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Introductory Psychology

by: Newton Cormier

Introductory Psychology PSY 101

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Psychlogy > PSY 101 > Introductory Psychology
Newton Cormier
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Lori Jackson

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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Newton Cormier on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by Lori Jackson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/207560/psy-101-michigan-state-university in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHAPTER 5 7 SENSATION I 7 De nitions Sensation The process by which sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from the environment Perception The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling recognition of meaningful objects and events Bottomup processing Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain s integration of sensory information Topdown processing Information processing guided by higherlevel mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations II 7 Basic Principles of Sensation Thresholds Psychophysics The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them Absolute threshold The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time Signal detection theory A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus signal amid background stimulation noise Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person s experience expectations motivation and level of fatigue Subliminal Below one s absolute threshold for conscious awareness Can still be detected see definition of absolute threshold 7 50 detection and can in uence behavior 7 PRIME a response Thus we process information without being aware of it BUT subliminal perception is NOT the same as subliminal persuasion powerful and enduring effects have NEVER been observed Difference threshold The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time just noticeable di39 erence or jna Increases with the magnitude of the stimulus Weber s law The principle that to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount Said another way the difference threshold is not a constant amount but some constant proportion of the stimulus Sensog Adaptation Diminished sensitivity to a stimulus as a consequence of constant stimulation Adaptive to focus on the NOVEL rather than the mundane II 7 VISION Transduction The conversion of one form of energy into another In sensation the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses Stimulus input Light energy Electromagnetic spectrum ranges from imperceptibly short waves of gamma rays to the narrow band that we see as visible light to the long waves of radio transmission Other organisms are sensitive to differing portions of the spectrum Wavelength The distance from one wave peak to the next determines Hue the color we experience eg blue Intensity the amount of energy in light waves determined by a wave s Amplitude height in uences brightness The Eye Light rays pass through the cornea pupil anal lens The curvature and thickness of the lens change to bring either nearby or distant objects into focus on the retina The retinal image is upsidedown and reversed Cornea Outer surface of the eye that protects and bends light to provide focus Pupil The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters Iris A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening Lens The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina Retina The lightsensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information Accommodation The process by which the eye s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina Acuity Sharpness of vision can be affected by small distortions in the shape of the eye Nearsightealness See near object better than distant objects misshapen eyeball focuses the light rays from distant objects in front of the retina instead of on it F arsightealness Light rays from nearby objects focus behind the retina resulting in blurred images Glasses surgery to reshape the cornea RE T INA DETAILS Rods Retinal receptor cells that detect black white and gray necessary for peripheral and twilight vision faint light when cones don t respond can t see color in dim light Cones Retinal receptor cells concentrated near the center of the retina function in daylight or in well lit conditions detect fine detail anal color unlike rods many cones have their own bipolar cells to relay messages to the cortex which devotes a large amount of its area to impulses from the fovea thus preserving the cones precise information making them better able to detect ne detail Optic nerve The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain occipital lobes Blind spot Where the optic nerve leaves the eye there are no receptor cells blind spot doesn t impair vision because eyes are moving and because one eye catches what the other misses Fovea Central focal point in the retina around which the eye s cones cluster contains only cones no rods Feature detectors Nerve cells in the brain that respond to speci c features of the stimulus such as shape angle or movement Process Light energy striking the rods and cones produces chemical changes that generate neural signals These signals activate the neighboring bipolar cells which in turn activate the neighboring ganglion cells The axons from the network of ganglion cells converge to form an optic nerve Neurons in the optic nerve come together at the optic chiasm at the base of the brain and form the optic tracts which run to nuclei in the thalamus where they synapse on neurons that run to the visual cortex The visual cortex passes information to the temporal and parietal cortex e g one temporal lobe area just behind the right ear enables face perception Based on fMRI amazingly specific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at faces shoes cats houses and other object categories Top down and Bottom up Stare at a Necker cube although the same image continues to strike the retina the brain constructs varying perceptions Vision experts and computer scientists are attempting ot translate neural activity during visual perception into mathematical formulae to develop computer vision capabilities Brain area devoted to visual processing 7 30 10 times more than audition sensorimotor processing dwarfs reasoning Parallel processing The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously the brain s natural mode of information processing for many functions including vision contrasts with the stepbystep serial r 39 of most r and o 39 problem solving e g processing color depth movement in separate neural networks and then integrates the information Blindsight Blindness in part of the visual eld due to stroke etc Suggests TWO visual systems running in parallel 7 one gives rise to conscious perception and one guides action Color Vision 7 million color variations Y oung H elmholtz trichromatic three color theory retina contains three different color receptors 7 red green blue which when stimulated in combination produce the perception of any color Additive color mixing adding wavelengths adding 3 primaries gives white vs subtractive mixing as with paint 7 more colors added the fewer can be re ected back 7 adding 3 primaries yields black Colorblind Actually have dichromatic rather than trichromatic vision 7 red or green de cit dogs are also dichromatic due to red de ciency Opponent process theory Opposing retinal processes redgreen yellowblue whiteblack enable color vision e g