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Exam Study Guide 1142011 50300 PM Chapter 8 questions o What role does each of the following play in transmission 0 Dendrites receive stimulation 0 Axons pass the message on o Afferent nerves extremely long nerves that extend form the central nervous system to every part of the body 0 Efferent nerves extra long axons that send impulses and instructions from the central nervous system back to the muscles glands and other organs 0 Interneuron short axons or none at all that organize and regulate transmissions between nerve cells 0 Hypothalamus secretes hormones amp connects everything has nerves that extend through the brain 0 Hippocampus associated with memories o What are the 3 types of methods for studying the brain 0 Brain damage 0 Brain stimulation 0 Brain imaging o How is brain damaged studied in humans 0 We track problems caused by damage to different parts of the brain They are studies of accients If enough ppl are observed it becomes possible to draw conclusions by keeping track of the specific problems caused by damage to different parts of the brain o How is brain damage studied in animals 0 We actually do the damage and study the reaction from it o What happens in brain stimulation 0 We stimulate certain areas of the brain with electrodes and observe the response of the particpant Depending on the area of the brain stimulated different responses occur Ex women who became depressed when electrode was stimulated for about 1 minute and when turned off was completely happy again Ex Wilder Penfield performed brain surgery on patients while they were conscious and asked what they experienced when he stimulated various ares of their brains Depending on where he placed his prode his patients reported visions sounds dreams and memory flashbacks Connected to stimulation TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation Induces electrical responses in the brain using rapidly changing magnetic fields Used to temporarily knock out turn off areas of brain activity to see whether a particular part of the brain is essential for a psychological task a TMS therapy helps modern patients with depression video I watched o What are the four types of Brain imaging technologies used O O O O 0 What EEG MEG PET fMRI They are used to observe functioning directly are each of them how are they used and what do they study 0 0 What 0 What Used to detect WHEN the brain is working EEG Electrodes are placed on the scalp to pick up electrical signals generated by the brain activity underneath MEG used to detect magnetic indications of brain activity Used to detect WHAT PARTS of the brain are working PET map of brain activity by following the location of a harmless radioactive tracer injected into the bloodstream fMRI monitors magnetic pulses generated by oxygen in the blood to map where the brain is most active at a given moment is the ARAS Ascending reticular activating system Connected to cerebral cortex and rest of brain Part of the brain where the spine meets the base of the skull brain stem Regulation of balance between arousal and calming by allowing information into the brain Regulates the balance between inhibitory mechanisms and excitatory mechanisms Sometimes the info channels are opened wide allowing a lot of sensory stimulation to flow into the brain and sometimes they are more closed down limiting sensory stimulation a Ex It is responsible for keeping you awake in class regulates arousing and activation is Eysenck s arousal theory Introverts have a higher level of activity in brain s ARAS than extraverts introverts are over aroused too much info is let in extraverts are under aroused too little info is let in Introverts higher resting levels of arousal because ARAS lets in too much stimulation a Engage in behaviors to minimize stimulation Extraverts lower resting levels of arousal because ARAS lets in too little stimulation a Engage in behaviors to increase stimulation Because introverts have a higher level of arousal they reach the optimal arousal level a lot quicker for them to reach this level whereas extroverts have to engage in more stimulating activities to get to the optimal arousal level Ex When lemon juice is dripped onto the tongue introverts salivate more than extroverts amp When given caffeine and asked to complete difficult tasks introverts had stronger brain activity than extroverts 0 Revision to the theory Introverts and extraverts do not differ in baseline resting levels of arousal n Same level of arousal in quiet environment But introverts have more arousability than extraverts n Introverts respond to stimulation more quickly and strongly n Overwhelmed more easily by stimulation Introverts react more to what stimulation 0 Sensory Introverts get used to sensory stimuli like unusual sounds slower than extroverts What is the Amygdala linked with 0 Links perceptions and thoughts with emotional meaning memories that are strong to you remembering where you were on 911 Role is assessing whether a stimulus is threatening or rewarding Relevant traits anxiety fearfulness sociability sexuality optimism Relevant for motivation n Whitman