Introductory Psychology PSY 101
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CHAPTER 3 THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF BEHAVIOR I 7 GENES The biochemical units of heredity blueprint that make up chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein and thus determining our biology Chromosomes Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes DNA DeoxyriboNucleicAcid A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes A DNA molecule has two strandsiforming a double helix iheld together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides Genome The complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes The human genome has 3 billion weakly bonded pairs of nucleotides ACTG organized as coiled chains of DNA II 7 EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection Natural selection The principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Mutation A random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides the source of genetic diversity Sexuality Gender The characteristics whether biologically or socially in uenced by which people de ne male and female Mengtwomen in sexual interest and behavior Parental investment is lower for males than females favoring a pairing widely strategy Universally males focus more on a potential mate s appearance health and fertility and women focus more on a potential mate s resources and coparenting characteristics dependability Men s reckless behavior is to get attention Critique of Evolutionary Explanation Works backward from behavior hindsight posthoc can often and equally well explain the opposite behavior monogamy ignores cultural in uences eg attractiveness appropriate sexual behavior Biology is not destiny III 7 BEHAVIORAL GENETICS The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental in uences on behavior Environment Every nongenetic in uence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Twin Studies Are identical twins being genetic clones of one another behaviorally more similar than fraternal twins Identical twins Develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical organisms Fraternal twins Develop from separate eggs They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters but they share a fetal environment YES in abilities personality interests 7 but this could be explained in part by shared environment However identical twins separated at birth are still remarkably similar but less than when reared together shared environment but more than fraternal twins separated shared genes Adoption Studies Are adopted children more like their adoptive parents who contribute a home environment or their biological parents who contributed their genes While sharing the same home environment do adopted siblings come to share traits ADOPTED CHILDREN ARE MORE SIMILAR to biological parents personality abilities than adoptive parents Siblings are no more similar in personality than strangers It is NOT the shared environment but rather the unshared environment that molds them at least in terms of PERSONALITY 40 to 50 genes But environmentparenting matters in terms of attitudes values manners faith and politics Temperament A person s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity High genetic in uence twin studies and enduring Heritability The extent to which variation among individuals in a group is attributable to genetic differences the proportion of variation among individuals that can be attributed to genes depends on the range of populations and environments studied As environments become more similar heredity as a source of differences among individuals necessarily becomes more important Heritability explains differences among individuals not differences between groups which are better explained by environment Nature ENABLES Nurture 7 Humans are extremely adaptable Environment shapes what nature predisposes GeneEnvironment Interaction The effects of one depend on the other In addition genes r 39 us to select different 39 Molecular genetics A subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes search for genes that put people at risk for genetically in uenced disorders e g obesity mental disorders screening fetuses and ethical issues raised by new knowledge IV ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Parents Shared home environment 7 10 of children s personality differences parental in uence clearest at the extremes parents choose neighborhood and school complement peer in uence more important in education discipline responsibility orderliness charitableness and ways of interacting with authority figures Prenatal environment ID twins may have shared 23 or unshared 13 placenta differing nutrition exposure to toxins oxygen etc Early experience Enriched environment increases brain cortical development in rats handled babies gain more weight and develop faster neurologically preserves used connections and eliminates unused connections use it or lose it principle governs brain development eg vision Peer in uence May be stronger than parental in uence children SELECT their similar peers parents also in uence peer selection and culture or peer group peers more important than parents in learning cooperation popularity inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age CultureThe enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior Norms prescribe proper behavior Personal space The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies F7 39 39 anger J 39 39 I J in some cultures but forbidden in others Time urgency pace punctuality norms vary with culture Memes Selfreplicating ideas fashions and innovations passed from person to person Cultures vary Cultures change And cultures shape our lives Culture and Childrearing Individualistic cultures eg US vs collectivist cultures e g China selffocus vs otherfocus in uences childrearing behavior STILL variability within groups is greater than between groups Developmental processes are alike in many subgroups In surface ways we may differ but as members together of one species we seem subject to the same psychological forces As members of different ethnic and cultural groups our languages vary yet they re ect universal principles of grammar Our tastes vary yet they re ect common principles of hunger Our social behaviors vary but they re ect pervasive principles of human in uence V 7 THE NATURE OF GENDER X chromosome The sex chromosome found in both men and women Females have two X chromosomes males have one An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child Y chromosome The sex chromosome found only in males When paired with an X sex chromosome from the mother it produces a male child Testosterone The most important of the male sex hormones Both males and females have it but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus 7 weeks other critical developmental differences during the 4th and 5 prenatal months and much later the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty Female embryos exposed to higher concentrations of male hormones will later exhibit atypically masculine appearance and more aggressive behavior direct effect of biology Perhaps people also treat them more like boys indirect effect of biology VI 7 THE NURTURE OF GENDER Gender roles expectations about the appropriate behavior for women and men Evolution predisposes men to be tough and assertive and women to be nurturing and compliant But cultural variation But no society in which women dominate Gender identity One s sense of being male or female PROLOGUE SUMMARY Overview Psychology traces its roots back to early recorded history when scholars reflected on the relationship between mind and body Psychologists initial focus on the mind s structure was later replaced by the study of its functions As the science of behavior and mental processes psychology has its origins in many disciplines and countries The discipline is growing and globalizing Psychology s important issues include questions regarding stability versus change in personality human rationality versus irrationality and the relative contributions of biology and experience Although the different perspectives on human nature have their own purposes and questions they are complementary and together provide a fuller understanding of mind and behavior Some psychologists conduct basic or applied research others provide professional services including assessing and treating troubled people With its perspectives ranging from the biological to the social and settings from the clinic to the laboratory psychology has become a meeting place for many disciplines Mastering psychology requires active study A previewreadthinkreview study method boosts students learning and performance Psychology s Roots Views of prescientific thinkers regarding the origins of knowledge and how the mind and body relate In their attempt to understand human nature early scholars examined the origins of knowledge and how the mind and body relate Socrates and Plato argued that some ideas are innate Furthermore they viewed mind as separable from body and continuing after