some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green Explains Afterimage seeing the opponent color after staring at the color Overall Color processing occurs in two stages The retina s red green and blue cones respond in varying degrees to different color stimuli YoungHelmholtz trichromatic theory Their signals are then processed by the nervous system s opponentprocess cells en route to the visual cortex Color constancy Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths re ected by the object Context Color perception depends on light re ected by an object relative to its surrounding objects Comparisons govern perceptions III AUDITION The sense of hearing Stimulus input Sound waves Frequency Number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time for example per second determines pitch short waves have high frequency and therefore high pitch Amplitude Height of wave determine loudness greater amplitude louder Decibels unit for measuring sound energy absolute threshold for hearing is de ned as 0 decibels every 10 decibels correspond to a tenfold increase in sound prolonged exposure to over 85 decibels 7 hearing loss Noisy environments impairs task performance high blood pressure anxiety helplessness 7 unpredictable uncontrollable noise is worst The Ear Outer ear visible part up to eardrum a tight membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves Middle ear chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three small bones 7 hammer anvil and stirrup that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea s oval window note hearing is in part a mechanical chain of events Inner ear contains the cochlea semicircular canals and vestibular sacs Cochlea a coiled bony uidfilled tube through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses via basilar membrane which is lined with hair cells Movement of hairs cells is what triggers a nerve impulse Adjacent nerve cells converge to form the auditory nerve Auditory c01tex of temporal lobe Loudness Number of hair cells that respond not intensity of response which does not vary If hair cells lose sensitivity to soft sounds they may still respond to loud sounds which is why loud is equally loud to hardofhearing as to normal hearing Pitch Place theory pitch depends on where the cochlear membrane basil membrane of is stimulated But lowpitched sounds not easily localized Frequency theory rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches frequency of a tone and thus enables pitch recognition best explanation for perceiving lowpitched sounds Locating sounds strikes one ear SOONER and with greater INTENSITY Like vision parallel processing 7 specialized neural networks work simultaneously on different tasks timing differences and intensity differences Hearing Loss and the Deaf Culture Conduction hearing loss Damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea Sensorineural hearing loss Damage to the cochlea s receptor cells or to the auditory nerves also called nerve deafness Bionic ear or cochlear implant can restore hearing controversy in deaf community Compensation Loss of one sensory modality often results in enhancement of another auditory cortex becomes devoted to vision and touch IV 7 THE OTHER SENSES Touch critical in early development infant deprivation studies combination of pressure warmth cold and pain but only pressure receptors have been identified Warm Cold Hot Phantom limb sensations indicate that pain is in the brain as well Phantom sounds 7 ringingintheears known as tinnitus Phantom sightsinonthreatening hallucinations Phantom tastes anal smells Pain no one type of stimulus that triggers pains no special receptors for pain Gate control theory Spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain The gate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve bers and is closed by activity in larger bers or by information coming from the brain to control pain stimulate gate closing activity in larger neural bers e g message cold Or increase brainto spinal cord messages Brain can produce pain wo corresponding neural activityinjury Recall of pain focused on peak and ending pain not duration Pain control based on notion that painisinthebrain e g distractions reduce pain Taste sweet sour salty and bitter most other tastes are mixtures of these A chemical sense Process Inside each small bump on the top and sides of the tongue are 200 or more taste buds each containing a pore that catches food chemicals These molecules are sensed by 50 to 100 taste receptor cells that project antennalike hairs into the pore Taste receptors reproduce themselves every week or two Number of taste buds and their sensitivity decrease with age Sensory interaction The principle that one sense may in uence another smell in uences taste sound and sight touch and sight Smell Olfaction A chemical sense Process Molecules of a substance carried in the air reach a tiny cluster of 5 million receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity These olfactory receptor cells waving like sea anemones on a reef respond selectively eg smell of a cake baking and alert the brain through axon bers rst to the brain s olfactory bulb and then to the temporal lobe and to parts of the limbic system involved in memory and emotion Odor cannot be broken into its elemental components how odors are recognized each individually remains a mystery odor molecules t into receptors better at discriminating than describing scents declines with age women better than men Other animals make more use of smell to communicate and navigate Humans have 10 to 20 million olfactory receptors a bloodhound has some 200 million Smell preferences in humans are learned mother s milk smell triggers memories and emotions CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY LEARNING Overview Learning helps us adapt to our environment For example through classical conditioning we learn to anticipate events such as being fed or experiencing pain In his famous studies Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus just before an unconditioned stimulus which normally triggered an unconditioned response After several repetitions the neutral stimulus alone began triggering a conditioned response resembling the unconditioned response Pavlov s work laid a foundation for John Watson s emerging belief that psychology should study only overt behavior a position he called behaviorism The behaviorists optimism that learning principles would generalize from one response to another and from one species to another has been tempered We now know that conditioning principles are cognitively and biologically constrained While in classical conditioning we learn to associate two stimuli in operant conditioning we learn to associate a response and its consequence Skinner showed that rats and pigeons could be shaped through reinforcement to display successively closer approximations of a desired behavior Researchers have also studied the effects of positive and negative reinforcers primary and conditioned reinforcers and immediate and delayed reinforcers Critics point to research on latent learning and overjustification to support their claim that Skinner underestimated the importance of cognitive constraints Although Skinner s emphasis on external control also stimulated much debate regarding human freedom and the ethics of managing people his operant principles are being applied in schools businesses and homes A third type of learning important among higher animals is what Albert Bandura calls observational learning Children tend to imitate what a model does and says whether the behavior is prosocial