Art, the Visual, & Culture (D)
Art, the Visual, & Culture (D) IAH 209
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeanette Collins on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAH 209 at Michigan State University taught by Marco Diaz-Munoz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/207594/iah-209-michigan-state-university in OTHER at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Rome 1 million citizens Poor transportation for heavy loads More practical way was boats but Romans were scared of the sea Hannibal of Carthrage Africa through N Africa through Spain and the Alps to get to Rome Rome attacked his home and forced him to Retreat Middle Ages With the spread of Christianity the pagan world of Classic Rome and Greece vanished as did their values ethic aesthetic political which became socially irrelevant unacceptable or forbidden The appreciation of worldly pleasure of pagan Rome was considered harmful to Christian Faith Thins were considered harmful in proportion to the number of senses that they delighted things that in pagan Rome were considered as interesting or beautiful were later thought to be the workings of demons who intended then to distract man from his proper concern with salvation striving solely for a place in Heaven In art the church established rigid conviction as to what was acceptable mainly religious topics treated in exed rigid styles Figures were depicted mostly in silhouette lacking depth real volume and as it were cut out of a quite unrealistic usually guided background The formalism of medieval Gothic art stylized the human figure and avoided making them too real looking and awakening the senses Painted figures were shut in by the constraints of frames gold backgrounds or architectural settings Gothic art figures were elongated with small heads garments owing in gothic stiff folds little modeling s mainly aware of the outline The in uence of Saint Francis of Assisi 118121226 Saint Francis insisted upon the essential goodness of the natural world saw the interest and beautifs of the earth as a foretaste of j oys of heaven He spoke of the importance to god of every individual and men became alert to earthly aspirations Renasissance men strove for an honored place on earth as well A philosophy of humanism Petrarh that is a devotion to human interests and a pride in civilized ways developed Humanists scholars searched for standards in the literature and art of the Greek roman and Hebrew world by which to form ethical ad aesthetic judgments The ancient Greeks and romans had designed as their standard the natural world imitating nature and its proportions to produce works of exceptional beauty ancient roman authors wrote of painting that imitated nature Renaissance painting based on naturalism and mathematics of perspectiveThe desire for naturalism to make works of art less symbolic and more natural looking Humanists welcomed the revival of mythological themes providing artists with themes to paint indeed the invention of subjects became a humanist realm In the middle ages subject had to be strictly religion Invented canvas pastels and chalk for artSuch skillful use of light and dark paints to define threedimensional shape became known as Chiaroscuro a style of shading that dominates tone brightness more than color How to recognize renaissance art Two main sources of in uence in Renaissance Classical the use after an interval of almost a millennium of the forms generally applied in Greek and roman art admiration for classical art a deep rooted conviction than classic art like science had its own lawns and that these had been discovered and applied by the artists of ancient Greece and roman Perspective the most striking of a series of revolutionary discoveries The newly discovered technique of perspective gave access to graphic and mathematical rules to be able to reproduce on any at surface with scienti c accuracy the appearance of three dimensionality It enabled and empowered the artist to render realistic forms as a consequence the idea developed that the most essential aspect of any work of art was the artists original intentions his creative power The artist was no longer thought of as simply an artisan but gained the status of an intellectual genius For the Greeks and romans the human body was of central importance as a point of reference for beauty In the Renaissance man and his surroundings were of central signi cance and such was the concern for the appearance of man and nature such that the search for increasingly realistic methods of representation of human body and nature became inevitable realism provided by perspective technique called for ever greater realism in human gures Giotto 12661337 rst paintings with expressions real depth depth balance 3 D background symmetrical Massaccio depth balance 3 D background symmetrical PierodellaFrancesca depth balance 3 D background symmetrical Botticelli more conservative elegance gracefulness from medieval ages mastery of lines gesture drapery and color human gures were elegantly pattered Fra Angelico Lucas Cranach Leonardo da Vinci portrait painting incredible detail facial features color and jewelry Raphael Michelangelo Giovanni Bellini Mantegnapainter of saint Sebastian Donatello nude sculpture Giovanni Dominici Giulio Romano SebaldBeham Andrea del Sarto Humanism understood in the renaissance as the study of the culture of produced human things Petrarch Gutenberginvented printing press giving everyone access to books Printed the rst bible Cosomo Medici rst public library Lorenzo de Medici had a humanist disposition sponsored scholars and artists Landscape painting Rediscovery of pastoral petry of roman poet Virgil about the unspiled beauty of an idealized nature interest in landscape through the evolution of this subject was not completed until after the Renaissance landscape painting became increasingly more important for example townscapes Leonardo thought the painter should refer constantly to what