automatic detection of change 0 If masked you have to search the scene for every object until you find the change 0 Change blindness I Failing to detect changed object 0 Spatial Cueing 0 Subjects cued with likely location of atarget in a display I Cue can be either valid or invalid 0 Responses are faster when target appears in cued location I Valid trial 0 These patterns occur independently of eye movements I Eye tracker verifies that eyes are at the center of the display but focus of attention can be to the left or the right 0 O O o Stroop Effect 0 Automatized I When a behavior or skill no longer requires direct interaction or thinking through the steps I Typing reading bicycling driving etc o Stroop said observers slower to identify color of ink when ink was used to produce color names different from color of ink Language 1252011 35000 PM What is language 0 Aform ofcomrnunication o Other forms of communication 0 Visual I Gestures I Displays I Dances 0 Chemical I Pheromones I Scent Marketing Animal Communication 0 Bird songs are learned 0 Birds reared in isolation past age of singing never get the song right 0 Deaf before learning never sing o Reared with a different bird learn the wrong song 0 Vervetmokeys Struthsaker 1967 0 Different calls for different predators snake eagle leopard 0 Only call in the presence of others 0 Young learn to discriminate over time Is this a language or signaling 0 Signals may be a re exive reaction to the presence of the stimulus 0 Ex vervet calls when food is present 0 Language has a number of critical properties that are different from signaling 0 Refer to things removed in time and space Critical Properties 0 Clark and Clark 7 o Communicative I Permits individuals to communicate o Arbitrary I Relationship of elements in language and their meaning I EX Whale big microorganism miniscule 0 Structures at multiple levels I Pattern is not arbitrary I Word can end with rk but not begin with rk I the can lead but not follow cat 0 Generative Built together in new limitless ways 0 Dynamic I Changing new words new rules I EG webinarquot the F wordquot subprimequot Are intelligent mammals capable of language 0 Primates o Dolphins o Parrots Primates o Kellog and Kellog 33 raised an infant chimpanzee named Gau along with their own infant son 0 At 16 months she understood more words about 100 than the human infant 0 She never got any better 0 No real understanding of word order or grammar o Gardner and Gardner 69 raised Washoe o Washoe39s trainers always conversed in ASL when they weren39t around her 0 By the time she was 5 she had acquired 152 signs 0 She was able to use signs in novel yet appropriate combinations I Water bird I Dirty Roger I Open faucet 0 She did not appear to be sensitive to word order 0 SavageRumbaugh Shanker and Taylor 98 raise Kanzi the bonobo chimp 0 He uses a keyboard language called Yerkish o Kanzi was not formally introduced to Yerkish 0 He sat on his adopted mother39s back while she received lessons in Yerkish 0 Mother never learned it but Kanzi started using the keyboard spontaneously o Understood over 200 symbols 0 He also responds appropriately to spoken utterances I Take of Sue39s shoequot I Give the dog a shotquot 0 He spontaneously produces two and three word sentences and freely combines symbols with gestures and vocalizations 0 He is sensitive to word order 0 Responds correctly to over 70 of unfamiliar sentences http wwwgreatapetrustorglibraryVideo gallerybonobosTab http wwwyoutubecomwatchv2 Dhc22eP FE Dolphins o Dolphins are social animals 0 Each dolphin has a signature visiblequot 0 Louis Herman U of Hawaii taught arti cial languages to wild caught dolphins 0 Some computers generated highpitched words 0 Mostly hand gestures o httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvjz3s QsTE5tA 0 Language consists of over 60 words I Nouns Verbs Modi ers I Uses a simple Grammar I Phoenix Ake under Phoenix go under Ake I Food rewards for correct responses to commands o The dolphins learn the words 0 They make appropriate use of word order 0 Right hoop left Frisbee fetch take the Frisbee on your left to the hoop on your right 0 Left hoop right Frisbee fetch take the Frisbee on your right to the hoop on your left 0 They respond correctly to novel combinations of words Parrots A Grey parrot Irene Pepperberg has spent 30 years teaching Alex Model Rival Training Alex died Sept 2007 http wwwyoutubecomwatchVR6KVPN Wt81 Is this really language 0 Most psychologists say no 0 Chomsky39s criteria 0 Language has structural principles such as grammar 0 Language is used for the expression of thought for establishing social relationships and for the communication of ideas 0 Language has various physical mechanisms in the brain of which little is known 0 Language has been integrated into a system of cognitive structure Why do people care 0 What makes us humans unique 0 Used to think tools use 0 Language 0 C onsciousnesss Big debate 0 Continuity theory 0 Human language similar to animal calling systems just more complex 0 Discontinuity theory 0 Genetic mutation produced language that is unlike anything else The Universality of Language 0 Deaf children invent sign language 0 All cultures have a language Language development is similar across cultures Tacit learning of grammar during childhood Languages are unique but the samequot 0 Different words sounds and rules 0 All have nouns verbs negatives questions Learning grammar o Tacit learning not taught and people don39t really know what they learn more like skill implicit than explicit o By four more kids use grammar correctly Is a given string of words a sentencequot Noam Chomsky Chomsky39s mmal ohsemuons Quesuon 1 How can one premer desmhe such a set Soluu on Sample phraserstructure grammar u NP rgt deg A N u VP7gtVS NNoun VVerb A d Dem Determinant Example The skinny senor kissed the astonished cat NP VP am W a detA N The skinny sailor kissed the astonished can quotrecursionquot NF delAN The skinny sallor halllved me dancer i a cat had cal halleved he skinny uses The asmnis sailor believed the dancer kissed e cat Grammzr is whsimsiiisisiigiisgi spenzl i si piiiiiiisiiisipissiiiiinsiissmsbiiiiy i Ruleslezrnedtzndy s Cha skiniiisVi bisiiisiissiiisisiispiusiizisisiiiiisissiisLsiigiisgi Aiiiisissiinimi 1 i impssiiiggimsiisimsiiv s ii 9 igt ciisii Lsngiisgi is imsii sibsii skinniivs Gmmsky Thiii is ssmi insinii iiisiWi iii Wiiisis heir spiisi snipiiiii spiiiiiis siiiii ssiiiis i Ezbys isiiiiisiiiiiiii wamb sbyspiiiiiihiiimsihii39s vsiii ssysiiiig ss 2 ssys sis ubsisiis sii iiss s stary sisiwiiiii iiiiiii wamb issisymupiiiiiiiiis stary siiii issm Aiisiiiii issisys susiisiy sysiims iii Wiiisis heir siiyisiigiisgi uiiiii s msiiiiis inimis isii sisiiii sh myiws humsii spiisi ssiiiiss Ariii s msiiiiis bigiii is issi sisiiiiy is sissiigiiisii ssiiiissiisiiii iissVi isiigiisgi Lsiigiisgi Aismsiiisii rsiiswsiiii ssmi psihiigsisiiss snsngiisgi Elrthr syiiig o 6 weeks cooing o 6 months babbling o 1 year 1 word utterances o 18 months 2 word utterances o 2 years Word in ections o 225 years Questions Negatives o By 4 Grammar set Understanding Language Hard Problem 0 Ambiguity at every level 0 Signal is poor noisy word and speech 0 Segmentation of the signal is dif cult 0 Even if correctly segment and form words I Ambiguity at the level of words I Ambiguity at the level of sentences semantics Vowels Only Oe eee ae ee C onsonants Only Ds ths sntnc mk sns o Consonants carry most of the information 0 Most of the energy in spoken language is vowels o Consonants alone are just pops and ticks only when paired with vowels do they make sense 0 C onclusions 0 Poor signal to noise ratio 0 Perceptual units of speech are larger than a single letter phonemes Evidence for featurephoneme detectors in language 0 Create and ambiguous stimulus 0 Heard as time or dime o Adapt person to di Sound 0 They will here time A Noisy World 0 Noise can mask language 0 Again problem at the level of the signal Overcoming the poor signal noise 0 The phonemic restoration effect 0 Only works when the noise would have masked the phoneme o Adapts the missing phoneme Samuel 3981 Aids to help disambiguate phonemes 0 Visual input 0 Easier to understand a speaker when you can see them talk McGurk Effect Visual input helping in speech perception 0 People are better at hearing what a person says if they can see them talking o Dubbing experiments 0 Gestures may also help 0 Even cognitionitally blind people gesture Parsing phonemes is dif cult o Coarticulation o Allows for super fast speaking but means we blend language together The context in uences how we perceive phonemes 0 Ex Phonemic Restoration Effect 0 Str 0 In the sentence In order to str you must rst take off your clothes insert eek o In the sentence The Str was called by the unionquot insert ike 0 Conclusion information that comes later can in uence what people hear 0 EX Words in an out of sentence 0 Much easier to identify words in sentences 0 EX Pollack and Picket Taped Ss in waiting room Then isolated single words and played them 0 People could not identify their own words Parsing words dif cult 0 Ex Hearing an unfamiliar language seems like no break between words 0 Our brains insert breaks where there are none 0 How 0 Probably top down in uences 0 Knowledge of structural rules eg word can end but not begin with RK Problems with hearing language 0 Phonemes are often hard to extract from the sound stream 0 Need to know or guess the word to identify the phoneme 0 Even if you get the phoneme it is hard to segment them into words 0 EX Coarticulation hearing a foreign language 0 Some phoneme strings match more than one word string 0 Gladly a crosseyed bearquot 0 Gladly a cross I39d bearquot Problems with understanding a sentence 0 Assuming you can get the right