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Human Communication

by: Geraldine Johns

Human Communication COM 100

Geraldine Johns
GPA 3.85

William Donohue

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William Donohue
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geraldine Johns on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 100 at Michigan State University taught by William Donohue in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/207576/com-100-michigan-state-university in Communication at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Socialization Rewards Autonomy Structure and Support in an organization Steps for socialization anticipation encounter role negotiation Coordination Distinguish Sequential Coordination Reciprocal Coordination and Pooled Coordination o Sequential Coordination involves group members passing a resource from one person to another forming a chain where every member is only in touch with the person directly before and after her Relatively quick though one must build on the worldinstructions of the previous person in the chain 0 ie I work on section one ofmy paper pass it to Michelle who completes section two based on my work she passes it to Kelsey who completes section three based on Michelle s work 0 Reciprocal Coordination all members are free to coordinate with each other and work together Feedback is given at every stage which is what makes this coordination reciprocal Requires the most amount of time and effort by far 0 ie All group members meet every day for an hour to write their paper sentence by sentence together 0 Pooled Coordination group members work independently with no interaction whatsoever assembling a pool of resources for later use Relatively quick and eiTortless o ie Four group members write one section of the paper and email their sections to the fifth member who uses their pool of material to write the common paper Define coordination 0 Coordination the organization of the different elements of a compleX body or activity so as to enable them to work together effectively Decision Making Communication Game in which a group of people pick a best solution from a set of alternatives Five Steps about group decision making page 173 o Thoroughly and accurately understand all important aspects of the problem Develop criteria for making an acceptable choice to solve the problem Develop a range of realistic and acceptable alternatives that meet these criteria Assess the positive and negative consequences of alternative Select the best alternative and commit to implementing it o Likely the alternative with the fewest negative consequences What makes Groups Productive page 174177 0 Effective size Clear goals Coordination of effort Motivation to perform Open communication Group 0 Clear role development Con ict resolution plan Willingness to disagree Not too much disagreement Sufficient time to deliberate Culture of trust and respect Practice of celebrating success Decision Making Stages Orientation What is the task when is it due who is the client etc Swing back and forth between task and social considerations Discontent Schedules and other things interfere with playing the group work game well For some members being part of the group might not be signi cant If a group doesn t respond to discontent with greater commitment and stronger identity it will fail Group Identi cation Precipitating events often trigger greater commitment following discontent This event sparks members into focusing on the task and helps them renew their commitment to the group Following this wakeup call students often restructure roles and increase efforts Communication rules and boundaries change and become more serious as group identity is more salient Group Productivity Marked by energetic collective work and increased efforts Individuation Members come to expect recognition for their success Members are still attracted to the group but turn more toward satisfying individual needs After a task is complete the group risks falling apart unless anew task is introduced Know Theories for DecisionMaking page 182185 Structuration Theory dual structure amp constitutive rules and regulative rules all human action is governed by a set of rules and norms Followed over several generations these rules and norms become rule structuresquot 0 Constitutive rules how we communicate during talk games o Regulative rules how to keep people playing by those rules 0 Dual structure knowing what game we39re playing and knowing how to play the game appropriately and effectively Hidden Pro les Theory Focuses on what happens when information is not shared correctly There are two kinds of information 0 Common shared by the group as a whole 0 Hidden information unique to you what you secretly knowthink 0 People often over emphasize common information without sharing their hidden information Research shows that this leads to groupthink which is fatal to group productivity Communication Process Theory effective decision making is characterized by four recurring themes of communicative activity that define how an effective leader interacts with the group 0 Rigorously evaluating the validity of opinions and assumptions 0 Rigorously evaluating suggested courses of action using preestablished criteria 0 Making the nal choice based on facts assumptions and inferences that are reasonable and accurate 0 Having in uential members ask questions point out information challenge unwarranted assumptions and keep the group from digressing to irrelevant topics 0 Leadership good leaders possess the following qualities 0 Knowledgeable o Sociable 0 Fair 0 Motivated 0 Persistent De ne power page 200 o The perceived ability to control outcomes 0 Not only has the ability but is seen as having the ability by others 0 The willingness to use that ability to control outcomes 0 Apowerful person is not taken seriously if people believe he will never exercise his power Forms of social power page 200 o Coercive power forcing or punishing someone to do something 0 Holding someone at gunpoint o Reward power controlling a valued resource 0 The power of your boss to give you employee of the mont quot or a bonus 0 Legitimate power power based on one39s position in an organization 0 The power of your CEO 0 Referent power power based on respect alTection or love 0 The power a celebrity has over fans 0 Expert power power based on knowledge skill or expertise in a field 0 The power a professor has over students 0 Information power power gained from handlingcontrolling important data 