was before his eyes and not to his memory he should not use raw material of nature to extract the ideal from it And it was in rebuttal to this thesis that Michaelangelo in turn saw the artist aim not a as an imitation of nature nor as an idealization based on a collection of the best of this and that but as an expression of an ideal present in his own mind Ancient Rome and Greece Middle Ages 400sl300s Renaissance l300s1550s Michaelangelo died in 1564 Mannerismmanierism 1520s1590s Baroque 1590sl720s Rococo l700l720s Neoclassism 17501830 Romanticism 17901880 Realism 18301870 Impressionism precursor 18631890 France Post Impressionism 18861905 France Pointillism 18801905 France Fauvism 1904 1909 France Cubism Expresionism Mexican Surrealism l930s50s Impressionism in latin America l930sl950s Mexican Murallism l920s40s Impressionism changed traditional painting reality cannot be fully grasped and reality is not centered Only captures an instant in time Truth to senstation Light governs all Shadows Paintings are fragmentary sections of nature Perspective unimportant indistinct depth and space New variations of color Cubism 1900s Further questioning traditional western notions Reality cant be grasped Multiple angles in nite number of angles so it cannot privilege frontal view only Impressionism characteristics Visible brush stokes Unusual visual angles Appearance of movement Emphasis on ght and its changing qualities Short thick strokes of paint applied guickly to capture the essence of the subject rather than detail Bright bold palette Capturing light through color shadows cast complementarycolors of subject Open composition High horizontal line different perspective Characteristics of the impressionist movement Developed a new way of seeing Emphasis on ordinary subject matter Took painting outdoors and focused on landscapes or scenes not portraits Captured a moment and movement of candid poses and compositions such as in photography Candid snapshot Shows relaxed boundary between subject and background no clear distinction between subject and background Colors side by side to create a vibrant surface In uence of Japanese PrintsJapanese woodblock prints were first seen in France in the 1850s and soon became immensely popular Many of the French and American Impressionists collected these prints The prints both inspired and confirmed the Impressionists own ideas about color and form revealing a very different approach to composition than that of the Western tradition Japanese artists combine areas of solid color with stylized outlines emphasizing the surface pattern of the print rather than the illusion of space beyond the picture plan While European artists created a sense of space and depth using perspective Japanese printmakers implied spatial relationship by placing one object behind another in overlapping planesIn his depiction of Bow Bridge a local subject of that crossed the river behind Miss Florence s Hoffman demonstrates his knowledge of Japanese prints His rather stylized treatment of this subject increasing the arch of the timber bridge and his emphasis upon pattern call to mind Japanese artist Hiroshige Diego Rivera master of composition and space colorist and illustrating capacity fascinated by cubism In uences are multiple fascinated by cubism and renaissance Cinematographic detail and story telling Cubism as a revolutionary movements questioning everything that had previously been said and done in art as the old world Europe would soon blow its self apart WW1 never to be the same again so Cubism broke down f Mexican mural painting springs not only from the change in social consciousness represented by the Mexican revolution but also from the change in aesthetic perception that constitutes the European artistic revolution European Avantgarde Mexico was to all intents and purposes closed to European avantgarde in uences Siqueiros our movement runs contrary to the European avantgard we deny art for arts sake Siquieros and orozco lacked riveras European experience they nonetheless profited fromthenewfreedomo hetreatment if form and color that derived from expressionism and the spirit of experimentation that had taken the place in Europe away from adherence to academic precepts Orozocoexpressionism Mexico city Rio de Janiero Europeans Africans Native Americans racial groups Spanish Porteguese English and French langugages The moving forces behind the muralist were two The Mexican revolution and the concurrent rediscovery of the spirit the inherent worth and the deep rooted culture of the Mexican people all of which had been obscured by the Europeanizing tendencies of the long period 18761911 of Porfirio Diaz Presidency No more exploitation of resources no more oppressing peasants and workers no more Diaz There were the new tendencies abroad in the old world polarized divided around the right to dare everything as Paul Gauguin put it Avant Gardemeans the foremost part of an army advancing into battle Applied to art it means that which is innovative which introduces and explores primarily forms but also new subject matter Some 201h century avantgarde movements such as cubism for example have focused mainly on innovations of form others such as surrealism have had strong social programs In general critics fix its origin in the 1920s emerging out of the Dada movement in Switzerland while others place it in the preceding 2 decades Others fix it with the opening of the salon des refuses in Paris 1863 French impressionist and yet others with realism in 1850s Since its emerging the avanatgarde was followed by successive movements we call modern art The avant grade was usually associated with marginalized artists writers composers thinkers who s work is opposed to mainstream values and has an abrasive social or political edge often associated with socialist views The avantgarde artist was considered an autonomous voice seeing ahead of and against the majority s view opening the path of a new society Thus avantgarde has