words how do you extract the right meaning 0 Surface structure the words on the page 0 Deep structure The meaning semantics o The same surface structure can have multiple deep structures Newspaper headlines o Iraqi head seeks arms 0 Panda Mating fails Vet takes over 0 Eye drops off shelf 0 Squad helps dog bite Victim 0 Juvenile court to try shooting defendant 0 Stolen painting found by tree 0 2 sisters reunited after 18 years in the checkout counter o Miners refuse to work after death How Many interpretations 0 Time ies like an arrow 0 Time moves quickly as an arrow does 0 Asses the pace of ies as you would asses the pace ofan arrow res 0 A pamcularvanety nf res nme res adore arrows o Asses the pace affhesJaut anlythasethat resemble arrows when dunng prncessrng dnes drsambrguannn occur z pnssrbdmes O V r degree depends nn frequency of meanrngs and an context Marslen rWIISun39s Cnanndel mputsaunds p s contextual mput Ways to testwhether all pnssrble wnrds are acuvated Crnss modal lexrcal pnnnng m mmm an HmrH mum ulm39 1 m m a 7m a 3 auditoryprimez a I t we prisoner visual probe ship shop o Priming found to both alternatives in earlyquotcondition only o More priming found to quotshipquot 7 a frequen cy effect Some variations o llear captquot o Dostitprime Captain YES 0 Does it prime Captive YES 0 Does it prime Capsule N0 Sequential encoding o Prime 15L syllable or rst 2 syllables O Lu I I I J Ifonly present the second syllable no priming ti pinning Use Eye Tracking to Investigate Language Procession u i 0 II of quot 0 Basically consistent with the coherent model 0 BUTwhatahoutcontext CrossModal lexical priming with constraining context o Theyalwaysobeyedthe auditoryprimB c a P i W t a p IAI a n i a aquot prisoner visual pmbe ship shop 0 Asmiamdynmm and m hachikemnvemn my mam wily saummmmjawcanmmWmWan amnuauymmmamc Wlahammemn alwardXWAchmthlemmn n we aka mm any mue man a due canmxt canmnyaslhle y mm anrmh uauywrdWEEKmxni awhdxchniarmnyysmwhe avmemhuddmahdheenybgnedwnk n Wuhalmrpnndwhenheimmd wu humenmthe mm 1 ymrs dz gammcnt building an plagucd wirh pmblems Th man was not mde m1 5 am touches and otbel bugs gn the coma of In mom 1 2 Cmssmadzllninlpn39minganimclaxumcl m mm MAquLAnoh 39Im Candunan myamnn memn in mayme mm cmmxnu y mm Ey mm mm mnanmlwu h cahqmlmadel up input sounds ruaay contextual input llldL a aulul mu Eberhard el al 3995 7 Eye Hacking Target instruction quot1390 uch he starred yellow squarequot Ir z Exampic mswm mpmstnzlng um quotum pom or dlslmblgnanm cundilmns m Expenmw I m vmm u quot1 mm y n u mm n no a m m mm 5 mm x The ve of hearts that is below the eight of clubs Hz 5 Eumnh mum M the mm wmna gmm mun rcnduwm m Eu39nm 2 Eyz mmmms dzmnnslratz hatpszlz gurz mm mzamng mm y Ennmamt by mumquot mw I 3 n m Ennmamywrmtzrprzmnm baszd m m cbmmbn grmmd ma slgn mum LSD an May 3w thndnzsthuhappznEarlyDrum Kesar Barr aanmna Brmmzr E a 523125 atmssfrbm m anmhzr In mzmmdlmsagnd Mbbxzsmmmmngnbyzms sbmzpansbichz gndarz pznm bath pa mpants sbmz mm mmmm ngr See Eanszz I 39 Heat Move the large ball next to Findings ch e star a Feaplelank at the largest hall net the largest nne the o instructinn giver cnuld a Fenpleeven rnavetheir B arrn tnwards it o a sprnetirnes penple even see rnnve it helnre realizing they rnessed up i Canclusinn Cnnstraints hased nn cnrnrnnn grnund are LATE Aphasia Ernca39s Aphasia e Ennr uant aphasia 7 Have dirlicultywith speech prnductinn e telegraphic speech Relatively gnnd cnrnprehensin n 7 but thrnwn all by sentence like the girl was pushed hythehny39 Wernike39s aphasia 7 can prnduce duicldyhut it rnakes nn sense rvlmrd salad is anrcnrnprehensinn Frns and Cans nihilingualisrn Early thenrists prnpnsedhilingualisrn prnduces cngnitive delicits a Extra brain elln rtsquot expended nn language learn39n Flawed research ed lnwer cases French Canadian h ngualstn rniddle class English Canadian rnnnnlinguals il39n uals d hetter nntest nl rstrlanguaga skillLambarl 1990 Bilingual children better at lnllnwing cnrnplex instructinns inlarrnatian When dd walearn 0 L1 to learning seems to have a critical period 0 EX Genie I Genie grew up in LA From the time she was 20 months to her discovery at the age of 13 she spent her time alone strapped to a potty chair in a small bedroom She was fed hurriedly with minimal interaction and no talk If she made any noise her father would beat her with a large piece of wood She had no language when she was discovered At 17 years after 4 years of training D Her language age was about 5 years old D She combined words into complex utterances and could express meanings Vocabulary skills were much better than syntactic skills Her grammar was de cient in both production and comprehension Is there a critical period for L2 acquisition 0 The classic study says yes 0 Johnson and Newport 1989 compared English pro ciency of Korean and Chinese immigrants to the US Age of arrival ranged from 3 to 39 Length of residence at least 3 years Tested on a variety of English structures Results 0 Clear and strong advantage for early arrivals over late arrivals o Claimed there was a critical cut off at puberty 0 However more recent data Felge 1999 o Pronunciation of Italian Immigrants to Ontario Canada 0 Length of residence gt 15 years 0 No cutoff point where decline begins 0 No attening out in adulthood Hakuta Bialystok and Wiley 2 003 o Selfassessed oral pro ciency ratings of Chinese and a Spanish speaking immigrants to US 0 Length of residence at least 10 years 23 million responses rant mum minimum No cut off point where decline begins N0 attening out in adulfhood Not a critical point But ability declines with age of immigration Why might L2 learning decline with age Biology age related changes in cognitive ability 0 Decreased ability to Learn paired associates Recall detail as opposed to gist Perform quotcontrolquot processes Simon39s task Decline win working memory capacity Slowing ofcogni ve processing speed b l quotgoodquot input on 39 c Y appropriate way insuf cienttime Problem Solving 12520113 50 00 PM Problem Solving Cycle o O o o 0 Idenurymg 1nd De nmg the mm xsezsymmasneseumpeapxearemdmegmxsmemdmeapemm 1 state whztthesaluhanwauldlaakhke w n auhzve succeeded Gal quot squot aramans a pemm Rules zbautw cznbemzde lntherulwarld dermmgme gun state mdthe aperztarsmzybe dn39 cult Ex k2q21rtnf cwntmgzpzpex The prablemwnh Pmblem Salvmg Research quotInthe eldresurch there Is menm much eampxemyua lawfar defmmve my Interesting candusmnsquot Exzmple Prablems Suppase wu ire abus drwer omhe Hump yau 1 up menznd 2wamen Atthe semndstap 2 men 121v mdlwamznbazrdsthebus Atmethudstap lmznluves mm slap 2 men get an 1 gets MT and men 2 wamen get an Wnte a us 1 smme Kyau attendta m wrangml39armztmn paar m and de mhan yauw lnat salve pmblems emeeuy Alsa demanstzzteswarldngmemary czpzdtylimns Representzhan Thebegmnmg representmgdefmmgthe prablem Methade salutzm after depends anmetha a D u dafrepresentzhm mm relevznt futures afpmblem u Cmstrun arepresentzhan usngthase futures Thequotmversturcznbus m representzhan Bump Prablems Whms emmmumnumberufpxecesmtawl39nchzc cemzybemtusmgfvurstznght mtswhhzshzrp mm 11 pieces 14 p eces Wm quotM Bump Pmblem Stmwnhywurpe manelacztzanmdm ce ksh nghthnesmthvutpxdungupwur penthztcannzazlwdats Salutinn Q 9 Q 33 063 can39t solve rt lnsrght e snlunnns tend to reourre rnsrght an quotah ha expenenc The e Gestaltpsychnlnglsu were rnterested In the quotah ha rnsrghtproblems How does rnsrghtdmerl long math problems lnsrghtproblems e pnorknowledge hinders perrormance get stuck Need 0 structure your conceptron orthe problem Drlglns orlnsrght Research Wolrgang Knhler a Apes The n5lghl Sequence Enxstacklng Metcalre and Wrebe a7 Rate warmth every 15 seconds as solve problems lncubauon Gestaltpnsltlnn a llnconscrous processrngproduces advanuge work on problem In the background 0 But silveiratake recorded subjects doing thinkaloud protocol No sign of progress after incubation 0 Possible explanation 0 You forget the wrong strategy that you were xated on Allows you to shift to new strategies Sleep facilitates discovering hidden structure needed to solve problems 0 Sleep is an effective study break 0 Restorative o Helps consolidate information Bowden and lung Beeman 0 Insight solutions are preceded 15 seconds by inhibition of the visual cortex 0 Suggests restructuring the problem Insight problems require a restructuring of the problem 0 People go wrong early in the sequence don39t define the problem correctly 0 In insight problems if you structure the problem correctly the rest of the solution is obvious and rapid Reasoning and Decision Making 1252011 3 5000 PM Problem Solving Cyce o o o o O 3 Strategy annatlnn ave tn plan astrategywhlch mayinvnlve a Analysls e breaklng dnwn the wlinle nr a cmmplexprnblem lntn manageable parts 5 yntheslsr Putnngmgetliervanniis elements tn anrangetliemintn snmeming useful a Divergent thmkmgr trytn generate a diverse assnmnent nfpnsslble alternatives Cnnvergent thmkmg e nanrnwmg dnwn pn ssileilities tn cnnverge an a single nptinn Examples Have 3 jugs and want to measure Have 3 jugs and want to measure 30 100 oz 02 Juga 21 z HUN2502 Jugb 127oz Jugb7502 Jugc Soz Jugc moz To get to 100 To get to 30 Jugb39jUQBJ39Ugc39jugc Jugb juga jugc jugc Have 3 jugs and want to measure 50 oz Jug a 60 oz Jug b 130 oz Jug c 10 oz To get to 50 Jugbjugajugc jugc Why not Jug a Jug c Errors in strategy selection Luchins found that givingpeople 6 problems with the same solution made them use that method even when a better way was available Situationalllyproduced mental set 4 Organization oflnformation Organize available information in ways that enable you to implement your strategy Obstacles to Problem Solving improper organization ofinformation Functional fixedness restrictinguse ofan object to its familiar functions 0 