murders at University of Texas in 1966 man with tumor near amygdala had desires to kill others and he did and wrote a letter asking for an autopsy to be done before he went out to kill people Sure enough there was a tumor Tell us links with Frontal lobes and neocortex Links with selfcontrol Neocortex outer layer of the brain gray scrunched up matter Left frontal lobes O O O O 0 more active when a person experiences pleasant emotions motivations to approach people and objects promote good feelings amp dampen bad ones Right frontal lobes unpleasant emotions here motivation to withdraw associated with disgust and fear Somatic maker hypothesis Emotions enable people to make decisions that maximize good outcomes and minimize bad ones and focus on what is really important n Ex Phineas Gage when his frontal cortex was damaged he couldn t do this anymore What is capgras syndrome 0 Where an individual loses their ability to recognize their friends and loved ones due to brain damage of the RIGHT frontal lobe What is the anterior cingulated linked to 0 Corpus Calosum connects the two halves of the brain 0 Anterior cingulated important for the experience of normal emotion The interaction of these two are important for controlling emotional responses and impulsive behavior a ExCharles Whitman the guy who had an impulse to kill his wife had his tumor in this are of the brain affecting emotional responses and impulsive behavior 0 Linked to the amygdala 0 Role in controlling emotional response and impulses What are the two main types of Psychosurgeries o Prefrontal leucotomy small lesion of frontal lobes o Lobotomy larger lesions What happens when you do these surgeries what do these surgeries affect small vs large lesions and why are they important in psychology 0 Lab chips named Becky amp Lucy difficult to handle because they were easily frustrated and became vicious so they surgically removed part of their frontal cortex The results they became mellow chips Dr Egas Moniz questions whether it would be effective to take out part of the frontal cortex in humans so two years later her performed this operation on a human B It was the first prefrontal labatomy and could be considered first psychosurgery that tried to alter personality in which small areas of white matter behind each of the frontal lobes were deliberately damaged The surgery was successful in most cases but as it became more popular the procedures became more and more drastic in which whole sectors of the frontal lobe were scooped out Some of them ended up much worse then before and were described as just shells of the people they once were a When people mess up these lobes they are messing with the ability to anticipate future negative outcomes and response emotionally to the possibility another words worrying D So you will not be able to plan appropriately or make the right decisions about what to do 0 What What What What 0 In today s world we use medicines to help control this behavior in the end it is a bad idea when we make the decision that because the frontal lobe is associated with excessive worrying and neuroticism such problems could be eliminated by severing or removing frontal lobes are neurotransmitters Carry the messages they cause a chemical reaction that has either an excitory oribiotry effect excitatory means they continue to send the message on to it s destination inhibitory means it has reached it s destination and stops the message are ecitatory or inhibitory effects Excitatory means they continue to send the message on to it s destination inhibitory means it has reached it s destination and stops the message is dopamin linked with Involved in responding to reward and approaching attractive objects and people Related to sociability general activity level and novelty seeking Reward deficiency syndrome related to problems with processing dopamine Behavioral activation system BAS n Produces and reinforces the motivation to seek rewards o High BAS high approach high impulsivity o Tends to be happier o Stronger craving for alcohol o Low BAS low approach low impulsivity 0 At risk for depression Behavioral inhibition system BIS n Assess and respond to risk o High BIS high avoidance high anxiety 0 Highly sensitive to punishment amp possibility of punishment leading to an inhibited anxious style of behavior and emotion o Low BIS low avoidance low anxiety Depending on levels of each you see different personalities introverted stable extroverted neurotic is serotonin linked with inhibition of behavior impulses stopping oneself from doing something attractive yet dangerous Helps humans avoid worrying too much being too quick to anger and being oversensitive to the minor insults of daily life People with a lack of serotonin dangerous criminals arsonists suicide in violent ways have low levels of it symptoms are irrational anger hypersensitivity to rejection chronic pessimism obsessive worry and fear of risk taking Serotonin depletion treated by SSRI s increasing serotonin in brain makes you happier antidepressants o Why are hormones produced 0 They are produced in central location to affect other systems and organs a biological