Introductory Psychology PSY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Newton Cormier on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by Lori Jackson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/207560/psy-101-michigan-state-university in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHAPTER 11 7 INTELLIGENCE I 7 THE ORIGINS OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING Binet Simon Predicting School Achievement Goal was to develop an objective test to identify children who would have difficulties in school Assumed that all children follow the same course of intellectual development but differ in terms of rate of development Mental age A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance Thus a child who does as well as the average 8yearold is said to have a mental age of 8 Terman Stanford Binet The widely used American revision by Terman at Stanford University of Binet s original intelligence test Intelligence quotient IQ Ratio of mental age ma to chronological age ca multiplied by 100 thus IQ maca X 100 On contemporary intelligence tests the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 IQ score is not computed for today s tests Instead compute a mental ability score based on sameage references group Defined so that 100 is average with about twothirds of all people scoring between 85 and 115 Terman was a proponent of the innate view of intelligence as measured by these tests 11 WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE Reification Viewing an abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing To reify is to invent a concept give it a name and behave as if such a thing objectively eXists in the world Intelligence A mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations One General Ability or Many Factor analysis A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items called factors on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one s total score General intelligence g A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test Savant syndrome A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional speci c skill such as in computation or drawing Multiple intelligences Gardner 3 Theory 8 intelligences words numbers music visualspatial physical self others and nature smarts But are some of these talents rather than intelligences Triarchic Theory of I ntelligence Sternberg Analytical academic problem solving intelligenceiassessed by intelligence tests which present welldefined problems having a single right answer Creative intelligenceidemonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas Practical intelligenceioften required for everyday tasks which are frequently illdefined with multiple solutions Emotional intelligence The ability to perceive understand and regulate emotions Creativity The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas correlated with IQ but only up to 120 Expertise imaginative thinking skills venturesome personality intrinsic motivation a creative environment unconcerned about social approval Intelligence and the Physical Brain 44 between brain size adjusted for body size and intelligence score cause could be differing genes nutrition environmental stimulation some combination ofthese of synapses related to education more with more education 7 question of cause effect Brain functioning and Intelligence Processing speed Perceptual speed Neurological speed related to IQ scores III 7 ASSESSING INTELLIGENCE Aptitude test A test designed to predict a person s future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn predict future performance Achievement test A test designed to assess what a person has learned assess current performance Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS 1 Most popular intelligence test verbal and nonverbal subtests Mean at 100 Standardization De ning meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group Normal curve distribution The symmetrical bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes Most scores fall near the average and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes Flynn effect Gradual increase in intelligence test scores between 1918 and present in all countries tested college aptitude test scores have been decreasing since 1960s cause a mystery can t be genes nutrition education alone Reliability Tthe extent to which a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test splithalf on alternate forms of the test or on retesting testretest Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Content validity The extent to which a test samples the behavior of interest Predictive validity The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior also called criterion related validity IQ tests have less predictive validity at higher levels of education restriction of range at higher levels of education IV 7 THE DYNAMICS OF INTELLIGENCE Stability or change Habituation infants 2 to 7 months who quickly bore of a stimulus later 11 years show higher IQ scores but only crude predictors during the first 3 years of life Age 4 7 IQ test performance predicts adult IQ test performance high scores were early 4 readers IQ stable after age 7 SAT and GRE verbaltoverbal 86 and mathtomath 86 sample of 23K stability exceeds predictability
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