death In contrast Aristotle maintained that knowledge grows from our experience and like the ancient Hebrews believed that the mind and body are connected In the 1700s the Frenchman Rene Descrates agreed with Socrates and Plato regarding the existence of inborn knowledge and the mind s being entirely distinct from the body and thus able to survive its death British philosopher John Locke argued that at birth the mind is a blank slate on which experience writes This idea helped formed modern empiricism the view that knowledge originates in experience and thus that science should rely on observation and experimentation Eary psychoogists efforts to understand the structure and function of the mind Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig Germany He sought to measure the fastest and simplest mental processes His student Edward Titchener introduced structuralism which used introspection to search for the basic elements ofthe mind However selfreports proved somewhat unreliable varying from person to person and from situation to situation William James thought it more fruitful to study how consciousness serves a purpose Thus functionalism focused on how mental and behavioral processes enable the organism to adapt survive and flourish James developed a kindred philosophy of pragmatism which tested truth by its practical consequences He also wrote the first textbook for the new discipline of psychology The nature and scope of contemporary psychology Psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and biology lts pioneers included Russian physiologist lvan Pavlov Austrian personality theorist Sigmund Freud and Swiss biologist Jean Piaget Like its pioneers today s psychologists are citizens of many lands The discipline is growing and globalizing with 500000 people having been trained as psychologists Until the 1920s psychology was defined as the science of mental life From the 1920s through the 1960s American psychologists led by John Watson redefined psychology as the science of observable behavior In the 1960s psychology began to recapture its interest in mental processes and today we define psychology as the science of behavior and mental processes Contemgoram Psychology Psychology s concerns regarding stability and change rationality and irrationality and nature and nurture The issue of stability versus change addresses the question of whether our individual traits persist or whether we become different people as we age In short to what extent does our past reach into the future A second issue concerns human rationality and irrationality In some ways human capabilities outstrip the smartest computer At the same time we are prone to predictable error and bias The naturenurture debate concerns the relative contributions of biology and experience and is psychology s most persistent issue Darwin s concept of natural selection the organizing principle of biology has become inportant in psychology as well Today s psychologists recognize that both biological and social factors direct our life courses and that their effects intertwine Different perspectives for examining behavior and mental processes and explain their complementarity The neuroscience perspective studies how the body and brain workto create emotions memories and sensory experiences The evolutionary perspective considers how evolution influences behavior tendencies The behavior genetics perspective considers how evolution influences behavior tendencies The psychodynamic perspective views behavior as springing from unconscious drives and conflicts The behavioral perspective examines how observable responses are acquired and changed The cognitive perspective studies how we encode process store and retrieve information The socialcultural perspective examines how behavior and thinking vary with the situation and culture Each perspective has its own purposes questions and limits together these complementary viewpoints provide a fuller understanding of mind and behavior Basic and applied research subfields of psychology The mental health professions of clinical psychology and psychiatry Some psychologists conduct basic research For example biological psychologists explore the link between brain and behavior developmental psychologists study our changing abilities from womb to tomb and personality psychologists investigate our inner traits CHAPTER 12 SUMMARY MOTIVATION AND WORK Overview Motivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior The early view that instincts control behavior was replaced by drivereduction theory which maintains that physiological needs create psychological drives that seek to restore internal stability or homeostasis In addition some motivated behaviors increase arousal and we are pulled by external incentives According to Maslow some motives are more compelling than others Hunger seems to originate from changes in glucose and insulin levels that are monitored by the hypothalamus as well as changes in the levels of leptin orexin and PYY To maintain a set point weight the body also adjusts its basal metabolic rate Body chemistry and environmental factors together influence our taste preferences Psychological influences on eating behavior are most evident in those who are motivated to be abnormally thin Like hunger sexual motivation depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli In nonhuman animals hormones help stimulate sexual activity In humans they influence sexual behavior more loosely One s sexual orientation seems neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed new research links sexual orientation to biological factors The need to belong is a major influence in motivating human behavior Social bonds boosted our ancestors survival rates We experience our need to belong when feeling the gloom of loneliness orjoy of love and when seeking social acceptance Work meets several human needs The growing field of industrialorganizational psychology attempts to match people to work enhance employee satisfaction and productivity and explore strategies for effective workplace management People who excel are often selfdisciplined individuals with strong achievement motivation Effective leaders build on people s strengths work with them to set specific and challenging goals and adapt their leadership style to the situation Motivational Concepts De ning motivation Theories of motivated behavior A motivation is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it toward a goal Under Darwin s influence early theorists viewed behavior as being controlled by biological forces such as instincts When it became clear that people were naming not explaining various behaviors by calling them instincts this approach fell into disfavor The idea that genes predispose speciestypical behavior is still influential in evolutionary psychology Psychologists next turned to a drivereduction theory of motivation Most physiological needs create aroused psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs The aim of drive reduction is internal stability or homeostasis Furthermore we are not only pushed by internal drives but we are also pulled by external incentives Rather than reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension some motivated behaviors increase arousal Curiositydriven behaviors for example suggest that too little or too much stimulation can motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal Masow s hierarchy of motives Maslow s hierarchy of needs expresses the idea that until satisfied some motives are more compelling than others At the base ofthe hierarchy are our physiological needs such as for food water and shelter Only ifthese are met are we prompted to meet our need for safety and then to meet the uniquely human needs to give and receive love to belong and be accepted and to enjoy selfesteem Beyond this said Maslow lies the highest of human needs to actualize one s full potential Hunger Physiological determinants of hunger Although the stomachs pangs contribute to hunger variations in body chemistry are more important We are likely to feel hungry when our glucose levels are low which results from increases in the hormone insulin This information is integrated by the hypothalamus which regulates the body s weight as it influences our feelings of hunger and satiety Other hormones monitored by the hypothalamus include leptin secreted by fat cells ghrelin which is secreted by an empty stomach and PYY a digestive tract hormone Orexin is a hungertriggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus To maintain its set point weight the body also adjusts its basal metabolic rate of energy expenditure Psychological and cultural in uences on hunger Symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa Part of knowing when to eat is our memory of our last meal As time passes we anticipate eating again and feel hungry Although some taste preferences are genetic culture also affects taste For example most North Americans shun dog rat and horse meat all of which are prized elsewhere but welcome beef which Hindus wouldn t think of eating With repeated