Candle problem seeing boxes as containers inhibited using them as supports Twostringproblem function ofpliers gets in the way ofseeing them as a 0 weight Light bulb problem thinking about a light as in uencing vision biases app roach O 5 Resource Allocation We have limited resources time money space memory 0 We have to decidehow much we want to invest in finding the solution 6 Monitoring Necessaryto monitor process making sure we are getting closer to the goal Might need to reassess change strategyreorganize information 7 Evaluation Evaluate your solution after you have nished your process Is the answer the one you set out to find New problems can be recognized the problem maybe rede ned new strategies might come to light Trouble shooting Types of strategies Algorithms o Guarantee of success I Require well de ned operations and goal state I Requires brute processing strength that people may not have can be inef cient for people I Good for computers Heurisitics o No guarantee ofsuccess 0 Short cuts and basic strategies that usually work I Far fewer demands on processing resources than algorithms DumbSimple search Algorithm 0 o o Randomly choose an operator Apply it If the goal has not been met repeat the process Trial and Error Guaranteed to solve well de ned problem Very inefficient Problem Space All possible alternatives If you generate all possible moves and their outcomes you can then search the space for the direct route to goal If you had huge processing resources you could do this Is this how you operate Heuristic Methods Hill climbing difference reduction 0 Ever step takes you closer to your goal 0 No need to think through subgoals or multistep options Means 7 End Analysls Also mes m ellmmate dlfferences between Currentstate and goal state m n I mm 0 next suhgoal and work towards n Consider the initial state and the goal slate lonne a puzzle The problem wnb hlll cllmbmg 0 problem 0 Thlnk mountain cllmbmg Missions 8 Cannibals There are 3 mlsslonaries and 3 cannlbals on one slde or rlver and may need to gat m the acner side The bnat can only carry pan at a tune Note HIII cllmblng won t work There Carl never be more Cannibals than mlssinnarl39es in nne om on nr they will eat them How do thEV cross the men Means 7 end analysls Make subgoals At points the subgoals require increasing difference between current state and ultimate goal state Subgoal advantage Analo gy O 0 Transfer 0 0 Sims and Reed 0 5 missionaries and 5 cannibals o Subgoal hint 3 cannibals across the river without the boat 0 No hint 30 moves 0 Hint 20 moves Reed Ernst and Banerji Substitute jealous husbandquot and wives for cannibals and missionaries Added some stipulations 0 Ex Husbands would not leave their own wife with more men than women unless they were present Critical point is that the problem can be solved the same way However people are not better at solving one problem if they had just solved the other Why didn39t they use the analogy Explicitly told husbands and wivesquot like missionaries and cannibalsquot Doing HampW 1st helped with M and C Doing M and C rst did not help H andW The mapping between the analogy must be made obvious surface similarity Analogical Paradox Participants in experiments focus on surface features People in the real world use structural features Salient differences between puzzle problems and realworld problems Puzzles o Unfamiliar o Involve little prior knowledge 0 All necessary info is present in the problem statement 0 Requirements are unambiguous Real World 0 Familiar o Require some prior knowledge 0 Necessary information is not present 0 What is the goal How experts solve the problems Experts focus on structural rather than surface factors Experts send more time analyzing problems Experts are no better than novices when given problems outside of their eld Experts less likely to be open to new ways of looking at problems Reasoning and Heuristics 1252011 35000 PM Classical Decision Theory 0 Economics Assumption of Rationality o Deductive reasoning o Maximize outcome 0 Based on I Math Probability I Logic Not very good at predicting human behavior 0 This theory is based on the believe hat people seek to reach well reasoned decisions based on Consideration of all possible known alternatives 0 Use of a maximum amount of available decision 0 o A maximum degree of sound reasoning Careful weighing of costs and bene ts and calculation of probability 0 Subjective Expected Utility Theory 0 The goal of human action is to seek please and avoid pain 0 In doing so each of us uses calculations of o Subjective Utility based on the individual39s judged weighting of utility rather than on objective criteria 0 Subjective probability based on the individual39s estimates of likelihood rather than on objective statistical computations But do we weigh all the options 0 May be more possible alternatives than we can consider Bounded Rationality and Satis cing 0 We are not boundlessly rational in making decisions 0 Bounded rationality 0 We are rational but within limits Satis cing 0 Do not consider all possible options and then carefully compute which of the entire universe of options will maximize our gains and minimize our losses Rxhqwe can ammmuymmmmm gum am mmw 1nd m mummme Wyun aadmau hmmeetaurmml mmmqamw ammmuymm Wehrman Wigwam nichemauXDyuansindweiamimm mmmmmm Wechm ilea axiuannhxdanalmeeuhxmmnan mm in ammme e m w e mmarehandanmaddmauhrpex mm m e kl hllwean amswhxnuamlla al dennanmku Anyaula al39 WWWquot wk euan m mmm mnry Laucraeammm mm mamammaeawuawxanuyxmmuvmuaxmmymm Dedumveksmnm Sy ausm mmmmneam e a my uea mam magnum a nemumbmhmmm mammal mm gym mmcumumxnumxmnyxmmmmm Miadmg wuagm a yymymma a Mam mam dammmc xmmmmmm a maMamwmmmmmmanuymm a ma mam all ma Ylhpn in mm m 31mm cmduslan mm 0 mm annickdedum ldymahdcandusmnnhxare cmyletdyunmewnh mum m mm m m mm niche Human mm sy ausm mmxile ammo a A mdmxanmxdhamx a A mmnl emyeayleare a Thqdarea mde mmmmumum mm mmea mam z a m mdmxan ma 0 SmemedFeaFle in 1mm 0 11mm Same am mamm xrnuHe Munumanum cam be we Daesn t have m be u Akmn daeemxik Nubianamine Wu H Somehnnvalzznlmmm Wmm mmhm snmmmmmm cheamelaga amhude3r1ynalvahd mg m whmhe Fm mmimmanequmummmmgewemmmmimam rrar rites ashlgh as guna uggestthatwe da nut reasan wathese laglzal pmsesses s In addtanthe types afmstakes make ireta mg Belief Bias mu E 1 mm mas E n o w eemam rm Belnevahle Mn belrewabie hem In yam swva m Imam sytloama Cansxus mn a e are nut reisamngdeduttwalyis ane shauldwnh syllaglsms a Durhahefsm uenzewhetherwethmksamethmgslagzalarnat Deduthvekeisamng Candmanal Reassmnge must draw a mndusmn based anin 4henpmpasmsn General e lfyau39re a tagnmve psythalaglst wu are an athlete Spesmselaeasassgmewepsyshaxagm staeanagmew WASON S SELECTION TASK I m cmmsevowa ox owe sma mun MLS mum vnnmmmuwruwnm wmcsx mans MUST BE mum ovEmo arrrvaMer mum 39a m rm mm WASON39S SELECTION TASK LFA AS A VOWEL ON ONE SIDE IT HAS AN EVEN NUMBER ON THE quot must be turned aver 89 people realize quot a 1mm solulion WASON S SELECTION TASK E IPA CARD HAS AVOWEL ON oNE SIDE n39 HAS AN EVEN NUMBER ON THE OTHER 45 pcople amp quot4quot ang Don t need WASON S SELECT ON TASK mcmmszx vows m mm smz mm AN wax 5mm U 1115 urHK Only 4 quotE k 1quot pwp 21 m clawing the nits or dnduc vu logic Conditional Reasoning I IF P then Q If Bob 5 present then Kate ls present P therefore Q Bab present therefore Km present Kate not resent 39 N Q quotmmquot quotm P theraforepaub not nrusenr 39 Q quotEmma P Kate present therefore Bah pruen Not 9 herafnre nu Q Bub nut przsent Mature Kale not nx Deduclive Reasunlng Syllogiama giver w p men A p l vurofare 1 Valid A u not 1 than notp Vch L Alf nol p thequot not q Nd Vanda 43944 thequot P Nowam Conditional Reasoning n p then 2 If you play hazkev men yau 5km E m m mu P W 1 mu 39mys van a m gm anagram m 23533 m may m V m We q mmm a mum vnu ally mm um thrz nla m m m r m o luxksv maven yzu an no mu Deductive Reasoning Syllogisms If p then 1 Valid If not 9 then not p valid If no pl men not q Nm Valid lf 1 men P N01 Valid What s going on 0 Con rmation Bias Halpern 2000 0 Only examine instances that would confirm the rule 0 Ignore instances that could discon rm the rule Butsometimes we39re good WASON S SELECTION TASK 3 F PERSON IS DRINKJNG BEER THEN THEY ARE AT 39 YEARS OLD H CARDS MUST BE TURNED OVER TO DETERMINE IF THE RULE IS TRUE OR FALSE Conditional reasoning 0 If you eat dinner then you must do the dishes 0 You at dinner so you must have done the dishes 0 You didn39t eat dinner so you must not have done the dishes 0 You did the dishes so you must have eaten dinner 0 You didn39t do the dishes so you must not have eaten dinner Content Effects 0 Humans do not use one logical system for all reasoning Reasoning Heuristics o Pragmatic Reasoning Schemas o Reasoning skills are not abstract 0 Schemas are built out of repeated situations 0 Semantic contents activate reasoning schemas 0 Permission Schema o Preconditions license behavior I Ifyour 2 1 or over you have permission to drink beer 0 Must check I Those engaging in behavior that requires permission I Those who don39t have permission Social Contract Theory 0 Social exchange cooperation between individuals for mutual bene t 0 We give up some things in order to gain others I Freedom for security 0 It39s adaptive to identify individuals who violate social contracts 0 If you take the bene t you pay the cost 0 If you eat dinner you must do the dishes Summary 0 People are bad at using abstract logical rules 0 People are much better at conditional reasoning when content is meaningful o This might re ect evolutionary adaptive strategies nomslll speclflc View ofcoglltlve processes Are you logical Comparison to Normative Models Theory ofhow How en e do reasoning shoudlt gt p p 7 work reason probability theory The Monty Hall Problem 7 Let