or antisocial Research suggests that violence on television leads to aggressive behavior by children and teenagers who watch the programs The importance of learning and the process of learning associations Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Nature s most important gift to us may be our adaptability our capacity to learn new behaviors that enable us to cope with everchanging experiences We learn by association our mind naturally connects events that occur in sequence The events linked in associative learning may be two stimuli as in classical conditioning or a response and a rewarding or punishing stimulus as in operant conditioning Early behaviorists such as John Watson argued that psychology should be an objective science and that it should study only overt behavior without reference to mental processes They believed that the learned behaviors of various organisms could be reduced to universal stimulus response mechanisms Classical Conditioning The general process of classical conditioning as demonstrated by Pavlov s experiments Pavlov would repeatedly present a neutral stimulus such as a tone just before an unconditioned stimulus UCS such as food which triggered the unconditioned response UCR of salivation After several repetitions the tone alone now the conditioned stimulus 08 began triggering a conditioned response CR salivation As Pavlov demonstrated classical conditioning involves respondent behavior reflexive behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus The processes of acquisition extinction recovery a quot 39 and quot Responses are acquired initially learned best when the CS is presented half a second before the UCS Conditioned responses weaken ifthey are not reinforced extinction but they may reappear after a rest spontaneous recovery Furthermore responses may be triggered by stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus generalization but not by dissimilar stimuli discrimination The importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints in classical conditioning Research indicates that for many animals cognitive appraisals are important for learning For example animals appear capable of learning when to expect an unconditioned stimulus Conditioning occurs best when the CS and the UCS have just the sort of relationship that would lead a scientist to conclude that the CS causes the UCS The behaviorists optimism that learning principles would generalize from one response to another and from one species to another has been tempered Conditioning principles are constrained by the biological predispositions of each species For example rats are biologically prepared to learn associations between the taste of a particular food and the onset of illness but not between a loud noise and an illness The importance of Pavlov s work and how it applies to an understanding of health and wellbeing Pavlov s work laid a foundation for John Watson s emerging belief that to be an objective science psychology should study only overt behavior without considering unobservable mental activity Pavlov taught us that principles of learning apply across species that significant psychological phenomena can be studied objectively and that conditioning principles have important applications Classical conditioning principles provide important insights into drug abuse and how it may be overcome Classical conditioning works on the body s diseasefighting immune system For example when a particular taste accompanies a drug that influences immune responses the taste by itself may come to produce those immune responses Watson s Little Albert study demonstrated how classical conditioning may underlie specific fears Today psychologists use extinction procedures to control our less adaptive emotions and condition new responses to emotionarousing stimuli Operant Conditioning The process of operant conditioning including the procedure of shaping as demonstrated by Skinner s experiments Operant conditioning involves operant behavior that actively operates on the environment to produce stimuli Skinner s work elaborated a simple fact of life that Edward Thorndike called the law of effect Rewarded behavior is likely to recur In his experiments involving an operant chamber Skinner box Skinner used shaping a procedure in which rewards such as food guide an animal s natural behavior toward a desired behavior By rewarding responses that are ever closer to the final desired behavior and ignoring all other responses researchers can gradually shape complex behaviors The different types of reinforcers and major schedules of partial reinforcement A reinforcer is any event that increases the frequency of a preceding response Reinforcers can be positive presenting a pleasant stimulus after a response or negative reducing or removing an unpleasant stimulus primary innately satisfying or conditioned learned and immediate or delayed When the desired response is reinforced every time it occurs continuous reinforcement is involved More common are partial intermittent reinforcement schedules Fixedratio schedules reinforce behavior after a set number of responses variableratio schedules provide reinforcers after an unpredictable number of responses Fixedinterval schedules reinforce the first response after a fixed time interval and variableinterval schedules reinforce the first response after varying time intervals Partial reinforcement produces slower acquisition of the target behavior than does continuous reinforcement but the learning is more resistant to extinction The effects of punishment on behavior Like reinforcement punishment is most effective when strong immediate and consistent However punishment is not simply the logical opposite of reinforcement for it can have several undesirable side effects such as increased aggression and fear ofthe punisher Even when punishment suppresses unwanted behavior it often does not guide one toward more desirable behavior The importance of cognitive processes and biological predispositions in operant conditioning Many psychologists have criticized Skinner for underestimating the importance of cognitive and biological constraints For example rats exploring a maze seem to develop a mental representation a cognitive map ofthe maze even in the absence of reward Their latent learning becomes evident only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it The cognitive perspective has also led to an important qualification concerning the power of rewards The overjustification effect indicates that people may come to see rewards rather than intrinsic interest as the motivation for performing a task By undermining intrinsic motivation the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake rewards can carry hidden costs Extrinsic moviation is the desire to perform a behavior because of promised rewards or threats of punishment A person s interest often survives when a reward is used neither to bribe nor coerce but to signal a job well done As with classical conditioning an animal s natural predispositions constrain its capacity for operant conditioning Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive Why Skinner s ideas were controversial Major applications of operant conditioning Skinner has been criticized for repeatedly insisting that external influences not internal thoughts and feelings shape behavior and for urging the use of operant principles to control people s behavior Critics argue that he dehumanized people by neglecting their personal freedom and by seeking to control their actions Skinner countered People s behavior is already controlled by external