exposure our appreciation for a new taste typically increases and exposure to one set of novel foods increases willingness to try another Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a normalweight person usually an adolescent female diets to become significantly 15 percent or more underweight yet feels fat and is obsessed with losing weight Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by private bingepurge episodes of overeating usually of highcaloric foods followed by vomiting laxative use fasting or excessive exercise Sexual Motivation How researchers have assessed common sexual practices Researchers such as Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues have attempted to assess sexual practices through confidential interviews and surveys The findings of Kinsey and others have shown wide variations in normal sexual behavior around the world Surveys of randomly sampled US married adults find that 84 percent claim to have had sex only with their spouse during their present marriage Disapproval of extramarital sex runs as high as ever among adult Americans The human sexual response cycle The impact of hormones and psychological factors on sexual motivation and behavior The human sexual response cycle normally follows a pattern of excitement plateau orgasm and resolution followed in males by a refractory period during which renewed arousal and orgasm are not possible Sexual disorders are problems that consistently impair sexual functioning Premature ejaculation and female orgasmic disorder are being successfully treated by new methods that assume that people learn and can modify their sexual responses In nonhuman animals hormones including estrogen and testosterone help stimulate sexual activity In humans they influence sexual behaviors more loosely especially once sufficient hormone levels are present In later life as sex hormones decline the frequency of sexual fantasies and intercourse declines External stimuli such as sexually explicit materials can trigger arousal in both men and women Our imaginations also influence sexual motivation For example in nearly all men and some 40 percent of women dreams sometimes do contain sexual imagery that leads to orgasm Wideawake people become sexually aroused both by memories of prior sexual activities and by fantasies Factors contributing to increased rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease among today39s adolescents The increase in premarital sexual activity among American teenagers has led to an increase in the adolescent pregnancy rate Although contraceptives are a sure strategy for preventing pregnancy only onethird of sexually active male teens use condoms consistently Reasons for this failure include ignorance of the safe and risky times ofthe menstrual cycle Guilt related to sexual activity sometimes results in lack of planned birth control When passion overwhelms intentions the result may be conception Often there is minimal communication about birth control as many teenagers are uncomfortable discussing contraception with either parents or partners Sexually active teens also tend to use alcohol which can break down normal restraints Finally television and movies help define sexual norms which today are Go for it now Unprotected sex has also led to increased rates of sexually transmitted disease STD Teenage girls because oftheir less mature biological development and lower levels of protective antibodies seem especially vulnerable to STD Teens with high rather than average intelligence more often delay sex Religiosity and participation in service learning are also predictors of sexual restraint Research on the nature and dynamics of sexual orientation The role of values in sex research Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction toward members of either our own sex homosexual or the other sex heterosexual Studies in both Europe and the United States suggest that about 3 or 4 percent of men and 1 or 2 percent of women are exclusively homosexual Recent research suggests that the sex drive and sexual interests of adult women are more flexible and varying than those of men Although we are still unsure why one person becomes homosexual and another heterosexual it is beginning to look as though biological factors are involved Preliminary new evidence links sexual orientation with genetic influences prenatal hormones and certain brain structures Sex research and education are not valuefree Researchers values should be stated openly enabling us to debate them and to reflect on our own values Sex at its human best is lifeuniting and loverenewing The Need to Belong The adaptive nature of social attachments Healthy and unhealthy consequences of our need to belong Social bonds boosted our ancestors survival rate Adults who formed attachments were more likely to come together to reproduce and to stay together to nurture their offspring to maturity Cooperation in groups also enhanced survival When relationships form we often feel joy Most people mention before anything else close relationships as making life meaningful Even our selfesteem is a gauge of how valued and accepted we feel Out of our need to belong come loving families and faithful friendships but also teen gangs ethnic rivalries and fanatical nationalism Attachments can also keep people in abusive relationships as the fear of being alone may seem worse than the pain of emotional or physical abuse Motivation at Work The importance of various motives for working The aims of industrialorganizationa psychology Work helps satisfy several levels of need identified in Maslow s hierarchy Work supports us connects us to others and helps define us When work fully engages our skills we experience flow We are completely involved and have a diminished awareness of self and time Flow experiences boost our sense of selfesteem competence and wellbeing lndustrialorganizational psychology aims to apply psychology s principles to the workplace through its primary subfields of personnel psychology organizational psychology and human factors psychology Personnel psychology applies the disciplines methods and principles to selecting and evaluating workers Organizational psychology considers how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation satisfaction and productivity Human factors psychology discussed in Chapter 6 explores how machines and environments can be optimally designed to fit human abilities and expectations How personnel psychologists facilitate employee selection work placement and performance appraisal Personnel psychologists aim to identify people s strengths and match them with specific organizational tasks They use various tools to assess applicants and decide who is best suited to the job Unstructured interviews frequently foster illusory overconfidence in one s ability to predict employee success Structured interviews offer a disciplined method of collecting information They pinpoint jobrelevant strengths and enhance interview reliability and validity Performance appraisals include checklists graphic rating scales and behavior rating scales They help managers decide which employees to retain how to appropriately reward and pay people and how to better harness their strengths Job appraisals can also serve to affirm workers strengths and motivate needed improvements Achievement motivation The impact of employee satisfaction and engagement on organizational success Achievement motivation is the desire for significant accomplishment for mastering skills or ideals for control and for rapidly attaining a high standard Those who achieve the most are distinguished not so much by natural ability as by hard work and daily discipline Employee satisfaction contributes to successful organizations Engaged workers know what s expected of them feel fulfilled in their work and perceive that they are part of somethin significant Worker satisfaction and engagement are associated with lower absenteeism higher productivity and greater profits CHAPTER 16 SUMMARY PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Overview Mental health workers label behavior psychologically disordered when it is atypical disturbing maladaptive and unjustifiable The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMIV provides an authoritative classification scheme Although diagnostic labels may facilitate communication and research they can also bias our perception of people s past and present behavior and unfairly stigmatize these individuals Those who suffer an anxiety disorder may for no reason feel uncontrollably tense generalized anxiety disorder may have a persistent irrational fear phobia or may be troubled by repetitive thoughts and actions obsessivecompulsive disorder Mood disorders include major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder Current research on depression is exploring 1 genetic and biochemical influences and 2 cyclic selfdefeating beliefs learned helplessness negative attributions and aversive experiences Under extreme stress conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories thoughts and feelings Those afflicted