s make a deal 0 You plcka door 0 Monty says quotgood clllllkyou dldll39c plck door and shows you a crappy prlze I ALWAYS SWITCH Odd s lmpmvetoZ3 from 13 Conclusloll Even with easy pmbablllty we are not Vel39y good Consider a medlcal test where Frobablllty a person much the dlsease Wlll test posltlve ls 95 Frobablllty a person wlthout the dlsease Wlll test posltlve ls 5 mppose o 1ln10000 people lll Fodunkhavethe dlsessse 0 le flom Podunk tests positive What ls the chance she has the dlsesse7 o 0 0019 How Should you solve these problems7 Fla probablllty ofa 071 Pibla prabablllty ofb gvell a Conditional pmbablllty 0 We know Pposxtwedlsease 095 Pposxtweno msease 7 005 Pdxsease Prmr prob 00001 0 We motto know Pdisease posmve Bayes39 Theorem Bayes39 Theorem Currch Diagnnsis ptnu Au posinve Dinymses Bayes Theorem pow pm pun p mm pm mnum when P ID 39 130 PM L P PID pD Hmer plumD 095 0001 0019 93390001 A 059999 e you logical Comparison to Normative Models eory of how H d reasoning should lt gt regimen 9 0 work 39 A mummy Inductiveiy and with heuristics inductive Reasoning incomplete evidence from the past Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahne H t 0 People make decisions based on shortcuts heuristics o 14 mi aiicw fora much gneaten chance ofexror and pnedictabie errorsbias Heunstics and biases quotrules ofthumb complex mentaitas Repnesentative Hemistics a asses likelihood of an event based on how simiian it is tothe typicai protot o Biases predictable or systematic error glare probabilities in making deasions All the famllies having exactly ix children In a particular City surveyed was BGBBG G glrl B boy What is your estimate of the number of famllies urveyed in whlch the exact order of births is BGBBBB smmmetmn and sanilyustlte and alsa partlnpited m entmudeet demdnsttetmns tdtthe dudwmg Gwe a rank af1veryhkelyta an a veryunhkely e Lmdeseteeehetete ele ssh dry an e undewstks m ahaakstare and takes yagi disses nt Lmda s amve mthefemmlst maveme e mdilsinmsurintesilespersan e Lmdnsahanktelleranmsamvemthefemmmtmavement Canjunttlan e wmehwesxdwetetdtw cemunetmmueey Gave theprahlem ta 3 gmup uddetgtedsestetdtudx net d t dents e mdetetmmete stitlstltil knawledge i Dattarilstudentsmdensmnsnen5p ramswhahadtaken ad a med nurses m stats andpmhahllmes e saphlstltited Results H MW in an men mi ram I i if a i iL swung immune 1m myqu em as greaterthanthe edds ereitherhappening aiene Otherpeepie supplying the andmr sky and Kahneman countries and 100 Then askedtu give anestimate Random Anchur Arbitrary number impactedpeuple39s answers Started With a luwer number end up With a luwer estimate Started With a higier number end up With a higier estimate Andmrmg and Adjustm e heginwrth a first apprexrmatien an andmr Salespersun See whya salespersun starts mu with a much more expensive item o This sets your anchor Anchoring and Adjustment When estimating quantity or probability start from initial value anchor and adjust in desired direction Bias Adjustment usually insuf cient too close to anchor 0vercon dence o Humans are generally overcon dent in the decision making process 0 People routinely have more con dence in their own decisions than in predictions based on statistically objective measures 0 Example I When people were 100 con dent in their answers they were right only 80 of the time Political decision making 0 International con icts each side tends to overestimate its chance of success 0 Student projects 0 Overcon dence about completing projects on time 0 Planning fallacy I Underestimating the time or money required to complete a project Hindsight o Hindsigh bias tendency to falsely report that we would have accurately predicted an outcome 0 Carli 1999 o Constructed stories about young woman Barbara and her growing relationship with man Jack 0 Two versions of the story I Both identical except for the ending I One version tragic ending where jack rapes Barbara I Other version jack proposes to Barbara 0 Hindsight bias participants claimed that the could have predicted the ending I Even though the stories were identical except for the ending Choose more of something bad 0 Kahneman Fredrickson Schreiber Redelmeier e Two aversive experlenc e slnghandln 14Cwater1or6useconds Immerslnghand m 14 c water or an seoonols rolloweol by an seoonols m 15 c waterstl11palnfu1but1ess so u whloh would u pick to do agaln7 59 plckedthe 2m Suggestthatthemostrecentpartoltheexpenenceln uencesyour overall evaluation e oryo the even Isusedto makethe oleolslon and memoryls basedto the more recent Redelmelerand Kahnman Patlentsundergolng re e Contro otal oolonosoopy examlnatlon group 7 standard abrupt mlnatlon u Ewerlmental group 7 gradual wlthdrawal olprobe I Less unpleasant ratIngs olprooedure by experlmenul group Importantlmplloatlons slnoe or man edloal treatments oholoe to repeatthe procedure mlghtbe orltloal Nisbsu a Wilsun 1917 No Ll le or no access to pmcasses urld decls erlying lunS choices and preference 5 lnlmspecllun lnvolves remevlng plausible IhEOHES NampW Ev ence 1 sunleols make Ehalc 2 Variablu is manipumod a Subjecls are asked ahaut e ect or that variahle Exampl quotLingerie Experimem Sub39s ADD shoppers in mall Choose favorite nigmgnwn a quotlisk all masons for chuicequot Variable position anay Effect Supjacls pick rignunusl gown 41l Zsm subjects mon nn pusitian mispuanaj egjs Groug 1 Group unplnnunl 1m Unplunlnnl Tusk Lie in new subject far er 51w quotWhai do yau veally mink of taskquot Maw subjects invariably deny this affecL Ask subjects oplnlons on Israell situation One weak lawn Fay them small or laige amuunl of 5 la mill iung uppuiing opinimn One week later Ask for current opinion Walnut strung inlmda change dimmed mpcn uf pmyjsm annude Ioal imagine that be united states is preparing for the outbreak pran unusual Aslarl disease sclentl estlnlates be the consequences of tile prugrarns are as follows If prpglam A is adopted zoo people WI be saved a If pmglam E is adopted there ls a one thlrd pmbabillty tllat ecu penple wlll be saved and a two thlrds probabillty that no pepple will be e wnial of the two pmgrams do you favor Again the United States is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease wblm sin is expected to klll soc people we e pm rams a cambat u have been pmposed Assume mat the exact scienti c estimates ertlle consequences of me programs are as Follows If program c is adopted 400 people will die 1r pregrarn D is adopted there is a ane tnire probability that nobody will die and a two thirds pmbability that 600 peuple will die mum of me two pmgrarns do you favor Saving lives 72 save 200 out of 600 28 13 probability of saving all 600 AVOIDING DEATH FRAME 22 400 people die 78 13 probability nobody dies Framing outcomes and preference reversals Kahneman amp Tversky 1984 People show riskseeking when losses involved People show risk aversion when gains involved Presentation matters Question Imagine that you have decided to recovere Would you pay 10 for another ticket Question Imagine you have decided to see a play w ere admission is 10 er ticket As you enter the theater you discover that you have lost a 10 bill Would you still pay 10 fora ticket for the play lmpnrtantpnlntls Choices mule same 0 Framing the question changes the decision 0 Note on psychology vs econ Mental Accounting 0 Topical organization 0 Pay for another ticket I Yes 46 No 54 0 Buy ticket after losing bank note I Yes 88 No 12 Would you accept a gamble that offers a 10 chance to win 95 and a 90 chance to lose 5 Would you pay 5 to participate in a lottery that offers a 10 chance to win 100 and a 90 chance to win nothing Results 0 132 subjects 0 55132 express different preferences 0 42 of these reject wager a but accept b 0 Which means 5 as payment more acceptable than same as a loss Chapter 11 Terms 1252011 35000 PM Anaphoric Inference inference group Inference that connects an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence Casual Inference inference group Inference that results in the conclusion that the events described in one clause or sentence were caused by events that occurred in a previous clause or sentence Coherence imageryunderstanding gt meaning of information Representation of a text or story in a reader39s mind so that information in one part of the text or story is related to information in another part Garden Path Sentence type of sentence Sentence in which the meaning that seems to implied at the beginning of the sentence turns out to be incorrect based on information that is presented later on Givennew contract sentence construction rule In a conversation a speaker should construct sentences so that they contain both given information info the listener already knows and new information info the listener is hearing for the rst time Inference inference group Process by which readers create information that is not explicitly stated in the text Instrument Inference inference group Inference about tools or methods that occurs while reading text or listening to speech Interactionist approach to parsing parsing group Takes into account all information both semantic and syntactic to determine parsing as a person reads a sentence This approach assigns more weight to semantics than does the syntax rst approach to parsing Language main system A system of communication through which we code and express our feelings thoughts ideas and experiences Late Closure parsing group When a person encounters a new word the parser assumes that this word is part of the current phase Lexical Ambiguity Lexicon group When a word can have more than one meaning 0 Bug can mean insect a listening device or to annoy Lexical decision task Lexicon group A procedure in which a person is asked to decide as quickly as possible whether a particular stimulus is a word or a nonword Lexical