Great Ages Ancient World (I)
Great Ages Ancient World (I) IAH 221A
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeanette Collins on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAH 221A at Michigan State University taught by Carl Anderson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see /class/207595/iah-221a-michigan-state-university in OTHER at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Liberalism belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights Nationalism modern movement A strong identi cation of a group of individuals with a political entity de ned in national terms In Latin America national feelings grew strong in the Spanish colonies This happened because of the unhappy relationship between the Creoles or the Americanbom Spaniards and the European Spaniards Latin America the part of the Western Hemisphere south of the US in Mexico Central America the West Indies amp South America where Spanish Portuguese amp French are the of cial languages Mestizo people of mixed European and Native American heritage or descent The term originated as a racial category in the Caste System that was in use during the Spanish Empire s control of their American colonies it was used to describe those who had one Europeanborn parent and one was member of an indigenous American population In the Caste System mestizos had fewer rights than European born persons called Penninsular and Creoles who were persons born in the new world of two European born parents but more rights than Indios and Negros When the colonies started gaining independence from Spain the mestizo group often became dominant Double meaning of mixed cultural heritage and actual racial descent Guantanamera the best known Cuban song and that county s most noted patriotic song Jose Fernandez I Social Studies political science psychology sociology 1 criminology social work labor relations and history at MSU Area Studies accelerated sharply after WWH in direct response to changing global realities became part of US arsenal for ghting the Cold War USDEA to strengthen the national defense and to encourage and assist in the expansion and improvement of educational programs to meet critical national needs and for other purposes Emergence of the disciplines Globalization increased globalization increased political democracy regional economies societies and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication transportation and trade Rational Choice Theory attempts to explain all conforming and deviant social phenomenon in terms of how selfinterested individuals make choices under the in uence of their preferences It treats social exchange as similar to economic exchange where all parties try to maximize their advantage or gain and minimize their disadvantage or loss RCT s basic premises are 1 base behavior on rational calculations 2 act with rationality when making choices and 3 their choices are aimed at optimization of their pleasure or pro t act rationally in pursuit of given objectives rst hand observation need decreases reemphasis on conventional disciplines Social Constructionism the ways that language shapes culture the ways social phenomena develop in social contexts PreColumbian literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus39s voyages of 1492 in practice the phrase usually is used to denote the entire history of American indigenous cultures until those cultures were conquered or signi cantly in uenced by Europeans even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus39s initial landing 9Many pre Columbian civilizations established hallmarks which included permanent or urban settlements agriculture civic and monumental architecture major earthworks and complex societal hierarchies Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the rst permanent European arrivals c late 15tharly 16th centuries and are known only through archaeological investigations Others were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in historical accounts of the time A few such as the Maya had their own written records Conguistado Spanish conqueror Calafate Berber invasion and other intemal division among Muslims lead to end of caliphate by 1032 Moors Muslims from North Africa mixed Berber and Arab descent Berbers Indigenous people of North Africa Iberia in 910 Iberians under Moorish rule began to talk about a reconquest of this territory Transculturation process of culture change Cuban sociologist describe process of which there were elements that came together form something new Give and take process esp in cities Usually occurred along with some kind of race mixing Reconguist Middle of 900 s increased tolerance by Christians of nonChristians especially Spanish Jews Jews responsible for Christ s torture and death 1250 papal bull edict 9 rule law reg Jews in Spain including the order that Jews wear yellow badges Massacres of Jews in 1366 and 1391 Pressure to convert including forced conversions Division between Old Christians and New Christians Conversos Old Christians and New Christians 9 new newlyrecently converted Isabella and Ferdinand Wed in 1469 resume the Reconquista Take Granada in 1492 forcing last Moors out of Iberia Issue Alahambra decree in 1492 Alahambra Decree 1492 ordered expulsion of all Jews from Spain 1492 Columbus lands in Caribbean Alahambra Decree Columbus A argued that the earth was round size of ocean to the west very