Abnormal Psychology PSY 280
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 11 Disorders Involving Gender and Sexuality Describe sociocultural factors that in uence classi cation of sexual behaviors as normal or abnormal Describe the features epidemiology and treatment of Gender Identity Disorder 0 5 boys1 girl 23 males1 female Age of onset children 24 years old adults unknown Treatment Biological sex reassignment surgery Psychosocial help individual be more comfortable in assigned sex change arousal patterns Describe the process of gender reassignment Also discuss the outcomes of these procedures e g satisfaction overall wellbeing o Strict criteria 0 75 improve after surgery 7 regret more so due to something that went wrong in the surgery Describe the features of paraphilia s in general and specific examples 0 Intense sexually arousing fantasiesurgesbehavior that can involve non human objects sufferinghumiliation childrennonconsenting patients 0 Requires duration of at least 6 months and significant distress impairment 0 Pedophilia o Voyeurism o Fetishism o o o o 0000 Transvestic fetishism Frotteurism Exhibitionism Sexual Sadism 0 Sexual masochism Discuss treatment options for the paraphilias o Cognitivebehavioral focuses on challenging the distorted perceptions of patients whose paraphilia s affect others 0 Assisted covert desensitization mentally pairng the arousing stimuli 0 Biological antiandrogen approach using drugs which reduce testosterone Describe the phases of the sexual response cycle Describe the features and causes of sexual dysfunction disorders 0 Disturbance in sexual response or by pain with intercourse that cannot be due to a medical problem 0 Disturbance of arousal due to psychological or psychmedical factors Know the essential features for the four categories of sexual dysfunction sexual desire arousal orgasmic and pain disorders 1 Sexual desire hypoactive sexual desire and sexual aversion disorder 2 Sexual arousal female sexual arousal and male erectile disorder 3 Orgasm female and male orgasmic disorder and premature ejaculation 4 Sexual pain dyspareunia and Vaginismus Chapter 10 Eating Disorders Obesity and Sleep Disorders I Discuss the criteria of Anorexia Nervosa without desire for food 0 Refusal to maintain weight at or above the minimal normal weight for one s age and height a weight more than 15 below the normal 0 Strong fear of putting on weight or becoming fat despite being thin o A distorted body image in which one s bodyior part of one s bodyiis perceived as fat although others perceive the person as thin o In case of females who have had menarche absence of three or more consecutive menstrual periods I Discuss the criteria of Bulimia Nervosa hunger 0 Usually of normal weight do not pursue the extreme thinness characteristic of anorexia o Recurrent episodes of binge eating as shown by both 0 Regular inappropriate behavior to prevent weight gain such as selfinduced vomiting abuse of laxatives diuretics or enemas or fasting or excessive exercise 0 A minimum average of two episodes a week of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain over a period of at least three months 0 Persistent over concern with the shape and weight of one s body I Know the key difference between Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa o o B have more emotional problems and lower selfesteem accompanied by other diagnosable disorders Identify the subtypes of Anorexia and Bulimia o Bingeatingpurging problems relating to impulse control may involve substance abuse or stealing tend to alternate between periods or rigid control and impulsive behavior 0 Restrictive tend to rigidly even obsessively control their diet and appearance I Discuss the outcomes of those suffering with Anorexia and Bulimia o A dermatological problems cardiovascular gastrointestinal menstrual irregularities amenorrhea muscular weakness and abnormal bone growth high rates of suicide 0 B skin irritation damage to taste receptors and teeth abdominal pain disturbed menstrual functioning pancreatitis bloody diarrhea and laxative dependence potassium deficiency muscular weakness cardiac irregularities even death I 2535 make suicide attempts I Know the binge eating cycle 0 Closely associated with obesity compulsive disorders and depression 0 Tend to be older I Know the multifactorial model of eating disorders 0 Sociocultural social expectations and peer pressure placed on women 0 Psychosocial involve deeper emotional issues involving feelings of insecurity body dissatisfaction and use of food for emotional grati cation perfectionist attitudes 0 Family