Priming Lexicon group Priming that involves the meaning of words Typically occurs when a word is followed by another word with a similar meaning 0 Presenting the word ant before the word bug causes a person to respond faster to the word bug than if ant had not preceded it Lexicon Lexicon group A person39s knowledge of what words mean how they sound and how they are used in relation to other words Morpheme units of Lexicon gt Parsing Smallest unit of a language that has a de nable meaning or a grammatical function 0 Truck consists of a number of phonemes but only one morpheme because none of the components that create the word mean anything Parsing parsing group Mental regrouping of words in a sentence into phrases The way a sentences is parsed determines its meaning Phoneme U nits of Lexicon gt Parsing Shortest segment of speech that if changed changes the meaning of the world Phonemic Restoration Effect Language effect Lexicon gt Parsing Process When a phoneme in a word is heard even though it39s obscured by a noise such as a cough This typically occurs when the word is a part of a sentence Psycholinguistics study of language Field concerned with the psychological study of language SapirWhorf Hypothesis Language Effect Cultural In uences Idea that the nature of language in a particular culture can affect the way people in that culture think Semantics Lexicon gt Parsing gt Meanings Meanings of words and sentences Different than syntax Situational Model ImageryUnderstanding gt Meaning of Information Mental representation of what a text is about Speech Segmentation Lexicon gt Parsing gt Meanings process Process of perceiving individual words within the continuous ow of the speech signal 0 Speech signal Sound energy created at the vocal cords travels through the vocal tract and produced at the speaker39s mouth Syntactic Priming Syntax group Process of hearing a statement with a particular syntactic construction increases the chances that a statement that follows will be produces with the same construction 0 Syntactic relating to or determined by syntax relating to or conforming to the rules of syntax Syntax Syntax group Rules of combining words into sentences Different from Semantics SyntaxFirst approach to parsing Syntax group processing gt Parsing w Syntax Approach to parsing that emphasizes the role of syntax o Parsing mental grouping of words in a sentence to form a phrase determines the meaning of the sentence Summary Temporary Ambiguity Lexicon gt Parsing gt Meanings process a situation in which the meaning of a sentence based on its initial words is ambiguous bc a number of meanings are possible depending on how the sentence sounds 0 Cast iron quickly sinks rustquot Word Frequency The relative use of words in a particular language 0 In English home has a higher frequency than hike 0 Words that are seen to be more common and used more often than other words usually because of emotional attachment and environment connections Word Frequency Effect Language effect Lexicon gt meanings understanding Phenomenon of faster reading time for highfrequency words than for lowfrequency words 0 Faster recognition for more common words than randomless common words Word Superiority Effect Language Effect Lexicon gt Meanings Understanding The idea that letters are easer to identify when they are part of a word than when they are seen in isolation or in a string of letters that do not form a word 0 Letters part of word gt Letters alone and or letters that don39t form a word Language is a system of communication that uses sounds or symbols to express feelings thoughts ideas and experiences Human language can be distinguished from animal communication by creativity hierarchical structure governing rules and universality Modern research in the psychology of language blossomed in the 1950s and the 1960s with the advent of the cognitive revolution One of the central events of the cognitive revolution was Chomsky39s critique of BF Skinner39s behaviorist analysis of language All the words a person knows are his or her lexicon Phonemes and morphemes are two basic unit words The effect of meaning on the perception of phonemes is illustrated by the phonemic restoration effect Meaning as well as a person39s experience with other aspects of language is important for achieving speech segmentation The ability of understand words is in uenced by word frequency and the context provided by the sentence Lexical ambiguity refers to the fact that a word can have more than one meaning and that the words meaning in a sentence may not be clear Lexical priming experiments show that all meanings of a word are activated immediately after the word is presented by then context quickly determines appropriate meaning The meaning of a sentence is determined by both semantics meanings of words and syntax the rules for using words in sentences Parsing is the process by which words in a sentence are grouped into phrases Grouping into phrases is a major determinant of the meaning of a sentence This process has been studied by using ambiguous sentences Two mechanisms proposed to explain parsing are 0 The Syntax rst approach I Emphasizes role of syntactic principles such as late closure in determining how a sentence is parsed I Late closure The syntactic principle states that when a person encounter s a new word the person39s parsing mechanism assumes that his word is part of the current phrase so each new word is added to the current phrase for as long as possible 0 Interactionist approach I Both semantics and syntax operate simultaneously to determine parsing I Supported by the way words with different meanings affect the interpretation of a sentence and by eye movement studies Coherence enables us to understand stories Coherence is largely determined by inference The major typesare o Anaphoric Inferences that connect an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence 0 Instrument Inferences about tools or methods 0 Casual Inferences that the events described in one clause or sentence were caused by events that occurred in a previous sentence The situational model approach to text comprehension proposes that people represent the situation in a story in terms of people object locations and events described in the story There is both behavioral and physiological evidence that supports this idea Conversations which involve give and take between two or more people are made easier by two mechanism of cooperation between participants in a conversation Semantic coordination and syntactic coordination Syntactic priming experiments provide evidence for syntactic coordination There is evidence that a culture39s language can in uence the way people perceive and think Experiments comparing color discrimination in Russianspeaking and English speaking participants have revealed differences in color perception related to language Other experiments show that these differences may occur mainly when colors are presented to the right hemisphere so that the left language hemisphere is activated Chapter 12 Terms 1252011 35000 PM Acrobat Problem Acrobat Problem is a problem involving acrobats that39s similar to the Tower of Hanoi problem Used to illustrate how the way a problem is stated can in uence its dif cult Analogical encoding Technique in which people compare two problems to illustrate a principle The technique is designed to help people discover similar structural features of cases of problems Analogical paradox Participants in psychological experiments tend to focus on surface features in analogy problems whereas people in the real world frequently use deeper more structural features Analogical problem solving Use of analogies as an aid to problem solving Typically a solution to one problem the source problem is presented that is analogous to the solution to another problem the target problem Analogical Transfer The application of problem solving strategies experienced in solving one problem to the solution of another similar problem Analogy Making a comparison in order to show similarity between two different things Candle Problem A problem rst described by Duncker in which a person is given a number of objects and is giving the task of mounting a candle on the wall so it can burn without dripping wax on the oor 0 Used to study functional xedness Convergent Thinking Thinking that works toward finding a solution to a speci c problem that usually has a correct answer Creative Cognition A technique developed by Finke to train people to think creatively Design xation Presenting a sample design in uences the creation of new designs Divergent Thinking Thinking that is open ended involving a large number of potential solutions Experts Person who by devoting a large amount of time to learning about a led and practicing and applying that learning has become acknowledged as being extremely skilled or knowledgeable in that eld Fixation People39s tendency to focus on a speci c characteristics of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution Functional xedness An effect that occurs when the ideas a person has about an object39s function inhibit the person39s ability to use the object for a different function Goal State In problem solving the condition that occurs when a problem has been solved Illde ned problem a problem in which it is dif cult to specify a clear goal state or speci c operators Many real life problems are ill de ned Initial state The conditions at the beginning of a problem Insight sudden realization of a problem39s solution Intermediate State In problem solving the various conditions that exist along the pathways between the initial and goal states In vivo problemsolving research Observing people to determine how they solve problems in real world situations 0 Used to study the