reinforcers so why not administer those consequences for human betterment CHAPTER 15 7 PERSONALITY PERSONALITY An individual s characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting I 7 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON PERSONALITY Freud Personality including emotions and motivations arises from a con ict between aggressive pleasureseeking biological impulses and internalized social restraints against them personality is the result of efforts to resolve this basic con ictito express basic impulses in ways that bring satisfaction without also bringing guilt or punishment Psychoanalysis Freud s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and con icts also the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions Unconscious A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelings and memories contemporary psychologists information processing of which we are unaware Free association A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing Deterministic perspective Nothing is accidental everything has a cause Personality structure Id The reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operates on the pleasure principle 7 seeks immediate gratification Ego The largely 39 quot part ofr quot y that mediates among the demands of the id superego and reality operates on the reality principle satisfying the id s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain Superego The part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment the conscience and future aspirations Personality development Psychosexual stages The childhood stages of development oral anal phallic latency genital during which the id s pleasureseeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones pleasurecentered areas of the body Stage Pleasure zone Oral 0718 months Mouthisucking biting chewing Anal 1836 months Anus bowel and bladder elimination coping with demands for control Phallic 3 years Genitals coping with incestuous sexual feelings Latency 6 to pubertyDormant sexual feelings Genital puberty on Maturation of sexual interests Oedipus complex A boy s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father Electra complex A girl s sexual desires toward her father and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival mother Identi cation The process by which children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos Fixation A lingering focus of pleasureseeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage where con icts were unresolved Defense mechanisms The ego s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality All function indirectly and unconsciously reducing anxiety by disguising threatening impulses Repression Most basic defense mechanism banishes anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories from consciousness Regression Retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated Reaction formation Ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites Projection Disguise one s own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Rationalization Offering selfjustifying explanations in place of the real more threatening unconscious reasons for one s actions Displacement shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person Assessing the Unconscious Projective tests ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one s inner dynamics Thematic Apperception Test TAT express their inner feelings and interests through stories made up about ambiguous scenes Rorschach inkblot test A set of 10 inkblots to identify inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations Rorschach lacks reliability and validity TAT a bit better on both Neo Freudians Accepted Freud s basic ideas the importance of the unconscious and childhood in shaping of personality the dynamics of anxiety and the defense mechanisms Differed from Freud in placing more emphasis on 1 the conscious mind both in interpreting experience and in coping with the environment 2 motives other than sex and aggression social motives and interaction Adler Homey Jung s collective unconscious A shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history Contemporary Psychodynamic Theorists Like Freud maintain that much of mental life is unconscious childhood shapes personalities attachment to others inner con icts among wishes fears and values Unlike Freud do not talk about ids egos superegos and fixations at stages of psychosexual development 15 1 Centu View of Freud Development is lifelong neural networks birth to 5 are not developed enough to handle Freud s inner con icts overestimates parental in uence and underestimates peer in uence question whether conscience and gender identity form out of the con icts Freud posited Freud s theory based on probing leading questions of neurotic patients dreams are more than disguised and ful lled wishes little support for defense mechanisms as disguises for sexual and aggressive impulses little support for sexual suppression and mental illness link Repression has been used to explain hypnotic phenomena psychological disorders and apparent lost and recovered memories of childhood traumas 88 of university students believe that painful experiences commonly get pushed out of awareness and into the unconscious Evidence Negative emotional events are remembered well Scienti c Merit Freud s theory based on few observations and offers few testable hypotheses Most serious criticism can explain anything POST HOC after the factobservation but cannot PREDICT ahead of time 11 7 THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE Maslow s Selfactualizing Person Self actualization The ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and selfesteem is achieved the motivation to fulfill one s potential Characteristics of the self actualized Selfaware and selfaccepting open and spontaneous loving and caring and not paralyzed by others opinions Secure in the sense of who they were interests are problemcentered rather than self centered focus energies on a particular tasldmission in life enjoy a few deep relationships rather than many super cial ones May have had spiritual or personal peak experiences that surpass ordinary consciousness Carl Roger s Personcentered Perspective Basic Assumptions People are basically good and are endowed with self actualizing tendencies Problems stem from environments that inhibit growth 3 conditions needed for personal growth genuineness being transparent acceptance unconditional positive regard empathy Selfconcept All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question Who am I At the core of humanistic perspectives best assessed by interviews not structured and standardized personality tests F nlllntinn the Y 39 quot Per nective Major in uence on psychology especially counseling and on popular beliefs 41 margin Americans believe human nature is basically good rather than fundamentally perverse and corrupt selffocus is consistent with Western ideals of individualism Vague and untestable selfish ideal ignores evil side of human nature 11 7 CONTEMPORAY THEORIES OF PERSONALITY The Trait Perspective Trait A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act as assessed by selfreport inventories and peer reports focus on description not explanation of personality Personality Types Ancient Greeks melancholic depressed sanguine cheerful phlegmatic unemotional or choleric irritable Sheldon s Body Types endomorph fat relaxed and jolly mesomorph muscular bold and physically active ectomorp thin high strung and solitary MyersBriggs Type Indicator feeling or thinking types F actorAnalysis A statistical