Criminology CJ 220
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurelia Tromp on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 220 at Michigan State University taught by Cedric Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/207602/cj-220-michigan-state-university in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Outline for Chapter 3 I Victimologists A Criminologists who focus on crime victims 11 Problems of Crime Victims A NCVS estimates 24 million victimizations occur each year in the US B Economic Loss 1 Property and productivity losses run in the hundreds of billions 2 System costs cost of the justice system legal costs and treatment costs total monetary loss due to crime is about 450 billion annually or 1800 per US citizen 3 Individual costs victims may suffer losses in earnings and occupational attainment as well as psychological andor physical problems C System abuse 1 Victims may suffer additional victimization by the justice system and medical profession a Calloused attitudes of police counselors prosecutors etc b Rape victims report adverse treatment from medical and mental health providers D Long term stress 1 Victims may suffer stress and anxiety long after the incident 2 Adolescent abuse victims report lower self esteem and suicidal tendencies are at higher risk of being abused again are more likely to run away from home and may experience eating disorders and social problems including homelessness 3 Spousal abuse victims are often psychologically abused in addition to being physically abused 4 Some victims have to deal with a resulting physical disability including a growing number who suffer paralyzing spinal cord injuries E Fear 1 Fundamental life changeiview world more suspiciously 2 Victims of violent crime are the most deeply affected 3 Rather than forgetting the past some have found confronting it to be therapeutic F Antisocial behavior 1 Strong evidence that people who are crime victims seem more likely to commit crimes themselves Neglect physical and sexual abuse experienced as a child increases the odds a victim will later be arrested 2 Cycle ofviolence a Abusecrime phenomenonichildren more likely to engage in violent behavior if they were i The target of physical abuse ii Exposed to violent behavior among adults they knew or lived with andor were exposed to weapons III The Nature of Victimization A Social Ecology of Victimization 1 Violent crimes are more likely to take place in open public areas or at a commercial location during the daytime or early evening 2 More serious crimes eg rape usually occur after 6pm while less serious B The Victim crimes eg larceny take place during the day s Household 1 Black western and urban households are the most vulnerable to crime Rural white and northeastern homes are least likely to contain crime victims 2 People who own their home are less vulnerable than renters 3 Recent declines in household victimization rates ay be due to an increase in smaller households in less populated areas C Victim Characteristics 1 Gender 2 Age a Except for rape and sexual assault males are more likely to be victimized b Females are more often victimized by someone they know while males are more often victimized by strangers c Gender differences in the victimization rate seem to be narrowing a Age and victimization are tied to lifestyle b Younger people face a greater victimization risk than older people c Elderly are more susceptible to a narrow band of crimes such as frauds and scams d With a growing segment of the population over the age of 65 elder abuse has increased 150 since 1986 3 Social status a Poor are more likely to suffer violent and property crimes b Wealthy are at highest risk for personal theft crimes 4 Marital status a Nevermarried people are victimized more than married people b Widows and widowers have the lowest victimization rate 5 Race and ethnicity a Blacks are more likely than whites to be violent crime victims b Rate of black victimization has been declining and the racial gap seems to be narrowing 6 Repeat victimization a Prior victims have a significantly higher chance of future victimization than nonvictims b Victims of chronic or repeat victimizations possess a personal characteristic that make them a magnet for predators i Target vulnerabilityiphysical or psychological weakness makes them easy targets ii Target gratifiabilityihaving attractive possessions that the offender wants iii Target antagonismipossession of characteristics that make the offender angry or jealous D Victims and their Criminals 1 Most crimes are committed by a single offender over age 20 2 Crime tends to be intraracial offendervictim are of the same race 3 Substance abuse is involved in about 13 of violent crimes 4 Relatives or acquaintances commit over 50 of violent crimes 5 Victimization is common among family members IV Theories of Victimization A Victim Participation Theory 1 Some people may actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury or death 2 Active precipitation when victims act provocatively use threats or ghting words or attack first 3 Passive precipitation when the victim exhibits some personal characteristic that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker B Lifestyle Theory 1 People may become crime victims because their lifestyle increases their exposure to criminal offenders 2 Highrisk lifestyles include drinking taking drugs getting involved in crime runaways etc 3 Victims and criminals a career as a criminal may predispose one to be victimized C Deviant Place Theory 1 Victims do not encourage crime but are victimprone because they reside in socially disorganized highcrime areas 2 Deviant places are poor densely populated highly transient neighborhoods 3 Residents have to try harder to protect themselves because they live with many motivated offenders or if possible may move D Routine Activities Theory 1 Articulated by Cohen and Felson states that they volume and distribution of predatory crime are closely related to the interaction of three variables that re ect the routine activities of the typical American lifestyle 2 Three variables a Availability of suitable targets homes with salable goods b Absence of capable guardians police homeowners neighbors friends relatives c The presence of motivated offenders such as a large number of unemployed teens 3 Hot spots a place where potentially motivated criminals congregate elevating the chances of victimization 4 Moral guardianship moral beliefs and socialization may in uence the routine activities that produce crime 5 Lifestyle opportunity and routine activities a A person s living arrangement can affect their risk those who live in unguarded areas are at the mercy of motivated offenders b Lifestyle affects the opportunity for crime because it controls a person s proximity to criminals time of exposure to criminals attractiveness as a target and ability to be protected 6 Empirical support a Cohen and Felson argue that crime increased between 1960 and 1980 due to fewer guardians in the home women in the workforce b With the growth of suburbia the volume of easily transportable wealth increased creating a greater number of targets c Skyrocketing drug use in the 1980s created an excess of motivated offenders V Caring for the Victim A The Govemment s Response 1 President Reagan created a Task Force on Victims of Crime in 1982 Their recommendations a Balancing victim s rights with defendant s due process b Providing victims and witnesses with protection from intimidation c Requiring restitution in criminal cases d Developing guidelines for fair treatment of victims and witnesses e Expanding victim compensation programs 2 Omnibus Victim and Witness Protection Act a Required the use of victim impact statements at federal criminal case sentencing protection for witnesses stringent bail laws and restitution 3 Comprehensive Crime Control Act and Victims of Crime Act 1984 a Authorized federal funding for state victim compensation and assistance projects B Victim Service Programs 1 An estimated 2000 victimwitness assistance programs have developed in US 2 Victim compensation victims may receive compensation from the state for losses incurred during the crime a Most states have a lack of funding b Compensation is made for medical bills loss of wages loss of future earnings counseling and emergency assistance 3 Victim of Crime Act VOCA 1984 a Grants money to states for funding of victim compensation programs and victim assistance programs such as rape crisis centers and domestic violence shelters 4 Court services assist victims to deal with the criminal justice system 5 Public education designed to familiarize the public about victim services and the agencies that assist victims
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