with a dissociative disorder may even have two or more distinct personalities The symptoms of schizophrenia include disorganized thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions Researchers have linked certain forms of schizophrenia to brain abnormalities Studies also point to a genetic predisposition that may work in conjunction with environmental factors Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning The most common is the remorseless and fearless antisocial personality Survey results indicate that 1 in 6 US and British adults suffers clinically significant mental disorders Most show the first symptoms by early adulthood n u n II 1 0n 1 39 Disorders Criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered There is a fine and somewhat arbitrary line between normality and abnormality A psychological disorder is a harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged atypical disturbing maladaptive and unjustifiable The medical model of psychological disorders the biopsychosocia perspective offered by critics of this model The medical model assumes that psychological disorders are mental illnesses that need to be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy Critics argue that psychological disorders may not reflect a deep internal problem but instead a growthblocking difficulty in the person s environment in the person s current interpretation of events or in the person s bad habits and poor social skills Psychologists who reject the sickness idea typically contend that all behavior arises from the interaction of nature genetic and physiological factors and nurture past and present experiences The biopsychosocial perspective assumes that disorders are influenced by genetic factors physiological states inner psychological dynamics and social circumstances The aims of DSM l V and potential dangers associated with the use of diagnostic labels The American Psychiatric Association s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition nicknamed DSM IV is the current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders Updated in 2000 and referred to as the text revision it assumes the medical model and defines 17 major categories of mental disorder DSMIV describes disorders and their prevalence without presuming to explain their causes lt mentions neurotic disorders psychological disorders that although distressing still allow one to think rationally and function socially Because the term is vague psychologists use it minimally usually as a contrast to psychotic disorders which are marked by irrationality Many psychiatrists and psychologists believe that a system for naming and describing psychological disorders facilitates treatment and research Diagnostic labels facilitate mental health professionals communications and research However critics point out that labels also create preconceptions that bias our perceptions of people s past and present behavior and unfairly stigmatize these individuals Labels can also serve as selffulfilling prophecies Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder phobias and obsessivecompulsive disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder in which the anxiety may at times suddenly escalate into a terrifying panic attack a minuteslong episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensations A phobia is an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent irrational fear of a specific object activity or situation An obsessivecompulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts obsessions andor actions compulsions The development of anxiety disorders from both a learning and a biological perspective The learning perspective views anxiety disorders as a product of fear conditioning stimulus generalization reinforcement and observational learning The biological perspective emphasizes evolutionary genetic and physiological influences Mood Disorders Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder In major depressive disorder a person without apparent reason descends for weeks or months into deep unhappiness lethargy and feelings of worthlessness before rebounding to normality Poor appetite insomnia and loss of interest in family friends and activities are often other important symptoms A less severe form of depression is dysthymic disorder Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and overexcited manic episodes euphoric hyperactive wildly optimistic states The development of mood disorders biological and socialcognitive perspectives The biological perspective emphasizes the importance of genetic and biochemical influences Mood disorders run in families and a search for genes that put people at risk is now under way Certain neurotransmitters including norepinephrine and serotonin seem to be scarce in depression Finally the brains of depressed people have been found to be less active The socialcognitive perspective sees depression as a vicious cycle in which 1 negative stressful events are interpreted though 2 a ruminating pessimistic explanatory style creating 3 a hopeless depressed state that 4 hampers the way a person thinks and acts This in turn fuels 1 more negative experiences Recent research reveals how selfdefeating beliefs feed the vicious cycle These beliefs may arise from learned helplessness Thinking Criticallv Tquot 39 quot and Multiple I quotquot Characteristics and possible causes of dissociative identity disorder In dissociative disorder the person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity Dissociative identity disorder is a rare disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities with the original personality typically unaware ofthe others Psychoanalysts see these dissociative disorders as defenses against the anxiety caused by the eruption of unacceptable impulses Learning theorists see them as behaviors reinforced by anxiety reduction Still others view dissociative disorders as posttraumatic disorders a natural protective response to traumatic childhood experiences Some research suggests that those diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder have suffered physical sexual or emotional abuse as children Skeptics say the condition is either contrived by fantasyprone emotionally variable people or constructed out of the therapistpatient interaction Schizophrenia Symptoms and types of schizophrenia Causes Schizophrenia is a group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by disorganized and deluded thinking including delusions disturbed perceptions hallucinations and inappropriate emotions and actions Schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms are disorganized and deluded in their talk or prone to inappropriate laughter tears or rage Those with negative symptoms have toneless voices expressionless faces or mute and rigid bodies Chronic or process schizophrenia develops gradually emerging from a long history of social inadequacy Acute or reactive schizophrenia develops rapidly in response to particular life stresses Researchers have linked certain forms of schizophrenia with brain abnormalities such as increased receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine abnormally low brain activity in the frontal lobes or enlarged fluidfilled areas and a corresponding shrinkage of cerebral tissue A possible cause of these brain abnormalities in the fetus is a midpregnancy viral infection Twin and adoption studies also point to a genetic predisposition that in conjunction with environmental factors may bring about schizophrenia Personality Disorders The nature of personality disorders Characteristics of the antisocial personality disorder CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION AND WORK Motivation A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior I 7 MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPTS Instincts and Evolutionary Psvchologv Instinct A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned Instinct theories of motivation are not wellsuited for understanding human behavior 7 learned motives are important Drive reduction theory The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state a drive that motivates an organism to satisfy the need behave Homeostasis A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry such as blood glucose around a particular level Ultimate goal of drivereduction Incentive A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Pushed by need to reduce drives and pulled by incentives Optimal arousal preferred state of arousal that motivates behavior to achieve it Needs Hierarchy Maslow s pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satis ed before higherlevel safety needs and then psychological needs become active belonging selfesteem selfactualization Imprecise and untested model II 7 HUNGER Stomach contractions Associated with hunger but feel hungry and eat wo them Blood chemist Glucose The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues low levels signal hypothalamus hunger H ypothalamus Lateral 7 hunger Ventro medial 7 satiety monitors Leptin 7 fat cells stop eating PYY digestive