0 The power of an HR person handling employee evaluations Social Media 0 New Media Web 20 0 Use of personalmobile computers that are intemet enabled with which individuals take an active role in shaping their media experience I Posting pictures blogging video channels all accessed by laptops tablets smartphones etc 0 Old Media 0 Mass media Centrally produced information and entertainment messages distributed to large audiences through separate channels I TV newspapers magazines I Passively consumed o Hyperpersonal effect when nonverbal cues are removed 0 The removal of nonverbal cues that might hold someone back from disclosure can cause people to become more intimate more quickly online than in person The quick escalation of intimacy talk general leads to perceptions of extraordinarily aiTectionate relations or hyperpersonal states 0 How Social Media contributes to Marketing 0 Collective intelligence people use social media to build ideas and possible a consensus about some kind of action 0 The New 4 P s of Marketing I Personalization I Participation I PeertoPeer I Pulling and not Pushing Diffusion 0 Four Elements 0 Innovation an idea practice or object perceived as new by an individual company or society 0 Communication Channels the means by which messages about the innovation are exchanged 0 Time the process by which adoption is promoted Social System structure and function of relations among a set of individuals or other units such as networks or organizations 0 0 Five Stage of Innovation 0 Knowledge Build awareness mass media channels 0 Persuasion Expressed interest change agent or someone invested in the idea who is willing to champion it to others 0 Decision Mental application the handson approach of helping people decide how the innovation fits into their lives 0 Implementation Take it home trialrun 0 Confirmation Con rm decision satisfaction stage during which people build their sense of value associated with the idea 0 Innovation Features determine the speed of di usion 0 Relative advantage must be cheaper and work better than the old one o Compatibility must be compatible with or fit into the person39s lifestyle Must be sufficiently familiar that it doesn t freak anyone out 0 Complexity it must be easy to use 0 What s Tipping Point 0 When a certain number of adopters finally pick up on the idea it reaches a critical mass making the idea suddenly popular 0 At this point adoption skyrocks o Adopter Types 0 Innovators the first ones to adopt new products Risktakers About 25 of the population 0 Opinion Leaders Also risktakers but are very vocal about the new products they are trying out They popularize the product with the rest of the population 0 Early Adopter they communicate with the opinion leaders first and slowly begin to adopt the product 0 Late Adopter people who are not excited about change and reject it until the latter stages when they have to adopt it because everyone else is doing it o Laggards completely hate change do everything they canto ght it They see change as intrusive an attack on their freedom and may violently oppose change Media 0 The Learning Process 0 Awareness 0 Understanding I Selective exposure I Categorizing I Memorizing 0 Teaching 0 Evaluating 0 Creating 0 Entertainment o The consumption of media messages for enjoyment relaxation and escape without ulterior motives 0 Three Elements ofDrama o Intense con ict of forces drama dwells on con ict and is resolved by depicting events carried out by protagonists and antagonists who are affected by these events 0 Care viewers must be able to care about and relate to the characters They must like the good guys and hate the bad guys 0 Satisfying resolution we want the good guys to win the battle to save the world and the small battles associated with a marriage or relationship with someone 0 Know Humor Horror and Suspense page 243244 and how they apply to entertainment 0 Humor makes messages more interesting and attention getting Because people attend to humor they are more likely to process it 0 Horror evokes fear gender motivations o Suspense evokes anxiety 0 What create effective media message page 245 0 Attention by being distinctive simple and important to the target viewers o Reinforcing to ensure viewers are rewarded for consuming the messages and transforming them into knowledge 0 Easily Interpreted in the sense that they are consistent with current beliefs and attitudes and are simple to understand 0 Memorable or able to stick with viewrs so they can recall the messages and tell their friends 0 Media effects 0 Agenda setting the process of driving discussion by placing content in the media frequently 0 Desensitization occurs when viewers consume a steady diet of violence and grow increasingly numb or insensitive to aggression in the real world or perceive it as more norma quot o Stereotyping used to save time on character development but can be harmful to underrepresented groups when viewers never encounter these groups in reality 0 Media Theory 0 Priming Effects short term explains the transient impact of media violence on aggressive behavior Argues that the media stiimulateour memory which triggers a reaction Social Cognitive Theory modeling amp reinforcement after categorized information enters our memory it becomes a model for how to see other things or how to act The more frequently the behavior is positively reinforced the more likely we are to model it I ie good guys are positively reinforced for saving the day using violence so children watching will think that violence is necessary and appropriate Cultivation Theory EnculturationMainstream amp Resonance explains the long term cumulative effects of TV exposureTV is a cultural storyteller that socializes us and creates stories about our world I Enculturation repeated exposure to TV creates a world outlook that overrides any initial differences 0 O Resonance sometimes TV mirrors or re ects viewers direct experiences leading to certain cultivation effects to be amplified when fact and fiction match 0 ie the more someone watches crime dramas the more they believe the world is unsafe 0 Media Literary Theory factual information vs social information media images present a whole new language to viewers that must be decoded and learned for its substance and intent to be understandable I Factual information consists of the raw contextfree truth about what the source is communicating I Social information focuses on the intent of the source to inform persuade or entertain Other Concepts outside textbook related to Speech 0 Aristotle s Ethos