chemical that affects the body in a location different from where the chemical is produced o What is epinephrine and norepinephrine and what is it linked too 0 Fight or flight amp adrenaline 0 Response to stress in which the brain is fully alert and concentrated on the threat o What is oxytocin and what is it linked to o Tendandbefriend people becoming bonded with each other mother and child o What is testosterone linked too 0 Higher in males 0 Linked to aggression energizing functions and sexuality 0 Related to many other behaviors in men sociability dominance sexual experience frustration and women unprovoked violent crime sexual interest sociability impulsivity o Males with more Trouble with authority use of drugs and alcohol many sexual partners history of assault and a general tendency towards excessive behavior They are also higher in stable extraversion sociability selfacceptance and dominance more restless energy spend a lot of time thinking about concrete problems in the present and become frustrated when they can t get things done They smile less which makes them appear more dominant more sex amp more sex partners 0 Females with more Women in prison who committed violent criminal acts Lesbians 0 Females with less Less interested in sex o What is cortisol linked to 0 Response to stress if you have high levels of stress anxiety amp depression is linked to high levels of cortisol Released in response to physical or psychological stress and helps prepare body for action Chronically high levels in people with severe stress anxiety and depression Probably an effect rather than a cause o Low levels related to posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD sensation seeking impulsivity not following the rules of society 0 Possibly due to abnormal responding to danger signals c When you are stressed you release more cortisol but if you are injected with it you won t become more stressedone way street Chapter 9 Questions o What is Behavior genetics 0 The study of the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on behavior o Genetic and environmental sources of variance what role does genetics play and what role does environment play 0 they show us GENES MA39I39I39ER o Heritability coefficient 0 Indicate genes matter 0 Illuminate etiology comparision of if a disorder is linked to genes or not findings are that some are connected but others aren t 0 Identify shared verses nonshared environmental influences growing up in the same house does not tend to make children similar to each other o Molecular genetics 0 Allels different forms of the same gene o Geneenvironmentinterplay o Interactions Genes and the environment interact Neither one can do anything without the other Passive connections by shaping family environments Selection of environments differential reactions to same environment people perceive things differently even if you grow up in the same household you may not act the same or feel the same way about something o Epigentics o How experience especially early in life can determine how or even whether a gene is expressed during development Developmental expression of genes o Whats the difference between MZ twins and DZ twins 0 Identical twins MZ share 100 DNA amp common environment 0 Fraternal DZ share 50 DNA amp 100 common environment Evolutionary approaches o Psychological adaptations 0 Human behavioral patterns developed because they were helpful or necessary for survival in the evolutionary history of the species The more a behavioral tendency helps an indivudal to survive and reporudce the more likely the tendency will be to appear in subsequent generations Inclusive fitness tendency to aid and protect other people especially close relatives might help ensure the survival of one s own genes into succeeding generations 0 O Sociometer our feelings of selfesteem evolved to monitor the degree to which we are accepted by others Forms of depression people suffer different types of depression as a result of different causes a Ex o Depression that follows a social loss breaking up with a boyfriend is followed by pain crying and seeking social support o Depression that follows failure such as failing an exam is characterized by fatigue pessimism shame and guilt o Sex differences in mating behavior 0 What do men look for in a mate Men place higher value on physical attractiveness and prefer younger mates 0 What do woman look for Women place higher value on economic security and prefer older mates 0 Mating strategies differences in jealousy Men want many sexual partners for more chances of reproductive sucessess n so they would be more jealous if their partners were to have sex with another man and if they were to try new positions with that person Women desire monogamy and a stable relationship in order to gain a stable living situation D So they would be jealous if their mate developed a deep emotional attachment to another female or if they fell in love with that person Both point to the fact that our behaviors in relationships reflect what we both wantneed o Applications to individual differences 0 Variation is important if everyone was the same then life would be boring