refusing to eat to punish their parents for negative feelings mothers were unhappy about the families functioning or have their own problems or regard their draughts as unattractive family as a whole tend to be more con icted less cohesive yet more overprotective and critical of one another 0 Biological abnormalities in brain mechanisms the chemical serotonin genetic factors What characteristics are considered universally attractive Discuss the findings from the Fallon and Rozin study of body size and satisfaction Discuss the treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia o A hospitalization behavioral and psychodynamic therapy maybe family therapy 0 B cognitivebehavioral therapy interpersonal psychotherapy antidepressant drugs such as Prozac decrease the urge to binge by normalizing levels of serotonin What percentage of American adults and children are overweight o 120 million Americans Discuss the ethnic and socioeconomic differences in obesity 0 Discuss the causes of obesity lecture and textbook 0 Consuming too many calories and exercising too little 0 Increase in food proportions and value sizes growing suburbs and cardependent culture 0 People who were fixated in the oral stage by con icts concerning dependence and independence are likely to regress in times of stress to excessive oral activities such as overeating low selfesteem lack of selfefficacy expectancies family con icts and negative emotions o Lowerincome levels less access to healthcare information about nutrition and health education turn to food in times of stress over poverty discrimination crowding and crime Discuss the ABCs of eating textbook Identify and discuss the 5 types of dyssomnias 1 Primary insomnia chronic or persistent insomnia not caused by another psychological or physical disorder or by the effects of drugs or medications a Persistent difficulty falling asleep remaining asleep or achieving restorative sleep for a month or longer b Daytime fatigue and high levels of personal distress or difficulties performing usual social occupational student or other roles and psychological stress c Associated with psychological factors anxiety worrying stress 2 Primary hypersomnia pattern of excessive sleepiness during the day that continues for a month or longer a Excessive sleepiness may take the form of difficulty awakening following a prolonged sleep period b Pattern of daytime sleep episodes c Cannot be accounted for by inadequate amounts of sleep during the night by another psychological or physical disorder or by drug or medication use 3 Narcolepsy sudden irresistible episodes of sleep lasting about 15 minutes a Sleep attacks occur daily for a period of three months or longer and occur in conjunction with one or both of the following i Cataplexy sudden loss of muscular control ii Intrusions of REM sleep in the transitional state between wakefulness and sleep b May experience sleep paralysis hypnagogic hallucinations visual auditory tactile and body movement sensations c Occur abruptly and when the person feels awake and refreshed Breathingrelated repeated disruptions of sleep due to respiratory problems 4 a Breathing difficulty results from blockage of air ow in the upper airways b Breathing can stop for periods of 1590 seconds and as many as 500 times in one night c Sleeper suddenly sits up gasps for air take a few breaths and fall back asleep without realizing what happened High levels of depression hypertension heart attacks and strokes Circadian rhythm rhythm becomes grossly disturbed because of a mismatch between the sleep schedule demands imposed on the person and the person s internal sleep wake cycle a Can lead to insomnia or hypersomnia Identify and discuss the 3 types of sleep apnea Identify and discuss the 4 subtypes of circadian rhythm sleep disorder Identify and discuss the 4 types of Parasomnias 1 Nightmare disorder recurrent awakenings from sleep because of frightening dreams nightmares a Can usually vividly recall the nightmare b Anxiety may linger preventing a return to sleep c Often occur with traumatic experiences or stress d Occur during REM sleep 2 Sleep terror disorder recurrent episodes of sleep terror resulting in abrupt awakenings a Loud piercing cry or scream profuse sweating rapid heartbeat and respiration V39 b Start talking incoherently or thrash about wildly c If awoken may not recognize parent d Sudden return to sleep and no recollection of the incident in the morning e First third of nightly sleep and during deep nonREM sleep 3 Sleepwalkjng disorder sleep arises from bed and walks about the house while remaining fully asleep a Deep