tract fullness hormone Ghrelin stomach and Orexin hypothalamus hunger hormones Set point The point at which an individual s weight thermostat is supposedly set below set point 7 hunger lowered metabolic rate eating above set point stop eating increase energy expenditure Basal metabolic rate The body s resting rate of energy expenditure adjusted along with appetite to maintain or return to set point The Psychology of Hunger Taste preferences Sweet and salty 7 genetic and universal adaptive spices in hot climates and for meat dishes neophobia aversion for novel foods Carbohydrates increase serotonin levels 7 calming effect Eating disorders Biological social psychological cultural explanation Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder in which a normalweight person usually an adolescent female diets and becomes signi cantly 15 percent or more underweight yet still feeling fat continues to starve Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating usually of highcalorie foods followed by vomiting laxative use fasting or excessive exercise III 7 SEX Early research Kinsey 1940s 7 biased sample and methods fidelity is the rule Sexual Response Cycle Masters and Johnson excitement plateau orgasm and resolution refractory period Sexual disorders A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning premature ejaculation and erectile disorder males orgasmic disorder females Sex Hormones Estrogen females higher levels than males in nonhuman female mammals estrogen levels peak during ovulation promoting sexual receptivity humans 7 female sexual desire is only slightly higher at ovulation than at other times Testosterone in uences female sexual responsiveness less in uence on males beyond baseline level cause and effect of sexual stimulation normal uctuations in testosterone have little effect on sex drive greater uctuations over the life span than within individuals Hormones in uence sexual response via the hypothalamus The Psychology of Sex External stimuli Both sexes show arousal to erotic stimuli but men show greater arousal Viewing erotica may decrease satisfaction with reallife partners and sex Imagined stimuli 95 fantasize but men more often more physically and less romantically Culture Differences in sexual attitude and behavior generation differences Unwed motherhood has quintupled in the US since 1960 more acceptable US adolescents have lower rates of sex but also lower rates of contraceptive use than European counterparts accounting for higher birthrates and STD sexually transmitted diseases Intelligence religiousity community service predict premarital sex Sexual Orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one s own sex homosexual orientation or the other sex heterosexual orientation Homosexuals Higher depression and suicide rates no other psychological differences Causes Psychological No known psychological cause Homosexuals more likely to be city dwellers among the eminent have older brothers may be a build up of maternal antibodies that in uence fetal brain development Brain Anatomical differences hypothalamus but causeeffect questions Genes ID twins more likely to share sexual orientation than less genetically similar sibs Prenatal hormones Abnormal levels and brain development having older brothers may reduce and contribute to gay male brain Brain differences and genetic and prenatal in uences may contribute to observed gaystraight differences in spatial abilities relative finger lengths fingerprint ridge counts gender nonconformity auditory system age of male puberty handedness male body size occupational preferences Attitudes have become more accepting and more so with belief in bio cause Value connotations of sex Ed programs may imply accepting attitudes IV 7 THE NEED TO BELONG Aids survival needwant to belong behave to increase social acceptance behave to maintain 39 quot quot quot and 39 are aversive V 7 MOTIVATION AT WORK Work Major life activity unemployment is source of major dissatisfaction with life agricultural industrial knowledgeinformation Flow A completely involved focused state of 39 with J39 of self and time resulting from optimal engagement of one s skills Industrialu 39 IO psvchologv The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces Personnel psychology A subfield of IO psychology that focuses on employee recruitment selection placement training appraisal and development Strength based selection systems aptitude personality interests Informal Interview 15 seconds for strangers to predict the interviewers ratings of traits related to likeability selfassuredness and competence informal interviews are less informative only modestly predictive than aptitude tests work samples job knowledge tests and past job performance Interviewer illusion Interviewers overrating of their discernment due to a Interviews disclose the interviewee s good intentions which are less revealing than habitual behaviors b Interviewers more o en follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected and lost track of c Interviewers presume that people are what they seem to be in the interview situation d Interviewers preconceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewees responses Structured interviews interview process that asks the same jobrelevant questions of all applicants each of whom is rated on established scales Twice the predictive utility as informal interview Appraising performance Organizational purposes To decide who to retain how to appropriately reward and pay people and how to better harness their strengths sometimes with job shifts or promotions Individual purposes To provide feedback on worker strengths and motivate needed improvements Performance appraisal methods include checklists supervisors simply check behaviors that describe the worker graphic rating scales supervisor checks the extent to which a worker is dependable productive and so forth and behavior rating scales supervisor checks behaviors that best describe a worker s performance 360 degree feedback 7 supervisor ratings peer ratings self ratings rate your supervisor and clients rate both Halo evaluations ratings in one area affect ratings in another Leniency anal severity errors tendency toward extremes Recency errors overly in uenced by recent events Multiple raters and objective performance measures are best Organizational psychology A subfield of IO psychology that examines organizational in uences on worker quot f quot and I J quot quoty and facilitates organizational change Achievement motivation A desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things people or ideas for attaining a high standard persistence and eagerness for realistic challenges disciplined Satisfaction Positive moods at work do contribute to creativity persistence and helpfulness correlation between job satisfaction and performance lower lateness absenteeism and turnover business units with engaged employees have more loyal customers less turnover higher productivity and greater profits Management To enhance satisfaction engagement and productivity and their organization s success harness jobrelevant strengths set goals and choose an appropriate leadership style 1 identify employees existing talents 2 match talents to jobs 3 care about employees 4 recognize and reward accomplishments Set specific anal challenging goals plus progress reports employee participation in and commitment to goals Choosing the best leadership style Task leadership goaloriented leadership that sets standards organizes work and focuses attention on goals Social leadership grouporiented leadership that builds teamwork mediates con ict and offers support CHAPTER 10 SUMMARY THINKING AND LANGUAGE Overview Concepts the building blocks ofthinking simplify the world by organizing it into a hierarchy of categories Concepts are often formed around prototypes or the best examples of a category When faced with a novel situation for which no welllearned response will do we may use problemsolving strategies such as trial and error algorithms heuristics and insight Obstacles to successful problem solving include the confirmation bias mental set and functional fixedness Heuristics provide efficient but occasionally misleading guides for making quick decisions Overconfidence framing belief bias and belief perseverance further reveal our capacity for error Still human cognition is remarkably efficient and adaptive With experience we grow adept at making quick shrewd judgments Studies of artificial intelligence reveal the strengths of the human mind Although the computer shines on certain memory tasks and in making decisions using specified rules it is dwarfed by the brain s wide range of abilities and capacity for processing unrelated information simultaneously although computer systems have been designed to mimic the brain s interconnected neural units Language facilitates and expresses our thoughts Spoken language is built of phonemes morphemes words and the semantics and syntax that make up grammar The ease with which children master language has sparked a lively debate over whether children acquire language