Diversity is necessary for viability 0 Differential reactions to early environments behavioral patterns evolved as reactions to particular environmental experiences 0 Evolved capacities for multiple strategies Several possible behavior strategies may have evolved 0 Frequency dependent strategies psychopathy frequency with which we see a trait is how often they are seen o Objections o Methodological approaches Backward speculation is difficult to test empirically n Probably not wise to think that everytrait or behavior pattern has an adaptive advantage o Reprodutive instinct not everyone wants as many children as possible a Response people do not have to consciously try to do what is evolutionarily adaptive o Conservativism Imlications that the current behavioral order was inevitable and is unchangeable a Response this is scientifically irrelevant just because something is natural does not mean it is good 0 Underestimate human flexibility People are more flexible than evolution and genetically determined behavior account for a Response acknowledges that we are evolved to behave flexibly and we can overcome innate urges o Underestimate role of social structure Many behaviors may be the result of responding to the social structure not of evolution Theoretical importance how much human nature is determined by evolution and biology vs society Practical importance the world is changing and therefore sex differences may also change Chapter 10 Questions o Key concepts 0 What is Psychic determinism The assumption that everything that happens in a person s mind and therefore everything that person thinks and does also has a specific cause n This idea leaves no room for miracles free will or accidents 0 What are the three parts of the Internal structure and what do they each do Id irrational and emotional part of the mind unconscious Ego the rational part of the mind Superego moral part of the mind 0 Psychic conflicted and compromise What happens when there is a conflict between the three what is the idea of compromise formation a Because the mind is divided into distinct and independent parts it can conflict with itself o Ex your Id wants ice cream but your superego thinks you don t deserve it because you haven t studied all week It might fall to your ego to formulate a compromise you get to have ice cream after you study 0 What is psychic energy and how does if influence behavior The mind needs energy in order to work properly and that energy is libido sex drive Energy spent on a certain task can only be used for that task and you only are allotted a certain amount each time it is used a Ex pushing back anger towards someone and then it is released all of a sudden o What are a few Controversies and core ideas about psychology 0 Emphasis on sex everything is about sex and any slip or accident is not one it is meant by that person probably in a sexual manner 0 Don t try to tell people why they do something by analyzing their behavior they wont take it well o How did Freud s life influenced his theories 0 No other psychological approach is at once so influential and so closely identified with the individual He was a medical doctor who was jewish and had to flee his country because of Hitler therefore believed that humans had such an aggressive amp destructive urge and in the end it would destroy us Freud s ideas were influenced by the time and place in which he lived and by the patients he saw a He saw a lot of women who were abused sexually by their fathers when they were young so freud at first believed them and thought they were earlylife trauma but then later decided they were fantasies that for psychological reasons had come to seem real o Why was he interested in hypnosis 0 Used it to get patients to talk about tough topics o What was the talking cure o Freud discovered when patients talked about their problems sometimes by themselves was enough to help or even cure them 0 Talking about it helps he believed that this worked because making one s thoughts and fears explicit by saying them out loud brings them into the open where one s conscious rational mind can deal with them o Interest in culture o What are the two basic motivations in life 0 Libido life drive sex drive desire to procreate and have a relationship to others 0 Thantos death drive to destroy others yourself and break things self destructive behaviors such as drugs and alcohol o What are the Doctrine of opposites 0 Everything implies even requires it s opposite Life requires death happiness requires sadness One cannot exist without the other o What are Freud s Psychosexual development Stages 0 Oral stage 0 Anal stage 0 Phallic Stage 0 Latency Stage 0 Genital Stage o What is the Oral stage 0 Oral stage Timing birth to 18 months Physical focus mouth lips and tongue Psychological theme dependency Adult character type overly dependent or overly independent 0 Anal stage Timing 18 months3 years Physical focus anus and organs of elimination appropriate time amp place to release feces Psychological theme selfcontrol and obedience Adult character types obsessive compulsive or anti authority 0 Phallic Stage Timing 35 years Phsyical focus