procedure to identify underlying dimensions Eysenck Personality Questionnaire extraversioniintroversion and emotional stabilityiinstability neuroticism Biologicallygenetically in uenced EXtraverts 7 less frontal lobe activity Shyness 7 greater autonomic nervous system reactivity Personality inventory A questionnaire often with truefalse or agreedisagree items on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors used to assess selected personality traits M ultiphasic Personality Inventory MMPD imost widely used inventory includes a lie scale to detect social desirability responding objective validity depends on whohow it is used criterion Empirically derived test A test such as the MMPI developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups Big Five Personality Inventory Emotional stability calmanxious EXtraversion sociableretiring Openness imaginativepractical Agreeableness softheartedruthless 0 I I Ul I 39 39I Cd Research on the Big Five Stability Stable in adulthood with some tendencies emotional instability extraversion and openness decreasing a bit in the decade after college and others agreeableness and conscientiousness increasing Heritablilty Varies with the diversity of people studied but generally around 50 or better depending on trait Cultural differences Describes personality in various cultures Prediction Predicts some personal characteristics eg momingness Evaluating the Trait Perspective Person situation controversy Over time selfratings of personality become increasingly stable but traits predict behaviors only modestly but predict behaviors on average much better behaviors are less consistent across situations Expressive styles Animation manner of speaking and gestures impressively consistent lasting impressions within a few moments of meeting someone ratings based on 2second clips correlated 72 with later teacher evaluations Expressiveness is a potent trait The SocialCognitive Perspective Behavior is in uenced by the interaction between persons and their thinking and their social context Reciprocal determinism The interacting in uences between personality and environmental factors Internal cognitive factors 7 environmental factors and behavior all reciprocally determined Ways in which individuals and environments interact Different people choose ali erent environments You choose your environment anal it then shapes you Personalities shape how we interpret anal react to events Personalities help create the situations to which we then react Behavior emerges from the interplay of external and internal in uences We are both products and architects of our environments Personal control Sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless External locus of control The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one s personal control determine one s fate Internal locus of control The perception that one controls one s own fate Internals achieve more in school act more independently enjoy better health and feel less depressed than do extemals better able to delay gratification and cope with various stresses including marital problems Self control The ability to control impulses and delay gratification predicts good adjustment better grades and social success weakens after an exertion replenishes with rest and becomes stronger with exercise requires attention and energy Learned helplessness The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events perceive control as external control and selfefficacy related to happiness Optimism Positive attributional style characteristic way of explaining negative and positive events positive thinking about negative events but need to be realistic too avoid illusory optimism anxiety about possible future failurenegative events can motivate behavior to preventavoid Positive psychology The scienti c study of optimal human functioning aims is to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive Positive subjective well being Satisfaction with the past happiness with the present and optimism about the future Positive character Exploring and enhancing virtues such as creativity courage compassion integrity selfcontrol leadership wisdom and spirituality Positive groups communities and cultures Seek to foster a positive social ecology including healthy families communal neighborhoods effective schools socially responsible media and civil dialogue Assessing behavior Realistic situations simulations assessment centers Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior in similar situations Evaluating the Social cognitive Perspective Focuses attention on situations but may lose sight of the person Biologicallybased traits do matter ignores emotions III 7 EXPLORING THE SELF Spotlight e ect Overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance performance and blunders presume a spotlight shines on us Possible selves Visions of the self you dream of becoming Self esteem One s feelings of high or low selfworth high selfesteem has many benefits happier all around low selfesteem may be due to current self views vs hopes depression or vs oughts anxiety cause and effect issues life problems and failures may CAUSE low selfesteem rather than the reverse but some evidence of negative effects of induced low selfesteem Culture anal self esteem Prejudice does not undermine selfesteem of targets because 1 they attribute negative feedback to prejudice 2 they compare within their own group 3 they focus on what they are best at Self serving bias A readiness to perceive oneself favorably 1 Accept more responsibility for good than for bad for successes than failures 2 See ourselves as better than average other 3 Remember and justify past actions in selfenhancing ways 4 Exhibit an in ated con dence in beliefs and judgments 5 Overestimate how desirably we would act in situations where most people behave less than admirably 6 Seek out favorable selfenhancing information 7 Quicker to believe attering descriptions of ourselves than un attering 8 Overestimate how much others support our opinions and share our foibles 9 Underestimate how much other share our strengths 10 Exhibit group prideisee own groups as superior To a point positive illusions are beneficial modest selfenhancing illusions maintain selfcon dence protect against anxiety and depression and sustain sense of wellbeing Pitfalls of pride Excessive selfesteem related to aggression against an insultor Self disparagement may be strategic prepare us for possible failure refer to former self Culture anal Self Individualism Giving priority to one s own goals over group goals and defining one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Independent self of Western cultures Collectivism Giving priority to the goals of one s group often one s extended family or work group and defining one s identity accordingly Interdependent self of Eastern cultures Value Contrasts Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent Interdependent Life task Discover and express one s uniqueness Maintain connections What matters Me personal achievement Us group goals Coping Change reality Accommodate reality Morality Defined by individuals selfbased Defined by networks Relationships Many often temporary or casual Few close enduring Confrontation acceptable Harmony valued Attributions Personality and attitudes Social norms roles IV 7 THE MODERN UNCONSCIOUS MIND Offscreen out of sight unconscious information processing 1 the schemas that automatically control our perceptions and interpretations 2 priming by stimuli to which we have not consciously attended 3 righthemisphere activity that enables the