through association and imitation or are biologically prepared to learn words and use grammar Thinking and language are difficult to separate Although the linguistic determinism hypothesis states that language determines thought we know that thinking can occurwithout language and so we might better say that thinking affects our language which then affects our thoughts Another debate concerns whether language is uniquely human it has been fueled by studies of animals particularly chimpanzees who have developed considerable vocabularies and who can string words together to express meaning Although apes have considerable cognitive ability skeptics point out important differences between apes and humans abilities to order words using proper syntax Thinking The nature of concepts and the role of prototypes in concept formation Cognitive psychologists study cognition which is the mental activity associated with processing understanding and communicating knowledge To think about the countless events objects and people in our world we organize them into mental groupings called concepts To simplify things further we organize concepts into hierarchies Although we form some concepts by definition more often we form them by developing prototypes a mental image or best example of a particular category The more closely objects match our prototype of a concept the more readily we recognize them as examples of a concept Trial and error algorithms heuristics and insight as ways to solve problems We approach some problems through trial and error attempting various solutions until stumbling upon one that works For other problems we may follow a methodical rule or stepbystep procedure called an algorithm Because algorithms can be laborious we often rely instead on simple strategies called heuristics Speedier than algorithms heuristics are also more error prone Sometimes however we are unaware of using any problemsolving strategy the answer just comes to us as an insight How the con rmation bias and xation can interfere with effective problem solving A major obstacle to problem solving is our eagerness to search for information that confirms our ideas a phenomenon known as confirmation bias This can mean that once people form a wrong idea they will not budge from their illogic Another obstacle to problem solving is fixation the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective The tendency to repeat solutions that have worked in the past is a type of fixation called mental set It may interfere with our taking a fresh approach when faced with problems that demand an entirely new solution Our tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging is called functional fixedness Perceiving and relating familiar things in new ways is an important aspect of creative problem solving How the representativeness and availability heuristics in uence judgments The representativeness heuristic involvesjudging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent particular prototypes If something matches our mental representation of a category that fact usually overrides other considerations of statistics or logic The availability heuristic operates when we base ourjudgments on the availability of information in our memories lf instances of an event come to mind readily we presume such events are common Although both heuristics enable us to make snapjudgments they can also lead us to ignore other relevant information and thus to err The effects that overcon dence and framing on judgments and decisions Overconfidence the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments can have adaptive value People who err on the side of overconfidence live more happily and find it easier to make tough decisions At the same time failing to appreciate one s potential for error when making military economic or political judgments can have devastating consequences The same issue presented in two different but logically equivalent ways can elicit quite different answers This framing effect suggests that ourjudgments and decisions may not be well reasoned and that those who understand the power of framing can use it to influence important decisions for example by wording survey questions to support or reject a particular viewpoint How beliefs distort logical reasoning The belief perseverance phenomenon We show a belief bias in our reasoning accepting as more logical those conclusions that agree with our beliefs Similarly we more easily see the illogic of conclusions that run counter to our beliefs We also exhibit belief perseverance clinging to our ideas in the face of contrary evidence because the explanation we accepted as valid lingers in our minds Once beliefs are formed and justified it takes more compelling evidence to change them than it did to create them Arti cial intelligence The human mind versus the computer as information processors Artificial intelligence Al is the science of designing computer systems to perform operations that mimic human thinking and do intelligent things The most notable Al successes focus computer capacities for memory and precise logic on specific tasks such as playing chess and diagnosing illnesses In those areas where humans seem to have most difficulty manipulating huge amounts of numerical data retrieving detailed information from memory making decisions using specified rules the computer shines But even the most sophisticated computers are dwarfed by the most ordinary of human mental abilities recognizing a face distinguishing a cat from a dog exercising common sense For now the brain s capacity for processing unrelated information simultaneously and the wide range of its abilities outstrip those of the computer But hopes grow that a new generation of computer neural networks computer systems designed to mimic the brain s interconnected neural networks will produce more humanlike capabilities An exciting feature of artificial neural networks is their capacity to learn from experience as some interconnections strengthen and others weaken Language The structure of language in terms of sounds meanings and grammar Spoken language is built of basic speech sounds called phonemes elementary units of meaning called morphemes and words Finally language must have a grammar a system of rules that enables us to communicate with others Semantics refers to the rules we use to derive meaning from the morphemes and syntax refers to the rules we use to order words into sentences Language acquisition From the babbling stage through the twoword stage Children s language development mirrors language structure by moving from simplicity to complexity Beginning at 4 months infants enter a babbling stage in which they spontaneously utter various sounds at first unrelated to the household language By about age 10 months a trained ear can identify the language ofthe household by listening to an infant s babbling Around the first birthday most children enter the oneword stage and by their second birthday they are uttering twoword sentences This twoword stage exemplifies telegraphic speech This soon leads to their uttering longer phrases there seems to be no threeword stage and by early elementary school they understand complex sentences The naturenurture debate as it illustrates the various theories of language development The debate between the behaviorist view of the malleable organism and the view that each organism comes biologically prepared to learn certain associations surfaces again in theories of language development Behaviorist B F Skinner argued that we learn language by the familiar principles of association imitation and reinforcement Challenging this claim Noam Chomsky notes that children are biologically prepared to learn words and use grammar Cognitive neuroscientists suggest that the learning that occurs during life s first few years is critical for the mastery of grammar Nonetheless Chomsky s view that our brain constrains how we learn language and that it may come prewired to look for grammatical rules seems to survive recent challenges Thinking and Language Whorf s linguistic determinism hypothesis and the relationship between thought and language Language expresses our thoughts and different languages can embody different ways of thinking Although Whorf s linguistic determinism hypothesis suggests that language determines thought CHAPTER 18 7 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Social psychology The scienti c study of how we think about in uence and relate to one another I 7 Social Thinking Attributing Behavior Persons and Situations Attribution theory A theory about how we make causal explanations for someone s behavior either to the situation or the person s disposition Fundamental attribution error The tendency for observers when analyzing another s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition In uences how we react to that person in uences attitudes Attitudes and Actions Attitude A belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects people and events Attitudes in uence behavior when external in uences are minimal and we are aware of the