Penis boys have one amp girls don t Theme Sexual idenity and identification Adult Character type extreme sexual behavior excessive promiscuity or none at all 0 Latency Stage Timing 6 years to puberty Phsyical focus none Theme relationships with same sex peers Adult type None not much happens small development of personality 0 Genital stage Time puberty onwards Physical focus genitals Theme creation and enhancement of life Adult type Well adjusted and balance or non heterosexual COMPARE THEM WITH ERICKSON S THOERY Thinking and consciousness o What is Primary process thinking amp how does it use imagery and symbolism o Is the way the unconscious mind operates and how the infant s as well as the adult s id is said to operate 0 It does not contain the word or even the thought of no 0 It doesn t think of negatives qualifications sense of time or nay dangers it has one goal the immediate gratification of every desire Imagery and symbolism n It operates by using displacement to replace one idea or image with another o Ex anger towards father could be replaced by anger towards authority figures o What is Secondary process thinking 0 Is what we ordinarly mean by the word think 0 It is Rational practical prudent amp can delay or redirect gratification o Topographic model of the mind 0 Conscious mind the part of your mental functioning you can observe when you simply turn your attention inward o Preconscious mind consists of the ideas you are not thinking about at the moment but that you could bring into consciousness easily 0 Unconscious mind includes all of the id amp superego and most of the ego It is buried deep and the only way to bring it to the surface is by digging Some use hypnosis Clues such as slips of the tongue accidents and lapses of memories Chapter 11 amp 12 Questions o What are Defense mechanisms 0 Used to deal with anxiety amp gives the ego more time to find another solution to the problem They are all unconscious o What is Denial 0 To refuse to see the way it is in reality Ex I did not get a 2 out of 10 on that quiz or they are really not sick or dead o What is repression 0 Thought or memory to make you realize something Ex sexually abused as a child and memories come back in some way in adulthood o What is reaction formation 0 People who strongly believe in something are caught actually doing it 0 Ex public figure argues about some type of cause antiprostitution o What is projection o Unconscious impulse 0 Angry therapist feels the angry being projected on them o What is Rationalization 0 When a girl gives a guy the wrong number you make excuses and say they might have accidently gave it to them wrong What is inteectuaication 0 Talking around the emotion you can talk about the emotion but you are not experiencing it 0 Normal people would say that someone died at war and a soilder would say he had a category 8 wound What is displacement 0 You may feel angry toward one object but take it out on another object o Displacing the unacceptable emotion to another person What is sublimation 0 Attention going to an older sibling outshine by older sibling Reaction is to become famous themselves Trying to get attention What are Parapraxes Freudian slips 0 Saying or doing something you might accidently do that you might not want to calling your teacher mom you want to be with your mom or call your new boyfriend by your ex s name Ex you break something but you didn t like it anyways and humor NOTHING is accidental Forgettingnot coincidental convenient that you forget you didn t want to do it anyways Slips of the tongue a You meant to do these things on purpose What is the purpose of Humor 0 To release unconscious tension your laughing at the joke releases this tension sexual joke something you don t openly talk about so you joke about it to release tension Good jokes disguised impulses Bad jokes undisguised impulses a joke that is meant to be funny in a lighthearted sort of way 0 were the NeoFruiedians o Adler o Jung 0 O O O O W 339 Horney Erikson What did Adler believe and contribute o Adler thought that Freud focused too much on sex as the ultimate motivator and organizer of thought and behavior He called himself a social interest or the desire to relate to positively and productively with other people Organ inferiority try to compensate for whatever they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect Masculine protest young boys pick up from society the idea that men are suppose to be dominant yet know the most 0 O O powerful person in their lives is their mom so they seek out to prove their dominance power and masculinity o Inferiority complex individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people o What did Jung believe and contribute o Jung got away from freud s theories with increasing interests in mystical and spiritual matters Collective unconsciousness Jung believed that as a result of the history of the human species all people share inborn racial memories and ideas most of which reside in the unconscious Archetypes Jung believed go to the core of how people think about the world both conscious and unconsciously hero devil god Persona social mask one wears in public