splitbrain patient s left hand to carry out an instruction the patient cannot verbalize 4 parallel processing of different aspects of vision and thinking CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOR OVERVIEW Our nervous system plays a vital role in how we think feel and act Neurons the basic building blocks of the body s circuitry receive signals through their branching dendrites and cell bodies and transmit electrical impulses down their axons Chemical messengers called neurotransmitters traverse the tiny synaptic gap between neurons and pass on excitatory or inhibitory messages The central nervous system consists ofthe brain and spinal cord The peripheral nervous system consists of the somatic nervous system which directs voluntary movements and reflexes and the autonomic nervous system which controls the glands and muscles of our internal organs Evolution has elaborated new brain systems on top of old Within the brainstem are the oldest regions the medulla and the reticular formation The thalamus sits atop the brainstem and the cerebellum extends from the rear The limbic system includes the amygdala the hippocampus and the hypothalamus The cerebral cortex representing the highest level of brain development is responsible for our most complex functions Each hemisphere ofthe cerebral cortex has four geographical areas the frontal parietal occipital and temporal lobes Although small welldefined regions within these lobes control muscle movement and receive information from the body senses most of the cortex its association areas are free to process other information Experiments on splitbrain patients suggest that for most people the left hemisphere is the more verbal and the right hemisphere excels in visual perception and the recognition of emotion Studies of people with intact brains indicate that each hemisphere makes unique contributions to the integrated functions of the brain Hormones released by endocrine glands affect other tissues including the brain The most influential endocrine gland the pituitary gland releases hormones that influence growth and its secretions also influence the release of hormones by other glands The nervous system directs endocrine secretions which then affect the nervous system Why psychologists are concerned with human biology Everything psychological is simultaneously biological We think feel and act with our bodies By studying the links between biology and psychology biological psychologists are gaining new clues to sleep and dreams depression and schizophrenia hunger and sex stress and disease Neural Communication The structure of a neuron How neural impulses are generated A neuron consists of a cell body and branching fibers The dendrites receive information from sensory receptors or other neurons and the axons pass that information along to other neurons A layer of fatty tissue called the myelin sheath insulates the fibers of some neurons and helps speed their impulses A neural impulse fires when the neuron is stimulated by pressure heat light or chemical messages from adjacent neurons Received signals trigger an impulse only if the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signals exceeds a minimum intensity called the threshold The impulse called the action potential is a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon rather like manhole covers flipping open During the resting potential the fluid interior ofthe axon carries mostly negatively charged atoms ions while the fluid outside has mostly positively charged atoms Then the first bit of the axon is depolarized and the electrical impulse travels down the axon as channels open admitting atoms with a positive charge When these channels close others open and positive atoms are pumped back out restoring the neuron to its polarized state How nerve cells communicate The impact of neurotransmitters and drugs on human behavior When electrical impulses reach the axon terminal they stimulate the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters that cross the junction between neurons called the synapse After these molecules traverse the tiny synaptic gap between neurons they combine with receptor sites on neighboring neurons thus passing on their excitatory or inhibitory messages Different neurotransmitters have different effects on behavior and emotion For example release of acetylcholine the neurotransmitter found at every junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle causes the muscle to contract The brains endorphins natural opiates released in response to pain and vigorous exercise explain the runners high and the indifference to pain in some injured people When the brain is flooded with opiate drugs such as heroin and morphine however it may stop producing its own natural opiates and withdrawal of these drugs may result in pain until the brain resumes production of its natural opiates Researchers have used this information about neurotransmitters in the brain in their efforts to create therapeutic drugs such as those used to alleviate depression and schizophrenia Some drugs agonists mimic a natural neurotransmitter or block its reuptake while others antagonists block its effects Still others work by hampering the neurotransmitter s natural breakdown or reabsorption The Nervous System The major divisions of the nervous system and their functions Neurons communicating with other neurons form our body s primary system the nervous system The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system CNS The peripheral nervous system PNS links the central nervous system with the body s sense receptors muscles and glands The sensory and motor neurons carrying this information are bundled into the electrical cables we know as nerves Sensory neurons send information from the body s tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord lnterneurons ofthe brain and spinal cord process the information Motor neurons carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the body s tissues The somatic nervous system of the peripheral nervous system controls the movements of our skeletal muscles The autonomic nervous system ofthe peripheral nervous system is a dual self regulating system that influences the glands and muscles of our internal organs The sympathetic nervous system arouses the parasympathetic nervous system calms Neural pathways involved in reflexes The complexity of neural networks Reflexes our automatic responses to stimuli illustrate the spinal cords work A simple reflex pathway is composed of a single sensory neuron and a single motor neuron which often communicate through an interneuron For example when our fingers touch a hot stove information from the skin receptors travels inward via a sensory neuron to a spinal cord interneuron which sends a signal outward to the arm muscles via a motor neuron Because this reflex involves only the spinal cord we jerk our hand away before the brain creates an experience of pain Neurons in the brain cluster into work groups called neural networks The cells in each layer of a neural network connect with various cells in the next layer With experience networks can learn as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results One network is interconnected with other networks which are distinguished by their specific functions The Brain Techniques for studying the brain The oldest method of studying the brain involved observing the effects of brain diseases and injuries Powerful new techniques now reveal brain structures and activities in the living brain By surgically lesioning and electrically stimulating specific brain areas