attitude and its relevance to our behavior Behavior in uences attitudes Foot in the door phenomenon The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Role playing affects attitudes about self Zimbardo Prison Study Why behavior in uences attitudes Cognitive Dissonance Theory The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when two or more of our thoughts cognitions are inconsistent II 7 SOCIAL INFLUENCE Conformity and Obedience Conformity Adjusting one s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Ash s experiments Conformity increases when 1 one feels incompetent or insecure 2 the group has at least three people 3 the group is unanimous 4 one admires the group s status and attractiveness 5 one has made no prior commitment to any response 6 others in the group observe one s behavior 7 one s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards Why people conform Normative social in uence In uence resulting from a person s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval Informational social in uence In uence resulting from one s willingness to accept others opinions about reality Obedience Milgram s experiments 23 obeyed Obedience highest when l authority was close and legitimate 2 authority supported by a prestigious institution 3 victim is depersonalized or distance even in another room 4 no role models for de ance Group In uence Social Facilitation Improved task performance in the presence of others occurs with simple or wellleamed tasks but not with difficult not mastered tasks Attributed to increased arousal which increases likelihood of dominant response Social loafing Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward a common goal than when working alone Attributed to feelings of accountability and importance of one s contribution Deinalivialuation The loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Group Polarization Effect The enhancement of a group s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group Groupthink The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Attributed to overconfidence conformity selfjustification group polarization assumed consensus strong leadership dehumanizing the enemy Social control the power of the situation and personal control the power of the individual interact Minority in uence The power of one or two individuals to sway majorities a minority that unswervingly holds to its position is far more successful in swaying the majority than is a minority that wa les III 7 SOCIAL RELATIONS Prejudice An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members Prejudice generally involves stereotypes generalized beliefs about a group negative feelings and a predisposition to discriminatory action Schemas that in uence how we notice and interpret events Prejudicial responses race and gender have dropped dramatically since the 70s Subtle implicit prejudice lingers e g reaction times implicit associations in the US e g stopped for tra ic violations and blatant prejudice exists worldwide Causes of Prejudice l Justifies social inequalities blame the victim selffulfilling prophecy 2 Ingroup bias social identity vs Outgroup homogeneity 3 Scapegoating outlet for anger someone to blame boosts selfesteem 4 Categorization 7 stereotypes 7 biased perceptions eg homogeneity 5 Vivid cases 7 availability heuristic 7 overgeneralizations 6 Just world phenomenon The tendency to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get 7 Hindsight bias 7 they deserve bad outcomes eg rape victims makes one feel safer 7 It won t happen to me Aggression Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy whether done reactively out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end Biology of aggression Genes SeX differences twin studies animal breeding for aggression Neural in uences Electrical stimulation amygdala brain damage frontal lobes 7 impulse control no single aggression center Biochemical in uences Hormones alcohol other blood substances Violent criminals tend to be muscular young males with lowerthan average intelligence scores low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin and higherthanaverage testosterone levels Drugs that decrease testosterone decrease aggression High testosterone irritability low tolerance for frustration assertiveness and 39 I 39 39 r J39 r 39 re pun e to provocation Testosterone and aggression decrease with age 2way street 7 dominant and aggressive behavior increase testosterone Alcohol facilitates aggression especially if predisposed to aggress Psychology of aggression Aversive events Unpleasant events suffering may provoke aggression F rustratiori aggressiori principle Frustration an aversive stimulus de ned as the blocking of efforts to achieve some goal may lead to anger which in turn may lead to aggression Other aversive stimuli Physical pain personal insults foul odors hot temperatures cigarette smoke can also evoke hostility Learning to express or inhibit hostility rewarded or not observed or not Cultural in uences 7 ScotchIrish in SW US 7 triple the homicide rate greater disparity between rich and poor more crime father absence and crime rates for all incomes races regions in US Parental modeling and reinforcement early on are important Media TV violence desensitizes to violence and primes aggression if provoked Sexual aggression is greater today than in the past Media in uence Alcohol is linked to aggression but has use has not increased Impersonal approach to sex hostile masculinity 7 sexual coercion TV and porn theme promote the Rape Myth that women invite or enjoy rape get swept away while being taken Sex offenders view more pornography Lab studies Violent porn increases punitive behavior toward women Repeatedly watching Xrated films even if nonviolent makes one s own partner seem less attractive makes a woman s friendliness seem more sexual and makes sexual aggression seem less serious Media provides social scripts Video games More active aggression than TVMovies Lab studies support a relationship between playing and aggression As for TV violence no support for the catharsis hypothesis playing blows off steam and reduces subsequent aggression Con ict A perceived incompatibility of actions goals or ideas Social trap A situation in which the con icting parties by each rationally pursuing their selfinterest become caught in mutually destructive behavior Individual interests versus communal wellbeing Reconciling right to pursue personal wellbeing with responsibility for the well being of all Convince people to cooperate for their mutual bettermentithrough agreedupon regulations better communication promoting awareness of responsibilities toward community nation and the whole of humanity Enemy perceptions Each views the other negatively 7mirrorimage perceptions Selfserving bias fundamental attribution error stereotypes group think self fulfilling prophecy Attraction Proximity Geographic neamessimost powerful predictor of friendship Availability Mere exposure effect Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them hardwired bond with familiar wary of the unfamiliar Physical attractiveness Wideranging effects whatisbeautifulisgood Own attractiveness unrelated to selfesteem 7 don t compare ourselves with the superattractive attractive may discount praise as due to their attractiveness and not their worth Young and healthy looking average size average face 7 symmetric Similarity We prefer similar others Romantic attraction Two factor theory 1 emotions have two ingredientsiphysical arousal plus cognitive appraisal 2 arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another depending on how we interpret and label the arousal Passionate love An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning of a love relationship Companionate love The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Equity A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it Self disclosure Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander Intervention Decision Tree Notice Interpret Feel responsible Diffusion of Responsibility More others present less help CHAPTER 14 SUMMARY STRESS AND HEALTH Overview Health psychology provides psychology s contribution to behavioral medicine Among its concerns are the effects of stress and how to control stress how our emotions and personality influence our risk of disease and the promotion of healthier living Walter Cannon viewed our response to stress as a fight or flight system Hans Selye saw it as a threestage general adaptation syndrome Modern research assesses the health consequences of various life experiences Events are particularly stressful when perceived as both negative and uncontrollable Coronary heart disease has been linked with the angerprone Type A personality Stress also makes a person more vulnerable to infections and malignancy Stress management programs include training in aerobic exercise biofeedback and relaxation Although biofeedback can sometimes help people control tension headaches and high blood pressure simple relaxation exercises offer some of the same benefits Social support also buffers the impact