Pathos and Logos 0 Ethos ethical appeals o Pathos emotional appeals II Lecture l3 Introduction a Diffusion of innovation i Spreading ideas ii Interpersonal channels for selling Mass communication channels for informing b Focus on learning from the media i How does it teach us What does it teach us What can we do about it Motive to Connect Education a Definition i Active and passive knowledge acquisition ii That has cognitive emotional and behavioral effects hm Active vs Passive Learning i Passive Incidental learning through Education iii ii iii exposure ii Active proactive learning through need satisfaction cCognitive Effects i Ambiguity creation and resolution What s the right or wrong thing to do watch something find solution ii Attitude likedislike formation iii Agenda setting deciding what is important iv Conferring status deciding who is important v Expanding our beliefs about what is normal vi Forming our values about right and wrong dEmotional Effects i Desensitization to violence ii Increased fearvulnerability Changes in morale and alienation eBehavioral Effects i Activates people to buy become violent smoke have sex ii Deactivates people from wanting to travel smoke or drink alcohol How do people learn aGrab Attention i First we select channels that grab attention ii Message must be distinctive simple important iii iii Determine card being played bLook for reinforcement for attention i Externaldirect reinforcement ii Vicarious reinforcement clnterpret message on the card using our i Knowledge experience ii Beliefs values dEngage memory i Store visual imagery first ii Store verbal information next IV Media Literacy a Definition i The ability and habit of transforming information into knowledge structures ii Messages contain two kinds of information l Factual raw unprocessed context free 2 Social accepted beliefs and attitudes about reality eg how to dress talk and act to be attractive smart etc bMass media present three general types of talk cards i News cards evoke feelings of being informed ii Entertaining card pleasant emotional experience iii Advertising card promoting buying behavior cMedia blends cards i Docudramas inform and entertain ii lnfomercials inform and advertise dMedia literacy Model i Filter messages create meaning determine talk card ii Use our competencies and skills to filter and discriminate cards iii Competencies based on our experiences our goals and drives iv Knowledge of media effects content industries the real world and self drive the competencies elncreased literacy when people i Shape their own understanding and carefully discriminate and evaluate the content ii Avoid mindless manipulation and exposure iii Have a conscious awareness of options V Strategies for increasing media literacy aBuild knowledge structures i Understand media cards effects media content ii Understand own beliefs COM100 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 7 Persuasion 25 What characteristics of the message source are important 25 What is the Soft Sell Game 25 How do persuasive messages arouse meaning 25 What is an attitude 25 What is a belief 25 What is a value 25 Why is a clear path to comply important to persuasion 25 What are the psychological needs that motivate people to be persuaded 25 How do psychological balance and consistency affect persuasion 25 How do learning and reinforcement in uence persuasion 25 What are the components of an effective fear appeal 25 What are the social motivations for persuasion 25 How are each of the following related to persuasion authority social proof liking and scarcity 25 Describe the Theory of Reasoned Action 25 Describe the Elaboration Likelihood Theory 25 Describe Social Norming Theory 25 When are onesided messages more persuasive Twosided messages 25 Which is more effective in a persuasive argument primacy or recency 25 How might audience analysis in uence persuasion COM100 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 8 Con ict 25 What is the Sniping Game 25 Define con ict 25 What is the difference between problem solving and con ict 25 What is social identity protection 25 How does each of the following relate to con ict surprise scarce rewards personal values strongly held beliefs and relational differences 25 What opportunities are created by con ict 25a Define con ict management 25 What is con ict resolution 25 Explain con ict transformation 25 What is the difference between constructive and destructive con ict 25 What are the stages of con ict Chapter 9 Coordination 25a Define coordination and describe how it works 25 What is interdependence 25 What are the different types of coordination 25 How do networks work and in what ways can they be described 25 Explain how communication roles 16 Talk Cards relate to coordination 25 Describe the differences between upward horizontal and downward coordination 25a Explain communication culture COM100 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 10 DecisionMaking 25 What is the College Selection Game 25 How does group decisionmaking work 25 Describe the characteristics of productive groups 25 What are the phases of group decisionmaking 25 What is Structuration Theory 25 What is Hidden Profiles Theory 25 What is Communication Process Theory Chapter 11 Leadership 25 What is the Defiance Game 25 Define leadership 25 According to Kouzes and Posner s perspective what are the different components of a Leadership Card 25 What is the difference between a leader and a manager 25 What are the different approaches to leadership Describe each one 25 Define power and explain its different forms Chapter 12 Diffusion of Innovation 25 What is the Cereal City Game 25 What is diffusion ofinnovation and what are its stages 25 What in uences diffusion speed 25 What is uncertainty reduction COM100 Final Exam Study Guide 25 Describe the diffusion effect 25 What are the different adopter types Chapter 13 Media Learning 25 What is the Teletubby Card Game 25 Define learning 25 What are the different stages of learning 25 What is media proliferation 25 What are the effects ofmedia learning 25 What is emotional desensitization 25 What does the media teach us about sex 25 What does the media teach us about violence 25 What are priming effects 25 Describe Social Cognitive Theory 25 What is Cultivation Theory 25 What is mainstreaming 25 What is resonance 25 Describe Media Literacy Theory 25 How can you increase your own media literacy Chapter 14 Entertainment 25 Describe the Scary Movie Game 25 What is entertainment


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