by recording electrical activity on the brain s surface EEG and by displaying activity with computeraided brain scans CT PET MRI neuroscientists examine the connections between brain mind and behavior Functions of the brainstem thalamus cerebellum and limbic system The brainstem the brain s oldest and innermost region includes the medulla which controls heartbeat and breathing and the reticular formation which controls arousal Atop the brainstem is the thalamus the brain s sensory switchboard lt receives information from all the senses except smell and sends it to the higher brain regions that deal with seeing hearing tasting and touching The cerebellum attached to the rear ofthe brainstem coordinates muscle movement The limbic system has been linked primarily to memory emotions and drives For example one of its neural centers the hippocampus helps process memories for storage Another the amygdala influences aggression and fear A third the hypothalamus has been linked to various bodily maintenance functions and to pleasurable rewards lts hormones influence the pituitary gland and thus it provides a major link between the nervous and endocrine systems The four lobes of the cerebral cortex Sensory and motor functions of the cortex The cerebral cortex is a thin sheet of cells composed of billions of nerve cells and their countless interconnections Glial cells support nourish and protect these nerve cells Each of the two hemispheres of the cortex is divided into four geographic lobes frontal parietal occipital and temporal The motor cortex at the rear of the frontal lobes controls voluntary muscle movements The sensory cortex at the front ofthe parietal lobes registers and processes body sensations The occipital lobes at the back ofthe head receive input from the eyes An auditory area of the temporal lobes receives information from the ears The association areas damage to different cortical areas and the impairment of language functioning The association areas are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions Rather they interpret integrate and act on information processed by the sensory areas They are involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking In general human emotions thoughts and behaviors result from the intricate coordination of many brain areas Language for example depends on a chain of events in several brain regions Depending on which link in this chain is damaged a different form of aphasia occurs Damage to the angular gyrus leaves the person able to speak and understand but unable to read Damage to Wernicke s area disrupts understanding Damage to Broca s area disrupts speaking The capacity of the brain to reorganize following injury or illness Research indicates that neural tissue can reorganize in response to injury or damage When one brain area is damaged others may in time take over some of its function For example if neurons are destroyed as the result of a minor stroke nearby neurons may partly compensate by making new connections that replace the lost ones New evidence reveals that adult humans can also generate new brain cells Our brains are most plastic when we are young children In fact children who have had an entire hemisphere removed still lead normal lives Research on the split brain and how it facilitate understanding of normal brain functioning A split brain is one whose corpus callosum the wide band of axon fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres has been severed Experiments on splitbrain patients have refined our knowledge of each hemisphere s special functions In the laboratory investigators ask a split brain patient to look at a designated spot then send information to either the left or right hemisphere by flashing it to the right or left visual field Quizzing each hemisphere separately the researchers have confirmed that for most people the left hemisphere is the more verbal and the right hemisphere excels in visual perception and the recognition of emotion The alien hand syndrome is a neurological disorder in which one hand seems to have a mind of its own Studies of people with intact brains have confirmed that the right and left hemispheres each make unique contributions to the integrated functioning ofthe brain Relationships between brain organization right and lefthandedness and physical health Approximately 95 percent of righthanders process speech primarily in the left hemisphere Left handers are more diverse More than half process speech in the left hemisphere about a quarter in the right and the last quarter use both hemispheres equally The finding that the percentage of Iefthanders declines dramatically with age led researchers to examine the Ieftie s health risks Lefthanders are more likely to have experienced birth stress such as prematurity or the need for assisted respiration They also endure more headaches have more accidents use more tobacco and alcohol and suffer more immune system problems However researchers continue to debate whether Iefthanders have a lower life expectancy The Endocrine System The nature and function of the endocrine system and its interaction with the nervous system The endocrine system s glands secrete hormones chemical messengers produced in one tissue that travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues including the brain When they act CHAPTER 17 SUMMARY THERAPY Overview The major psychotherapies derive from the psychoanalytic humanistic behavioral and cognitive perspectives Half of all therapists take an eclectic approach using a blend oftherapies Psychoanalysts use free association and the interpretation of dreams resistances and transference to help their patients gain insight into the unconscious origins oftheir disorders and to work through the accompanying feelings Humanistic therapy focuses on clients conscious feelings and on their taking responsibility for their own growth Clientcentered therapists use active listening to express genuineness acceptance and empathy Behavior therapists emphasize the direct modification of problem behaviors They use exposure therapies such as systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning and they may also apply operant conditioning principles with techniques such as token economies Cognitive therapies aim to change selfdefeating thinking by training people to view themselves in new more positive ways Except for traditional psychoanalysis these various types of therapies may also occur in therapistled small groups One special type of group therapy family therapy assumes that no person is an island Research on the effectiveness of therapy indicates that people who receive therapy are more likely to improve than the untreated However the friendly counsel of paraprofessionals also tends to produce more improvement than occurs with untreated people Administration of antipsychotic antianxiety and antidepressant drugs constitutes the most widely used biomedical therapy Electroconvulsive therapy although controversial continues to be an effective treatment for many severely depressed people who do not respond to drug therapy Psychosurgery is rarely used to alleviate specific problems largely because the effects are irreversible and potentially drastic Preventive mental health experts aim to change oppressive esteemdestroying environments into more benevolent nurturing environments that foster individual growth and selfconfidence The Psychological Therapies Psychotherapy is a planned emotionally charged confiding interaction between a trained socially sanctioned healer and a sufferer Half of psychotherapists take an eclectic approach which