use of analogy in a number of different settings I Laboratory meetings of a university research group I Brain storming sessions in an industrial research and development department Means end analysis Problem solving strategy that seeks to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states 0 Achieved by creating subgoals intermediate states that are closer to the goal Mental Set Preconceived notion about how to approach a problem which is determined by a person39s experience or what has worked in the past Mutilated Checkerboard Problem A problem that has been used to study how the statement of a problem in uences a person39s ability to reach a solution Operators Permissible moves that can be made toward a problem39s solution Problem A situation in which there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal state and is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle Problem Space The initial state the goal state and all the possible intermediate states for a particular problem Radiation Problem A problem proposed by Duncker that involves nding a way to destroy a tumor by radiation without damaging other organs in the body This problem had been widely used to study the role of analogy in problem solving Restructuring The process of changing a problem39s representation 0 According to the Gestalt psychologists restricting is the key mechanism of problem solving Reverse acrobat problem Modi cation of the acrobat problem that is used to show how the way a problem is stated can in uence its dif culty Source Problem or Source Story A problem or story that is analogous to the target problem and which therefor provides information that can lead to a solution to the target problem Structural Features Underlying principle of a problem Summary 0 In the radiation problem needing high intensity to x something surrounded by material that could be damaged by high intensity Subgoals In the means end analysis approach to problem solving intermediate states that move the process of solution closer to the goal Surface features Speci c elements that make up a problem 0 In the radiation problem rays and tumors are specific features Target Problem A problem to be solved 0 In analogical problem solving solution of this problem can occur easier when the problem solver is exposed to an analogous source problem or story Thinkaloud protocol A procedure in which participants are asked to say out loud what they are thinking while doing a problem 0 Used to help determine people39s thoughts processes as they are solving a problem Tower of Hanoi Problem A problem involving moving discs from one set of pegs to another It has been used to illustrate the process involved in meansend analysis Two string problem A problem in which a person is given the task of attaching two strings together that are too far apart to be reached at the same time o Maier o Devised to illustrate the operation of functional fixedness Water jug problem A problem that illustrates how mental set can in uence the strategies that people use to solve a problem 0 Luchins Wellde ned problem A problem that has correct answer 0 Usually procedures when applied correctly will lead to a solution A problem occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle The Gestalt psychologists focused on how people represent a problem in their mind They devised a number of problems to illustrate how solving a problem involves a restructuring of this representation and to demonstrate factors that pose obstacles to problem solving The Gestalt psychologists introduced the idea that reorganization is associated with insight a sudden realization of a problem39s solution Insight has been demonstrated experimentally by tracking how close people feel they are to solving insight and non insight problems 0 Functional xedness restricting the use of an object to its familiar functions is an obstacle of a problem39s solution Insight has been demonstrated experimentally by tracking how close people feel they are to solving insight and noninsight problems 0 O Duncker39s Candle Problem 1945 Problem in which a person is given a number of objects and is given the task of mounting a candle on a wall so it can burn without dripping waxo on the oor The solution to the problem occurs when the person realized that the matchbox can be used as a support rather than a container When Duncker did his experiment he presented one group of participants with small cardboard boxes containing the materials candles tacks and matches and presented another group with the same materials but outside the boxes so the boxes were empty In comparison of the two groups he found that the group that had been presented with the boxes as containers found the problem more dif cult than the group that was presented with empty boxes I Robert Adamson 1952 Repeated Duncker39s experiment and obtained the same result participants who were presented with empty boxes were twice as likely to solve the problem as participants who were presented with boxes that were used as containers D Result 0 Boxes empty approx 80 0 Boxes as containers approx 40 D Conclusion the fact that seeing the boxes as containers inhibited using them ass supports is an example of functional xedness Maier39s Two String Problem 1931 Problem in which a person is given a task of attaching two strings together that are too far apart to be reached at the same time Participants39 taskwas to tie together two strings that were hanging from the ceiling Dif culty because the strings are separated so it is impossible to reach one of them while holding the other Objects such as a chair and a pair of pliers were available for solving the problem To solve the problem participants needed to tie the pair of pliers to one of the strings to create a pendulum which could be swung to within the person39s reach Two things are significant in this problem I 60 of the participants did not solve the problem because they were focused on the usual function of the pliers and did not think of using them as a weight I When Maier set the string into motion by accidentally brushing against it 23 of 37 participants who hadn39t solved the problem after 10 minutes proceeded to solve it within 60 seconds Seeing the strings swinging from side to side apparently triggered the insight that the pliers could be used as a weight to create a pendulum In Gestalt terms the solution to the problem occurred once the participants restructured their representation of how to achieve the solution get the strings to swing from side to side and their representation of the function of the pliers they can be used as a weight 0 Connection between Candle Problem and Two String Problem Problems were dif cult because of peoples preconceptions about the use of objects Mental Set Preconceived notion about how to approach a problem A mental set is determined by a person39s experience or what has worked in the past In these experiments mental sets were created by the people39s previous knowledge of the usual use of the objects 0 Luchins39 Water jug Problem 1942 Problem in which mental set can in uence the strategies that people use to solve a problem The Gestalt psychologists showed how mental set can arise out of the situation created as a person solves a problem Participants are given three jugs of different capacities and are required to use these jugs to measure a specific quantity of water Problem 1 is solved by rst lling the 127cup jug B and then pouring the water from B to A once and into C two times thereby subtracting 27 cups and leaving 100 in cup B This solution is stated as the formula Desired Quantity BA2C works for all of the problems experiments However problems 7 and 8 can be solved more simply by using only jugs A and C For problem 7 Pour A and C into a container so Desired Quality AC For problem 8 Filly jug A and then four from A to C so Desired Quantity AC I Note D Problem 1 IugA 21 jug B 127 jug C 3 Desired quantity 100 D Problem 2 IugA 14 jug B 163 jug C 25 Desired quantity 99 a Problem 3 IugA 18 jug B 43 jug C 10 Desired quantity 5 Problem 4 IugA 9 lug B 42 jug C 6 Desired quantity 21 Problem 5 IugA 20 jug B 59 jug C 4 Desired quantity 31 n n D Problem 6 IugA 20 Iug B 50 Iug C 3 Desired quantity 24 D Problem 7 IugA 15 Iug B 39 Iug C 3 Desired quantity 18 D Problem 8 IugA 28 Iug B 59 Iug C 3 Desired quantity 25 I Luchins had some participants begin with Problem 1 and do each problem in the sequence through problem 8 the mental set group and other participants solve only problems 7 and 8 nonmental set group D All of the participants in the nonmental set group used the shorter solution for problems 7 and 8 whereas only 23 in the mental set group used this solution for these problems Clearly participants in the mental set group learned the procedure described by the formula BA2C as they solved problems 16 inhibited them from using the simpler solution to 7 and 8 Mental Set lt25 shorter solution NonMental Set 100 shorter solution 0 The Gestalt psychologists were the pioneers of problemsolving research Between 1920 and 1950 they described problems and solutions illustrating how mental set can in uence problem solving and how solving a problem involves creating a new representation This idea that problem solving depends on how the problem is represented in this mind is one of the enduring contributions of Gestalt psychology Research took this idea as a starting point for the information processing approach to the study of problem solving Alan Newell and Herbert Simon were early proponents of the informationprocessing approach to problem solving They saw problem solving as the searching of a problem space to nd the path between the statement of the problem initial state and the solution to the problem goal state This search is governed