dealings everyone s persona is false because everyone keeps some aspects of their real selves private or at least fails to advertise all aspects of the self equally o Anima is the idea or prototype of the female as held in the mind of a male 0 Animus the idealized image of the male as held in the mind of a female o What did Horney believe and contribute 0 She disagreed with freud and rejects the idea of penis envy woman s desire to be male If some women wish to be men it is probably because they see men as being more free than women to pursue their own interest and ambitions o Neurotic needs needs that people feel but that are neither realisitic nor truly desirable Ex needs to find a love partner who will solve all of one s problems to be loved by everyone to dominate everyone and to be independent of everyone B These needs are unrealistic but the mind pursues them anyways which can lead to selfdefeating behavior and relationship problems o What did Erikson believe and contribute 0 He pointed out that not all conflicts are unconscious many are conscious 0 He also believed that certain basic conflicts arise at various stages of life so this led him to develop his own version of Freud s theory of psychological development in which he focused on the conflicts experienced at each stage and their possible outcomes instead of focusing on libido First stage Basic Trust vs Mistrust n Corresponds to Freud s Oral stage in that the dependent child learns whether needs and wants will be met ignored or overindulged O O O n Given the appropriate ratio of satisfaction and temporary frustraction the child develops hope confidence that the needs will be met 2nd stage Autonomy vs Shame and doubt a corresponds to Freud s Anal stage a As the child begins to control bowels learn language and begins to receive orders from adult authority and inevitable conflict arises who s in charge here o On one hand the adults pressure the child to obey but on the other the child wants to control his own life 3rd stage Initiative vs guilt n corresponds to Freud s phallic stage n the child begins to anticipate and fantasize about life as an adult including sexual fantasies and plans to get ahead in life o these can be good but if the adult doesn t react to them well it can lead the child to feel guilty and to back off form taking initiative in their development towards adulthood 4th stage Industry vs Inferiory n corresponds to freud s latency period a during which one should develop the skills and attitudes to succeed in the world of work and contribute to society 5th stage Identity vs Identity confusion n Freud s stages stop here but erikson believes that you have more psychological development left in life a As the adolescent strives to figure out who he is and what is and is not important they choose values and goals that are consistent and personally meaningful and useful o Intimacy vs isolation find an intimate life partner to share important experiences and further development rather then being isolated and lonely 6th stage Generativity vs Stagnation n as a person s position in life becomes firmly set do they settle into passive comfort or begin to turn towards cocerns to the next generation o Basically instead of retirement try to help develop the next generation 7th stage integrity vs despair n One begins to face death a does the person regret earlier mistakes and feel that they blew it or have they developed wisdom from their experiences a The real test is when they are 70 years old and up do they care about the next generations to come or not o What is Object relations theories and what are the core ideas 0 Analysis of interpersonal relationships 0 Core ideas We can only relate to people via the images of them we hold in our minds and these images do not always match reality Every relationship has a mix of satisfaction and frustration pleaure and pain Every relationship involves love and hate express annoyance with us criticize us and frustrate us Whole person splits into objects sometimes we only like or love parts of other people baby sees mother as just the breast and we could love someone for their wallet amp looks not as a whole Tensions over contradictions many complications in relationships you want to be with someone so you get frustrated and angry when you can t you envy the power they have over you if they are attractive you fear loosing the person and it is greater the more desirable they seem and you may feel guilty over all of these reactions because if you expressed them the relationship could end 0 Klein Splitting divide important love objects into two parts one good and one bad Paranoid position they wish to destroy the bad part because they fear being destroyed by it Depressive position they wish to worship and protect the good part because they fear losing it o Winnicott Transitional object a special blanket or stuffed animal that the child uses to bridge the gap between private fantasy and reality False self learn to put on to please other people a Current psychoanalytic perspectives 0 Key psychoanalytic ideas Independent processes in the mind an examination of independent processes that occur