Introductory Psychology PSY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Newton Cormier on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by Lori Jackson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/207560/psy-101-michigan-state-university in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHAPTER 10 7 THINKING AND LANGUAGE Cognition The mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating Concept A mental grouping of similar objects events ideas or people Prototype A mental image or best example of a category Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird such as a robin I 7 SOLVING PROBLEMS Algorithm A methodical logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem Contrasts with the usually speedier7but also more errorprone7use of heuristics Heuristic A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently usually speedier but also more errorprone than algorithms Insight A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem it contrasts with strategybased solutions II 7 OBSTACLES TO SOLVING PROBLEMS Con rmation bias A tendency to search for information that confirms one s preconceptions Fixation The inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective Mental set A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem like Perceptual set 7 predisposes what we perceive Functional fixedness A tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging III 7 MAKING DECISIONS AND FORMING JUDGEMENTS Using and Misusing Heuristics Representativeness heuristic Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes may lead one to ignore other relevant information Availability heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory if instances come readily to mind perhaps because of their vividness we presume such events are common Overcorifialerice The tendency to be more con dent than correct7to overestimate the accuracy of one s beliefs and judgments Framing The way an issue is posed how an issue is framed can signi cantly affect decisions and judgments Belief bias The tendency for one s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid Belief perseverance Clinging to one s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited IV 7 SIMULATED THINKING AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Arti cial intelligence AI The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes such as intuitive reasoning learning and understanding language eg robots expert systems voice recognition software Versus Human Intelligence 7 slower but parallel processing BUT Computer neural networks Computer circuits that mimic the brain s interconnected neural cells performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells parallel processing and can learn from experience V 7 LANGUAGE 6000 our spoken written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning Language Structure Phoneme In a spoken language the smallest distinctive sound unit changes in phonemes produce changes in meaning Consonants phonemes more informative than vowel phonemes Sign language also has phonemelike building blocks de ned by hand shapes and movements Like speakers native signers of one of the 200 sign languages may have dif culty with the phonemes of another M orpheme In a language the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word such as a pre x Grammar In a language a system of rules semantics and syntax that enables us to communicate with and understand others Semantics is the set of rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes words and even sentences e g add eal to make past tense also the study of meaning Syntax refers to the rules we use to order words into sentences Language becomes more complex as you move from phoneme to morpheme to word to sentence commonest words are shortest Language Development High school grad knows about 80000 words 5000 wordsyear after 1 l3 wordsday Babbling stage 3 to 4 months spontaneously utters sounds at first unrelated to the household language many are consonantvowel pairs by 10 months phonemes of other languages begin to disappear by 12 months lose ability to discriminate phonemes from other languages One word stage age 1 to 2 speaks mostly in single words that communicate meaning Two wordpstage age 2 telegraphic speech evidence of grammar Rapid language acquisition after 2 years By kindergarten understands complex sentences and double meanings Explaining Language Development Skinner Operant Conditioning Language acquisition no different than acquisition of any other behavior Principles of reinforcement Chomsky Inborn Universal Grammar Operant conditioning cannot explain language acquisition 7 amount and complexity many of the errors young children make result from overgeneralizing logical grammatical rules e g adding eal to make the past tense all languages have the same grammatical building blocks e g nouns sign language also has grammar Language Acquisition Device LAD inborn grammatical rules activated by exposure to language heritability of language supports Chomsky new language learning get harder with age after 7 Cognitive Neuroscientists Statistical Learning With experience and wo inborn linguistic rules computational models inspired by neural networks can learn grammatical rules e g how to form pasttense verbs can learn languages statistical structure gradual changes in networks connections based on experience VI 7 THINKING AND LANGUAGE
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