of stress Researchers seek to identify intervening variables that may link spirituality and health In attempting to reduce cigarette smoking psychologists have studied the social influences that motivate adolescents to start smoking and the reinforcers that maintain the habit Other researchers are exploring how foods affect mood and behavior In studying obesity psychologists have found that a number of physiological factors make it difficult to lose weight permanently Those who wish to diet should minimize exposure to food cues boost energy expenditure through exercise make a lifelong change in eating patterns and set realistic goals The major concerns of health psychology Behavioral medicine is an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease lts goals are to understand and modify behavioral sources of illness and thereby lessen people s suffering and increase their life expectancy and quality of life Health psychologists are concerned with how our emotions and personality influence our risk of disease the effects of stress and the promotion of healthier living Stress and Illness The fightor ight response to stress physical characteristics and phases of the general adaptation syndrome Walter Cannon observed that in response to stress the sympathetic nervous system activates the secretion of stress hormones triggers increased heart rate and respiration diverts blood to skeletal muscles and releases sugar and fat from the body s stores all to prepare the body for either fight or flight ln Hans Selye s general adaptation syndrome GAS the body s adaptive response to stress is composed ofthree stages In Phase 1 we experience an alarm reaction due to the sudden activation of our sympathetic nervous system Heart rate increases and blood is diverted to the skeletal muscles With our resources mobilized we then fight the challenge during Phase 2 resistance Temperature blood pressure and respiration remain high and there is a sudden outpouring of stress hormones lfthe stress is persistent it may eventually deplete our body s reserves during Phase 3 exhaustion With exhaustion we are more vulnerable to illness or even in extreme cases collapse and death Health consequences of catastrophes signi cant life changes and daily hassles Catastrophic floods hurricanes and fires are followed by increased rates of psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety Those who experience significant life changes such as the death of a spouse divorce or loss of a job are vulnerable to disease Experiencing a cluster of such crises puts one even more at risk Daily hassles such as rushhour traffic long lines at the bank or store and aggravating housemates may be the most significant source of stress Over time these little stressors take a toll on our health and wellbeing The effects of a perceived lack of control and a pessimistic outlook on health Catastrophes important life changes and daily hassles are especially stressful when we appraise them as negative and uncontrollable Rats that experience uncontrollable shock are more susceptible to ulcers and experience a lowered immunity to disease Both animal and human studies show that loss of control provokes an outpouring of stress hormones that can contribute to health problems Control may help explain the wellestablished link between economic status and longevity Pessimism also influences stress vulnerability Optimists report less fatigue have fewer aches and pains and respond to stress with smaller increases in blood pressure Optimists tend to outlive pessimists Stress as a cause of coronary heart disease Type A and Type B personalities Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death It has been linked with the competitive harddriving and impatient Type A personality The toxic core of Type A is negative emotions especially the anger associated with an aggressively reactive temperament Under stress the body of the Type A person secretes more of the hormones that accelerate the buildup of plaques on the heart s artery walls The noncompetitive relaxed easygoing Type B personality is less physiologically reactive when harassed or given a difficult challenge and less susceptible to coronary heart disease Also at risk for heart disease is the Type D distress personality marked by negative emotions and social inhibition How stress increases the risk of disease by inhibiting the activities of the body s immune system Psychophysiological illnesses are caused by stress The secretion of stress hormones suppresses the immune systems lymphocytes white blood cells that are important in fighting bacterial infections B lymphocytes and cancer cells viruses and foreign substances T lymphocytes Thus when animals are physically restrained given unavoidable electric shocks or subjected to noise crowding cold water social defeat or maternal separation they become more susceptible to disease Studies suggest that stress similarly depresses the human immune system making us more vulnerable to illness Stress and negative emotions correlate with a progression of HIV infection to AIDS and with the speed of decline in those infected Although some researchers report no link between stress and cancer others have shown that people are at risk for cancer a year or so after experiencing depression helplessness or bereavement A large Swedish study found that people with a history of workplace stress had greater risk of colon cancer than those who reported no such problems The impact of learning on immune system functioning Experiments show that conditioning can influence the immune systems responses For example after researchers associated sweetened water with a drug that causes immune suppression the inert substance alone triggered the immune response Such conditioned immune suppression can triple an animal s likelihood of growing a tumor when fed a carcinogen Current research seeks to determine whether it is also possible to condition the immune systems enhancement Promoting Health Strategies for coping with stress reasons for skepticism about the value of alternative medicine Studies suggest that aerobic exercise can reduce stress depression and anxiety Although the degree of mind control over the body that can be gained through biofeedback has fallen short of early expectations it sometimes helps people control tension headaches and high blood pressure Simple relaxation exercises offer some ofthe same benefits Counseling Type A heart attack victims to slow down and relax has helped them lower their rate of recurring attacks Social support also helps people cope partly by buffering the impact of stress Researchers are now trying to understand the active components of the religionhealth connection One factor may be that religiously active people have healthier lifestyles Two others are that religion is a communal experience encouraging social support and it encourages another predictor of health marriage Complementary and alternative medicine practices are bound to seem effective whether or not they are People are likely to employ them when they are ill and although they may seem to produce improvement the return to health may merely reflect the body s natural regression to normal Alternative medicine may seem especially effective with cyclical diseases as people seek therapy during the ensuing upturn The placebo effect as well as the spontaneous remission of many diseases may also contribute to a treatment s perceived effectiveness The actual effectiveness of alternative medicine needs to be established Why people smoke How to prevent and reduce this health hazard Selfconscious adolescents may begin smoking to imitate cool models to receive the social reward of being accepted by them and to project a mature image The smoking habit is hard to break because the craving and irritability that accompany nicotine withdrawal are aversive states that a cigarette relieves Nicotine also boosts alertness and stimulates the central nervous system to release neurotransmitters that calm anxiety and reduce pain sensitivity Efforts to help people stop smoking are often effective only in the short run Strategies designed to prevent smoking particularly those that inoculate adolescents against peer pressure have been more effective Key ingredients in these programs are information about the effects of smoking information about peer parent and media influences and training in refusal skills through modeling and role playing Another way to discourage smoking is to make it more immediately costly Raising taxes cuts consumption especially among teenagers The relationship between nutrition and physical wellbeing obesity and weight control Researchers are now exploring how certain foods by providing the building blocks for specific neurotransmitters affect mood and behavior For example carbohydraterich foods may make us feel relaxed sleepy and less sensitive to pain On the other hand a highprotein meal improves concentration and alertness Hypertensive people tend to have higherthannormal salt intake and lowerthannormal calcium intake
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