Introductory Psychology PSY 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Newton Cormier on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by Robert Caldwell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/207563/psy-101-michigan-state-university in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHAPTER 8 DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN Terms to define and Names Developmental Psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical cognitive and social change throughout the lifespan Neonatal Period first 28 days of life InfancylSt year stage trust vs Mistrust f needs are dependently met infants develop a sense of basic trust Childhood Adolescencethe transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence Pubertya period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Adulthood difficult to generalize an age as each idividual becomes an adult at a different stage Adulthood is one long plauto between childhood and oldage Senescence growing old Visual Cliff test given to infants to see if they have developed depth perception Jean Piaget developed the stages of cognitive development 1930 Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information Assimilation interpreting one s new experience in terms of one s exsisting schemas Accommodation adapting one s current understandingsschemas to incorporate new information Adaptation when an organism better adjust to its habitat Play Imitationthe act of copying Alzheimer s Disease a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory reasoning language and finally physical functioning Object Permanence The awareness that things Exam 2 Study Guide Erik Erikson theory of identity or ones sense of self the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Menarche First menstrual period Crisis and Virtue Germinal Stage Zygote the fertilized egg it enters a 2week period of rapid cell division and development into an embryo Embryo The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Embryonic Stage weeks 2 through 8 after fertilization Fetal Stage 9 weeks to birth Teratogensagents such as chemicals and viruses That can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS physical and cognative abnormalities in children caused by pregnant women s heavy drinking Sever cases include facial misproportions Rooting reflex baby s tendency when touched on the cheek to turn toward the touch open mouth and search for the nipple Habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus their interest wanes and they look away sooner Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience lmprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Critical Period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Harry Harlow body contactquotrared monkeys with two artificial mothers One with nourishment and the other with zero nourishment but comfy cloth Animals preferred cloth Morality wrong and developing characterthe psychological muscles a crucial task of childhood and adolesence in discerning right from for controlling impulses quotto be a moral personto think morally to act morallyquot Menopause CrossSectional Study a study in which people ofdlfferent ages are compared with another Longitudinal Study research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Cohort Effect Survivor Effect Crystallized lntelligence ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age Fluid lntelligence ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late adulthood Gerontology study of old people Senility the study of being sentile Or weakness of thought Andropause male menapause continue to exisit even when not preceived Sensorimotor lntelligence piagets theory the stage from birth to about 2 years of age during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities Identity Development Stranger Anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning about 8 months of age Attachmentan emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to caregiver and showing distress on seperation Centration Concepts to Understand Aspects of young animals body ratios Basic Prenatal Development zygote conception to 2 weeks embryo 2 weeks through 8 weeks fetus 9 weeks to birth Irreversibility Conservation 39Baby mathematics Egocentrism in Piaget s theory the preoperational child s difficulty taking another s point of view Theory of Mind peoples ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings perceptions and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Libido sex drive Sigmund Freud o Genetics DNA etc in book Piaget s Stages of Development when and what skills 0 Sensorimotor Period Stage of Development Typical ages Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Sensorimotor Birth Zyears Expierencing the world through senses and actionslooking touching mouthing grasping Object permanence Stranger Anxiety Preoperational 26yrs Representing things with Pretend play words and images use intuitive rather than logic Egocentrlsm Language development Concrete operational 711 years Thinking logically about Conversation concrete events grasping concrete analogies and Mathematlcal performing arithmetical Operations Transformations Formal Operational 12 Abstract reasoning Abstract logic adulthood Potential for mature and moral reasoning Freud s Psychosexual Stages of Development when and what characteristics 0 Oral Stage Birth to 18 months During the oral stage the child if focused on oral pleasures sucking 0 Anal Stage 18 months to three years The child s focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces Phallic Stage ages three to six The pleasure zone switches to the genitals Freud believed that during this stage boy develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother 0 Latency Stage age six to puberty It s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Stages when and what quottask 0 Genital Stage puberty on The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened Through the lessons learned during the previous stages adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals O 0 Trust vs Mistrust Infancyinfant develops sense of basic trust 0 Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Toddlerhood 12 learn to things for themselves bringing doubt 0 Initiative vs Guilt preschooler initiate tasks and carry out plans feel guilty about independence 0 Competence vs lnferiorityElementary SchoolChildren learn they pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior 0 Identity vs Role confusion Adolesence teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and thus become confused as to who they are 0 Intimacy vs lsolation Young Adult stuggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated 0 vs quot g 39 Middl 39 39 39 39 in middle age people discovera sense of contributing to the world usually through family and work or they may feel a lack of purpose 0 Integrity vs Despair Late adulthood when reflecting on his or her life the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure Factors that affect development Cell replication just basically Development at each month of a fetus s growth what is visible how big what is occurring in the body At 40 days the spine is visable and the arms and legs begin to grow 45 days the inchlong embryo proportions have begun to change the rest ofthe body is now bigger than the head 8 weeks when fetus period begins facial features hands and feet have formed 12 weeks the fetus is 3 oz and can now fit in the palm ofyour hand Stages of Birth Preferences of the infant during neonatal stage Changes of the brain during neonatal stage cortical neurons the brain is very immature at birth however as the child matures the neutral network grow increasingly more complex What were the major findings of Harry Harlow s Surrogate Mother Experiments Even tho the comforting and comfy monkey offered no nutrients the moneys still found comfort from it even when taking nutrients from the nutrient rich monkey The Strange Situation Test Four Attachment Styles
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