stages of sleep when dreams do not occur b Significant levels of distress or impaired functioning Know the key differences between Dyssomnias and parasomnias Discuss the psychological approaches to treating Sleep Disorders 0 Cognitivebehavioral focus on directly lowering states of physiological arousal modifying maladaptive sleeping habits and changing dysfunctional thoughts Stimulus control changing the environment associated with sleeping Rational restructuring substituting rational alternatives for selfdefeating maladaptive thoughts or beliefs 00 Terms to know Chapter Nine Substance Abuse and Dependence Identify and discuss the five main categories of substances considered for Substance Abuse and Dependence 1 Depressants result in sedation a EX alcohol sedatives hypnotics 2 Stimulants increase in alertness activity and elevated mood a Nicotine caffeine cocaine amphetamine 3 Opiates result in reduced pain euphoria a Opium morphine heroin codeine 4 Hallucinogens alter in sensory perception can produce delusions paranoia hallucinations a Marijuana and LSD 5 Others over the counter inhalants steroids Discuss the relationship between mental illness and substance use disorders 0 4 million current mental illness and substance use users 0 22 million substance abusedepend on drugs 0 Highest tobacco marijuana nonprescription Discuss the criteria of Substance Abuse 0 Recurrent use resulting in failure to ful ll role obligations at school home or work 0 Recurrent use in physically dangerous situations 0 Recurrent substancerelated legal problems 0 Continued use despite social interpersonal problems Discuss the criteria of Substance Dependence 0 Increase in tolerance withdrawal effects 0 Continued attempts to cut down or control use 0 Great deal of time spend getting using and recovering 0 Continued use despite problems Know the epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Dependence o 5 abuse 8 depend o 5 males 7 1 female 0 First intoxication usually teens qualify for disorder in mid 20 s30 s 0 gt65 abstinence rate after 1 year of treatment Discuss some of the problems associated with substance use research ie who is included in the studies 0 Discuss the impact of increasing blood alcohol levels on functioning and the body 0 The greater the impurities in the alcohol the more you are poisoning your brain 0 Time is the only thing you can do for your blood alcohol level What is the primary source of nicotine dependence 0 The fact that it stimulates neuropathways associated with reward Know the trends in the number of continuing and new smokers in the US 0 21 million new users 1965 14 million in 2001 o 11 million new users under 18 757000 in 2001 Discuss the longterm effects of chronic marijuana use 0 Immune deficiency pneumonia cancers Chapter 12 Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Describe the three types of psychotic symptoms with examples of each 0 Positive excess or distortion of normal functioning I Hallucinations ve senses I Delusions grandeur persecution reference I Bizarre delusions thought withdrawalinsertion delusions of control capgra s and cotard s syndrome 0 Negative diminution or loss of normal functioning I Avolition Alogia anhedonia affective attening o Disorganized I Speech Tangentiality loose associations word salad I Behavior catatonia catatonic stupor catatonic rigidity catatonic posturing catatonic excitement poor hygiene inappropriate sexual behavior unpredictable or untriggered agitation I Affect Discuss the three stagesphases of schizophrenia o Prodromal milder symptoms present prior to actual break 0 Active period of time when hallucinations delusions disorganized behavior are predominant minimum of one month 0 Residual less severe symptoms present after active symptoms remit Describe the diagnostic features of brief psychotic disorder schizophrenia delusional disorder and other schizophrenic spectrum disorders 0 Schizophrenia criteria 0 2 of following symptoms for at least one month I Delusions hallucinations disorganized speechbehavior negative symptoms 0 Social occupational dysfunction 0 Overall duration 6 months 0 Brief psychotic I Delusions hallucinations disorganized speech or behavior I One day to lt1 month I Often linked to stressors o Schizophreniform I SXS identical to schizophrenia I gt1 month but lt6 months 0 Delusional disorder persistent and nonbizarre delusional beliefs I Erotomanic I Somatic I Grandiose I Jealous I Persecutory I Mixed Review the disturbances in thought speech attention perception emotions as well as other types of impairment associated with schizophrenia o Hallucinations five senses