by operators and is usually accomplished by setting subgoals The Tower of Hanoi problem is used to illustrate this The Acrobat Problem and the Reverse Acrobat problem illustrate that how the problem is presented can in uence its dif cult Research on the mutilated checkerboard problem also illustrates the importance of how a problem is presented Newell and Simon developed the technique of thinkaloud protocols to study participants thought process as they are solving the problem Analogical problem solving occurs when the experience with a previously solved source problem or a source story is used to help solve a new target problem Research involving Duncker39s radiation problem has shown that even when people are exposed to analogous source problems or stories most people do not make the connection between the source problem or story and the target problem Analogical problem solving is facilitated when hints are given regarding the relevance of the sourceproblem When the source and target problems have similar surface features and when structural features are made more obvious Analogical encoding is a process that helps people discover similar structural features The analogical paradox is that participants in psychological experiments tend to focus on surface features in analogy problemswheras people in the real world frequently focus on deeper more structural features In vivoproblem solving research has shown that analogical problem solving is often used in realworld settings Experts are better than novices at solving problems in their eld of expertise They have more knowledge of the eld organize this knowledge based more on deep structure than surface features and spend more time analyzing a problem when it is rst presented Creative problem solving is associated with divergent thinking rather than with convergent thinking We have only a limited understanding of the processes involved in creative problem solving and creativity in general There is evidence that xation can inhibit creating problem solving and that using analogical thinking can enhance it A technique called creative cognition has been used to train people to think creatively Mathematics problemsolving performance is affected by working memory capacity High working memory capacity is associated with better performance than low working memory capacity under low stress conditions but this advantage disappears under high stress conditions Chapter 13 Terms 1252011 35000 PM Affirming the Antecedent syllogism A conditional syllogism of the following form if u u p then u u u quot q therefore q The antecedent p is af rmed in the second premise This is a valid form of conditional syllogism Affirming the Consequent syllogism A conditional syllogism of the following form If u u p then u u therefore p This is an invalid form of conditional syllogism u u u q I q Antecedent syllogism In a conditional syllogism the term p in the conditional premise If p then q Availability Heuristic Basing judgments of the frequency of events on what events come to mind Base Rate Relative proportions of different classes in population Failure to consider base rates can often lead to erros in reasoning Categorical Syllogism syllogism Syllogism in which the premises and conclusion describe the relationship between two categories by using statements that begin with all no or some Conclusion of syllogism syllogism The nal statement in a syllogism which follows from the two premises Conditional syllogism syllogism Two premises and a conclusion like a categorical syllogism but whose rst premise is an ifthenquot statement Con rmation bias Tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to out hypothesis and to overlook information that argues against it Conjunction Rule The probability of the conjunction of two events feminist and bank teller cannot be higher than the probability of the single constituents feminist alone or bank teller alone n u Consequent syllogism In a conditional syllogism the term q in the conditional premise If p than q Decisions Making a choice between alternatives Deductive Reasoning Reasoning that involves syllogisms in which a conclusion logically follows from premises Denying the Antecedent syllogism When a conditional syllogism of the following a u form If p then u u u u u u q not p therefore not q This is an invalid form Denying the Consequent syllogism When a conditional syllogism of the following a u form If p then u u u u u u q not q therefore not p This is a valid form Expected Emotion Emotion that a person predicts he or she will feel for a particular outcome Expected utility Theory Idea that people are basically rational so if they have all of the relevant information they will make a decision that results in the maximum expected utility Evolutionary perspective on Cognition Idea that many properties of our minds can be traced to the evolutionary principles of natural selection Falsification Principle The reasoning principle that to test a rule it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule Framing Effect Decisions are in uenced by how the choices are stated Illusory Correlation Correlation that appears to exist between two events when in reality there is no correlation or its assumed to be Immediate emotion Emotion that is experienced at the time the decision is being made Incidental Immediate emotion Immediate emotion unrelated to the decision 0 An emotion associated with a person39s general disposition Inductive reasoning A conclusion follows from a consideration of evidence This conclusion is stated as being probably true rather than de nitely true as can be the case for the conclusions from deductive reasoning Integral Immediate Emotion Immediate emotion that is associated with the act of making a decision Law of Large Numbers The larger the number of individuals that are randomly drawn from a population the more representative the resulting group with be of the entire population Neuroeconomics An approach to studying decision making that combines research from the fields of psychology neuroscience and economics Omission Bias The tendency to do nothing to avoid having to make a decision that could be interpreted as harm Optin Procedure A person must take an active step to chose a course of action 0 Choosing to be an organ donor OptOut procedure A person must take an active step to avoid a course of action 0 Choosing not the be an organ donor Permission Schema A pragmatic reasoning schema that states that if a person satis es condition A then they get to carry out action B The permission schema has been used to explain the results of the Watson FourCard problem Pragmatic Reasoning Scheme A way of thinking about cause and effect in the world that is learned as part of experiencing every day life Premise syllogism The rst two statements in a syllogism the third is the conclusion Summary Reasoning Cognitive process by which people start with information and come to conclusions that go beyond that information Representative Heuristic The probability that an event A comes from class B can be determined by how well A resembles the properties of class B Risk Aversion The tendency to make decisions that avoid risk Risk Aversion Strategy Strategy that is governed by the idea of avoiding risk Often used when a problem is stated in terms of gains Risk Taking Strategy A strategy that is governed by the idea of taking risks Often used when a problem is stated in terms of losses Social Exchange Theory An important aspect of human behavior is the ability of two people to cooperate in a way that is bene cial to both people According the evolutionary perspective on cognition application of this theory can lead to conclusion that detecting cheating is an important part of the brain39s cognitive makeup This idea has been used to explain the results of the Wason fourcard problem Stereotype An oversimpli ed generalization about a group or class of people the often focuses on negative characteristics Syllogism A series of three statements 0 Two premises followed by a conclusion 0 The conclusion can follow from the premises based on the rules of logic Ultimatum Game A game in which a proposer is given a sum of money and makes an offer to choose a responder as to how this money should be split between them The responder must choose to accept the offer or reject it The game has been used to study people39s decision making strategies Utility Outcomes that achieve a person39s goals In economic terms the maximum monetary payoff Validity syllogism Quality of a syllogism whose conclusion follows logically from its premises Wason Four Card Problem A conditional reasoning task that involves four cards Various versions of the problem have been used to study the mechanisms that determine the outcomes of conditional reasoning tasks Reasoning is a cognitive process in which people start with information and come to conclusions that go beyond that information o Deductive Reasoning involves syllogisms and can result in de nite conclusions o Inductive reasoning is based on evidence and results in conclusions that are probably true Categorical Syllogisms have two premises and a conclusion that describe the relation between two categories by using statements that begin with all no or same A syllogism is valid if its conclusion follows logically from its premises The validity of a syllogism is determined by its form This is different from truth which is determined by the content of the statements in the syllogism and has to do with how statements correspond to known facts Conditional syllogisms have two premises and a conclusion like categorical syllogisms but the rst premise has the form ifthenquot The four basic types are 0 Affirming the antecedent valid 0 Denying the consequent valid 0 Affirming the