is a blend oftherapies Closely related to eclecticism is psychotherapy integration which combines the therapies into a single coherent system 0 Videos Ordinary People and Psychotherapy Approaches to Therapy Aims and methods of psychoanalysis Concerns with this form of therapy How psychodynamic therapists address the criticisms The goal of psychoanalysis is to help people gain insight into the unconscious origins oftheir disorders and to work through the accompanying feelings To do so analysts draw on techniques such as free association and the interpretation of dreams resistances and the transference to the therapist of longrepressed feelings Like the psychoanalytic perspective on personality psychoanalysis is criticized because its interpretations are hard to prove or disprove and because it is timeconsuming and costly The recent challenge to repressed memories on which much of psychoanalysis is built is also provoking intense debate Today there are relatively few traditional psychoanalysts Most have been replaced by therapists who make psychodynamic assumptions that is those who try to understand patients current symptoms by exploring their childhood experiences Interpersonal psychotherapy a brief alternative to psychodynamic therapy has been found effective with depressed patients Humanistic therapies Goals and techniques of clientcentered therapy Humanistic therapists focus on clients current conscious feelings and on their taking responsibility for their own growth In emphasizing people s inherent potential for selffulfillment they aim to promote growth rather than to cure illness In his clientcentered therapy Rogers used active listening to express genuineness acceptance and empathy This technique he believed would help clients to increase their selfunderstanding and selfacceptance The therapist interrupts only to restate and confirm the client s feelings to accept what the client is expressing or to seek clarification The clientcentered counselor seeks to provide a psychological mirror that helps clients see themselves more clearly Basic assumptions of behavior therapy classical 39 h 39 of 39 39 and aversive conditioning lnstead oftrying to alleviate distressing behaviors by resolving a presumed underlying problem behavior therapists apply wellestablished learning principles to eliminate the unwanted behavior They try to replace problem thoughts and maladaptive behaviors with more constructive ways of thinking and acting Both systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning are types of counterconditioning a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors ln systematic desensitization a prime example of exposure therapy a pleasant relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli This procedure is commonly used to treat phobias Virtual reality exposure therapy equips patients with a headmounted display unit that provides vivid simulations of feared stimuli such as a plane s takeoff ln aversive conditioning an unpleasant state such as nausea is associated with an unwanted behavior such as drinking alcohol Therapeutic applications of operant conditioning principles Concerns with this behavior modi cation process Behavior therapists apply operant conditioning principles by reinforcing desired behaviors while withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors The rewards used to modify behavior vary from attention or praise to more concrete rewards such as food In institutional settings therapists may create a token economy in which a patient exchanges a token of some sort earned for exhibiting the desired behavior for various privileges ortreats Critics express two concerns First what happens when the reinforcers stop Might the person have become so dependent upon the extrinsic rewards that the appropriate behaviors quickly disappear Second is it ethical for one person to control another s behavior Assumptions and goals of the cognitive therapies and their application to the treatment of depression Cognitive therapists assume that our thinking colors our feelings and so they try to teach people who suffer psychological disorders new more constructive ways of thinking In treating depression Aaron Beck seeks to reverse clients catastrophizing beliefs about themselves their situation and their future His technique is a gentle questioning that aims to help people discover their irrationalities Other therapists teach depressed adults to interpret life events as nondepressed people do for example to take credit fortheir successes Still other cognitive therapists combine the reversal of selfdefeating thinking with efforts to modify behavior Cognitivebehavior therapy aims to make people aware of their irrational negative thinking to replace it with new ways of thinking and talking and to practice the more positive approach in everyday settings The rationale and bene ts of group therapy including family therapy The social context provided by group therapy allows people to discover that others have problems similar to their own and to try out new ways of behaving Receiving honest feedback can be very helpful and it can be reassuring to find that you are not alone Many participate in selfhelp and support groups for divorced people the addicted the bereaved and those simply seeking personal growth Family therapy assumes that we live and grow in relation to others especially our families In an effort to heal relationships therapists help family members discover the role they play within the family s social system Evaluating Psychotherapies The effectiveness of the psychotherapies wh y ineffective therapies may be perceived to be of value In addition to the sheer power of positive expectation regression toward the mean may lead clients and therapists to perceive value in ineffective therapies Feeling low tends to be followed by our return to a more normal state and anything we tried in the interim may seem effective Research that includes use of metaanalysis reveals that 1 people who remain untreated often improve 2 those who receive psychotherapy are more likely to improve regardless ofwhat kind oftherapy they receive and for how long 3 people with specific behavior problems often receive the greatest benefits from therapy but 4 placebo treatments or the friendly counsel of paraprofessionals also tend to produce more improvement than occurs with untreated people Although advocates of different types of therapy claim superiority no one therapy has been shown to be best in all cases Some therapies are however well suited to particular disorders For example behavioral conditioning therapies achieve especially favorable results in treating phobias compulsions and sexual dysfunctions Although there is little empirical support for the value of alternative therapies such as therapeutic touch or EMDR lightexposure therapy helps to relieve seasonal affective disorder Commonaities among the psychotherapies The role of values and cultural differences in the sychotherapeutic process Despite their differences all therapies offer at least three benefits First they all offer the expectation that with commitment from the patient things can and will get better Second every therapy offers people a plausible explanation of their symptoms and an alternative way of looking at themselves and responding to their worlds Third regardless of their therapeutic technique effective therapists are empathic people who seek to understand another s experience whose care and concern the client feels and whose respectful listening reassurance and advice earn


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