simultaneously in the same mind an can conflict with one another Unconscious processes Compromises outside of conscious awareness compromises among mental processes negotiated outside of consciousness Defensive processes selfdefensive thought and self deception Pastas prologue the past tells you something about the future the influence of the past on current functioning especially childhood patterns that endure into adulthood How people might be motivated by sexual and aggressive motives sexual or aggressive wishes as they influence thought feeling and behavior 0 Attachment theory Patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different people throughout life old patters of behavior and emotion to relationships with somebody new In Need for security 0 Internal working models that make an infant feel secure expectations are represented in the mind as vivid images of how others can be expected to react as well as how he expects himself to feel and behave 0 Attachment styles different types and how it is measure in a strange situation strange situation is when a mother and child are in an unfamiliar room playing together and the mother leaves the room we make observations of the child add a stranger in and then bring the mom back to see how they react Chapter 13 Anxiousambivalent when child is very upset even after just a few minutes this means caregivers behaviors are inconsistent hitormiss or chaotic Avoidant they do not appear to be distressed amp no reaction when mom comes back but heart rate measures signs of tension and anxiety this means child had been ignored repeatedly in attempts to enjoy contact or reassurance mothers disliked hugs and other bodily contact for reassurance Secure when mom returns they greet her happily with hugs and open arms they are easily soothed when upset actively explore environment and return frequently to the caregiver this means they have a confident faith in themselves and their caregivers What is Existentialism 0 Purpose was to regain contact with the experience of being alive and aware What are the 3 parts of experience o Unwelt biological experience which consists of the sensations you feel by virtue of being a biological organism Includes pleasure pain heat cold and all the bodily sensations o Mitwelt social experience which consists of what you think and feel as a social being Includes your emotions and thoughts about other people and the emotions and thoughts directed at you think about someone you love fear or admire Eigenwelt inner psychological experience which consists of how you feel and think when you try to understand yourself your own mind and your own existence Ex watch your own mind experience love amp life o What is Thrownness o The time place and circumstances into which you happened to be born c What is Angst 0 Failure to answer the questions of why you are here and what you should be doing leads to anxiety about the meaning of life and whether you are spending yours the right way Anguish feel this way because choices are never perfect Forlornness you are alone in you choices you are the only person that can decide Despair you realize that you have an inability to change crucial aspects of the world What should you do about angst 0 You must face them directly What is living in bad faith 0 Head in the sand approach What is Authentic existence 0 Being insightful honest and morally correct Optimistic humanism 0 Rogers Selfactualization ppl need to do this and in order to do this then need to experience you need to know that there will be ppl that love you regard unconditional positive regard o What is Phenomenal field 0 the entire panorama of conscious experience How a person can be understood o what is the need to actualize 0 need to maintain and enhance life 0 Goal of existence is to satisfy this need o What is Maslow s Hierarchy of needs 0 how human motivation is characterized o What is a Fully functioning person 0 o If you can perceive the world accurately and without neurotic distortion and if you take responsibility for your choices What is Unconditional positive regard 0 When someone loves you no matter what What are Conditions of worth 0 If you feel that other people value you only if you are smart successful attractive or good then you will develop this It limits your freedom to act and think If you believe you are valuable only if certain things about you are true then you may distort your perception of reality to believe them even if they are not true you can t think you are more or less of a person based on what you do you can t worry about what others think or you can t be a fully functioning person You want to reduce discrepancies between where you aren t and where you are now What are the goals of Psychotherapy 0 Goal to promote fully functioning persons 0 Reduce discrepancies between current and ideal selves What are Personal constructs o How one s thinking can help determine how new experiences are construed What are Bipolar dimensions 0 Scales ranging between one concept and it s opposite such as good and bad along which people or objects can be arranged What is done in the Role contruct repertory test 0 You are