consequent invalid o Denying the antecedent invalid The Wasonfour card problem has been used to study how people think when evaluating conditional syllogisms People make errors in the abstract version but perform better when the problem is stated in realworld terms as the drinking agequot version The key to solving the problem is to apply to falsi cation principle Based on experiments using different versions of the Wason problem a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain people39s performance These mechanisms include using permission schemas and the evolutionary approach which explains performance in terms of social exchange theory Many experiments have provided evidence for and against these explanations leaving the controversy about how to explain the Wason problem still unresolved In Inductive reasoning conclusions follow not from logically constructed syllogisms but from evidence Conclusions are suggested with varying degrees of certainty The strength of an inductive argument depends on the representativeness number and quality of observations on which the argument is based Inductive reasoning plays a major role in everyday life because we often make predictions about what we think will happen based on our observations about what has happened in the past The availability heuristic states that events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probable than events that are less easily remembered This heuristic can sometimes lead to correct judgments and sometimes not Errors due to this have been demonstrated by having people estimate the relative prevalence of various causes of death Illusory correlations ands stereotypes which can lead to incorrect conclusions about relationships between things are related to the availability heuristic because they draw attention to speci c relationships and therefore make them more available The representative heuristic is based on the idea that people often make judgments based on how much one event resembles another event Errors due to this heuristic have been demonstrated by asking participants to judge a person39s occupation based on descriptive information Errors occur when the representative heuristic leads people to ignore base rate information In other situations judgment errors occur when people ignore the conjunction rule and the law of large numbers The con rmation bias is the tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to a hypothesis and to overlook information that argues against it Operation of this bias was demonstrate by Wason39s number sequence task This bias also operates in real life when people39s attitudes in uence the way they evaluate evidence The utility approach to decision making is based on the idea that people are basically rationally so when they have all of the relevant information they will make a decision that results in outcomes that in their best interest Evidence that people do not always act in accordance with this approach includes gambling behavior choosing to drive in the face of evidence that it is more dangerous than ying and the behavior of contestants on quiz shows like Deal or No Deal Emotions can affect decisions Expected emotions are emotions a person predicts will happen in response to the outcome of a decisions 0 Integral emotions are associated with the act of making a decision 0 Incidental emotions are unrelated to the decision but may affect the decision nonetheless There is evidence that people are not always accurate in predicting their emotions This can lead to risk aversion An experiment by Kermer demonstrates the difference between predicted emotions and the actual emotions experiences after making a decision There is a large amount of evidence that incidental emotions can affect decisions Examples include the relationships between the weather and college admissions and Lerner39s experiment showing a relationship between emotions like sadness and anger and decisions regarding how to set buying and selling prices Decisions can depend on how choices are presented or framed Evidence includes the differences in behavior for Opt In vs Optout Procedures the results of Slovic39s experiment involving decisions about a mental patient and people39s response to the Tversky and Kahneman lethal disease problem When a choice is framed in terms of Final Review Psych 200 Fall 20 1 Language Vs Other Forms of Communication eg gestures imal communication displays dances pheromones Birdsongs and learning Vervet monkeys and vocabulary The difference between language and Signalling Critical properties of a language ommunicative Generative Dynamic Mammals and langua e Dolphins 7 taught about 40 words wdifferent parts of speech amp simple grammar Understand grammar word order and respond to novel combinations Primates Gau raised with infant human 7 learned to understand 100 words by 16 months then never got better never learned grammar Washoe 7 trained in ASL 7learned 7150 signs could combine words in novel but appropriate orders never understood rammar Kanzi Learned keyboard language Yerkish picked it up spontaneously while they were training his primary care giver understands over 200 words responds appropriately to spoken utterances spontaneously produces 2 and 3 word sentences sensitive to word order Alex the Gray Parrot 7 Modelrival training 7 seems to understand quite a bit Hardcore psycholinguists say this cannot be language 7add additional criteria C ompsky s additional criteria 7 structured grammar specialized brain mechanism has to be integrated into the cognitive structures Continuity v discontinuity theory 7 Evidence for innate language acquisition device Language is universal tacit learning of grammar innate desire to impose grammar pidgincreole languages wired to hear speech Chomsky s approach to grammar 7 basic rules that govern phrase structure grammar s NP VP39 NP Det N39 VP or V S 7how the last one makes it recursive and unlimited Understanding Language There is ambiguity at every level Signa 7 vowels have most the energy consonants most the meaning poor signal to noise ratio Have phoneme detectors not letter detectors 7 Evidence ambiguous stimuli and adaptation Noise can mask language 7 The Phonemic Restoration effect Vision helps disambiguate the signal 7 McGurk Effect Parsing of Phonemes difficult 7 no breaks in the energy coarticulation Context is important for disambiguating the signal at the phoneme level EX phonemic restoration effect in context Pollack amp Pickett people couldn t identify their own words without context Expectation allows people to decipher very limited sound signal Even if get all the correct words there is ambiguity in interpretation Newspaper headlines Surface structure v deep structure Again context seems key to disambiguating Does context constrain interpretation from outset or is it a later process Marslen 7 Wilson Cohort Model 7 representation of words are activated in parallel based on bottom up as more phonemes role out constrain possible words 7 also context might come in to constrain late Cross modal lexical priming Know the method Finding early on all possible words activated 7 as reveal more of the word fewer candidates are still activated Evidence that encoding is sequential 7 Also eye tracking evidence Context does not seem to constrain meaning early on 7 Cross modal lexical priming evidence early multiple meanings active late only correct one survives Frequency effects Constrain of common knowledge gain is constraint early or late Eye tracker evidence suggests late Problem Solving Difference between the lab and real life puzzle problems v real world problems The problem solving cycle Problem identification Definition identifying the importantrelevant aspects legal and illegal operators current state goal state How you represent the problem makes a huge difference Insight 7 the ahha you get when you represent the problem correctly Metcalfe amp Wiebe math v insight Incubation and Insight 7 why it helps Gestalt 7 unconscious processing But Sulveira found you start where you left off maybe a releasing of your old structure allows you to restructure the problem Sleep also helps Neuro of insight 7 Bowden amp JungBeeman 7inhibition of visual cortex just before solution of insight7 perhaps allowing one to revisualize the problem Strategy formation Analysis Synthesis Divergent and convergent thinking Problems with situationally produces mental sets Organization of Information Maier amp Ducker 7 Functional fixedness Resource allocation Monitoring Evaluation Types of Strategies Algorithm 7 guarantee success 7 may require brute processing beyond human capability Simple Dumb Search Random test and generate 7 inefficient Search the problem space 7 eg tower of hanoi Human limits 7memory and slow processing speed Heuristics 7 short cuts for us hum ans Hill climbing problem local maximum also may not be direct Subgoals 7 EX Missionaries and Cannibals 7 Hill won t work but subgoals do Simon amp Reed 7 subgoal advantage Analogy 7 in theory great but people are bad at identifying problem isomorphs Reed Ernst amp Banerji 7 jealous husband and wives for missionaries Analogical Paradox Experts in problem solving 7 Focus on structural rather than surface factors spendmore time analyzing problem before attempting solution less likely to be open to new methods are no better outside of their area of expertise Decision making Start in economics 7 Theory based on people as rational and wanting to maximize outcome 7 normative theory Decisions deductive based on math probability amp logic but people performed suboptimally so proposed Bounded rationality 7 EX Satisficing and elimination by aspects Deductive reasoning 7 general to specific Deductive validity


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.