wrong Discoverer looking for a new route to India Conguest and Colonization Contact 4 key episodes 1492 Columbus lands in Caribbean 1500 Cabral lands in Brazil 15191521 Cortes in valley of Mexico 1532 Pizarro in Cajamarca Peru Arawak First people Columbus comes into contact with spears and gold indigenous people of the West Indies Encomienda System Santoo Domingo 1496 give ruling class enormous power care for and protect indigenous people by awarding part of their labor and produce to men who had served the crown receiver of grantiencomenderos The encomendero was to convert people to Catholicism while acculturating them to European standards In return the encomendero was authorized to collect tribute and receive personal services from his wards The encomienda had its roots in the Spanish ReconquistaProtect and educate them in Christian faith and receive labor in return protection from other indigenous groups couldn t be inherited couldn t sell or trade laborproperty from encomienda encomienda labor could not be moved Slave labor is dying response slavery African 1500 s when Cabral lands in Brazil Forced Labor decimated foragers slavery also did Indigenous peoples Reguirimiento document read aloud by the Spanish conquistadores of the early sixteenth century to native peoples in the Americas demanding that they submit themselves to Spanish rule and to Christianity Cabral regarded as the discoverer of Brazil 1500 Bound for Indies around Africa on the new route to return with spices and establish trade with Indies Brazil parallels to Caribbean experience large grants to encourage settlement captaincies bigger land grants relied on by 39 39 J 39 quot of39 J39 r r 39 quot along coast introduction of African slaves Rather than gold emphasis is on agriculture and sugar early on gold in the interior extracted by panning African slave labor replaced indigenous labor mines run out EXPORT CROPS sugar Cortes and Montezuma meet Nov 8m 1519 Cortes not trying to kill but force into labor Cortes sent to search for gold and labor 1519 search for Mexico Made allies with Indian peoples Conquer Montezuma and the Aztec Empire Montezuma ruler of Aztecs Sent gifts to Cortes Mexica indigenous people from the Valley of Mexico aka Aztecs arrive in Central Valley from North around 1200 founded the cities Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco Spoke Nahuatl Aztec leading role in establishing the hegemonic empire based at Tenochtitlan the Mexica Hire themselves as mercenaries soldiers to various Nahua citystates Allowed to settle on the edge of Culhuacan Con ict with Culhuas forces relocation to what will become Tenochtitlan mandatory education Pizarro quotdiscoveredquot the Incan empire and conquered it brutally and quickly stealing immense hoards of gold silver and other treasures Founder of Lima Peru assassinated by Cortes captain Pedro de Almagro Peru Founded by Pizarro Inca largest empire in preColumbian America Cusco in modern day Peru referred to empire as Tawantinsuyu Tupac was a rebel got killed Ecuador and Columbia conquered by Pizarro May art architecture math and astronomy systems written language of the preColumbian Americas M h of Technological Superiori the belief that the success of the Spanish conquest was due to either the supposed technological superiority of the Spaniards or a kind of inherent cultural superiority 7 and that Spanish victory was therefore inevitable the factors behind the success of the conquistadors were mostly the devastating effect of European diseases for which the Indians had no resistance the disunity between indigenous groups some of which allied with the Spaniards early the technological advantage of the steel sword native battle practices that were not upheld by the Spaniards M h of Communication beliefs that the Spaniards and natives had perfect communication and that each group understood the other s words and intentions unhindered or alternatively that many of the crucial events of the conquest were a result of the two groups misunderstanding each others39 intentions the natives cannot be said to have crucially misunderstood or misinterpreted the Spaniards intentions but rather that they had a good understanding of how the Spanish worked at a very early stage in the conquest Patriarchy Iberian law based on it husbands have legal control over wives and children social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization and where fathers hold authority over women children and property It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege and is dependent on female subordination Viceroyalty relatively large territory that is ruled by a Viceroy historically created to allow for easier governance of colonial Empires viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru created around the silver mining centers Zacatecas and Potosi near centers of preHispanic empires Hegemony base don consent not just power to coerce changing ways that people understand the world and their place in it System of domination in which subordinates comply with this system by internalizing its values values and views of dominant group come to be felt as common sense system of power and domination power operates on realms of culture and daily life not only in politics and law getting people to buy in becomes crucial project Sor Juana 16511695 scholar poet writer nun woman punished by the church made to behave as a proper woman