askes to identify 3 people in your life that are important and describe how two are similar and one is different What are Chronically accessible contructs 0 Certain constructs are more readily brought to mind in certain invdividuals What is Sociality corollary 0 Hold the understanding that another person means understanding her personal construct system you must be able to look at the world through another person s eyes What is Constructive alternativism 0 Your personal reality does not simply exist apart from you you construct it in your mind What is Flow Csikszentmihalyi o Autoelic activies good for you Tend to be done on your own become very engaged in balance between how challenging it is not too tough and not too easy What is Hardiness Maddi o A lifestyle that actually embraces rather than avoids potential sources of stress Stress is actually OK it makes you a better and stronger person once you overcome it and deal with it o What is Existential pathology 0 when you don t acknowledge the stress and you let it take your life over and give up Vegetativeness in which the person feels that nothing has meaning and so becomes listless and aimless Nihilism in which experience is dominated by anger disgust and cynicism Meaningless thrill seeking used to distract them from deep feelings of meaningless and get away from stress o What is the Self determination theory Deci and Ryan 0 Hedonia versus eudaimonia Hedonia dangerous the more one seeks simply to maximize pleasure and minimize pain the more one risks living a life based on selfishness materialism sexuality and ecological destructiveness Eudonia entails finding and seeking goals that are valuable in their own right rather than being means to an end o What are the 3 Intrinsic needs 0 Autonomy finding your own way in life and making your own decisions 0 Competence finding something you are good and and becoming better 0 Relatedness establishing meaningful and satifying ties to other people o What does Positive psychology do 0 Improve the quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless Focus on human strengths virtues and positive outcomes o What are the Proposed six core virtues o Courage emotional strengths to accomplish goals in the face of opposition 0 Justice being fair using leadership amp teamwork o Humanity compassion protecting and taking care of others 0 Temperance forgiveness humility and self control 0 Wisdom experience and knowledge 0 Transcendence gratitude hope and spirituality Chapter 14 o Culture is learned 0 Enculturation culture of origin what you are born into 0 Acculturation taking on another culture different then what you were born into o Characteristics of cultures 0 Some concepts apply across cultures etics 0 Some concepts apply within cultures emics 0 Dimensions Complexity some cultures are more complex then others Tightness versus looseness contrasts cultures that tolerate very little deviation from proper behavior tight with those that allow fairly large deviations from cultural norms loose Collectivism versus individualism collective cultures look at he needs of the group vs individual cultures that are more focused on the rights of the individuals Vertical versus horizontal n Vertical assume that indivudal people are importantly different from each other a Horizontal view all persons as equal a TABLE IN CLASS IS REALLY IMPORTANT TO KNOW c We can look at differences both vertically and horizontally o Research approaches 0 Compare same traits across cultures 0 Different traits for different cultures even though we are looking for the same thing it might look different in different cultures 0 Differences in thinking 0 Values Universal values a Openness to change versus conservatism n Selftranscendence versus selfenhancement Cultural differences o Orgins of culture differences 0 Deconstructionism reality has no meaning apart from what humans invent or contruct o Ecolical approach cultures developed over time in order to deal with different problems in different areas Geography is destiny from where you are born and where you will be able to end up know what goes in each of those boxes about where you are born then how your experiences make you end up somewhere Lecture about chapter 14 should help 0 Personality differences as possible generators of cultural differences o Challenges and futre directions 0 Avoid ethnocentrism judging another culture from your own point of view 0 Avoid exaggeration of differences don t assume things and group everyone together if they are from the same culture Outgroup homogeneity bias even though we know ppl at our own college are very different from each other we generalize about people at another college anyways o Grapple with cultural relativism idea that all cultural views of reality are equally valid and it is not right to judge any of them as good or bad 0 Understand multicultural individuals understand ppl who have integrated more then one culture into their identity Bicultural identity integration 0 Recognition of the universal human condition that ppl are humans are influcencd by different things 1142011 50300 PM
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