Criminology CJ 220
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurelia Tromp on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 220 at Michigan State University taught by Cedric Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/207602/cj-220-michigan-state-university in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Outline for Chapter 12 7 Property Crime 1 A Brief History of Theft A Economic Crimes 1 Are acts in violation of the criminal law designed to bring nancial reward to the offender B Theft has been recorded throughout history 1 llLh Century Crusades inspired peasants and noblemen to prey upon passing pilgrims 2 13 Century peasants poached the king s game and robbed strangers 3 l4Lh Century livestock thieves 4 15Lh and l6Lh Centuries Hundred Years Wariforeign mercenaries looted and pillaged the countryside 5 18Lh Century three groups of property criminals were active a Skilled thieves b Smugglers c Poachers 11 Modern Thieves A Occasional criminals 1 Most thefts are committed by occasional criminals 2 Other theft offenders are in fact skilled professional criminals 3 The great majority of economic crimes are the work of amateur criminals a Whose decision to steal is spontaneous b Whose acts are unskilled impulsive and haphazard 4 There are millions of adults whose behavior may occasionally violate the criminal law 5 Occasional property crime occurs when there is an opportunity or situational inducement to commit crime a Shortterm in uences on a person s behavior that increase risk taking b Opportunity and situational inducements are not the cause of crime they are the occasion for crime c The opportunity to commit crime and the shortrun inducements to do so are not randomly situated d Some people typically poor young males have an ample supply of both 6 Occasional criminals have little group support for their acts B Professional criminals 1 Professional criminals make a significant portion of their income from crime 2 Professionals pursue their craft with vigor 3 They attempt to learn from older experienced criminals 4 Professional theft traditionally refers to nonviolent forms of criminal behavior a Undertaken with a high degree of skill for monetary gain b That exploit interests tending i To maximize nancial opportunities ii To minimize the possibilities of apprehension 5 Three career patterns of professional thieves and criminals a Youth come under the in uence of older experienced criminals who teach them the trade b Juvenile gang members continue their illegal activities at a time when most of their peers have dropped out in order to i Marry ii Raise families iii Take conventional jobs c Youth sent to prison for minor offenses learn the techniques of crime from more experienced thieves C Sutherland s professional criminal l The Professional Thief 2 Conwell and Sutherland s concept of professional theft has two critical dimensions a Professional thieves engage in limited types of crime b The exclusive use of wits front a believable demeanor and talking ability 3 In their world thief is a title worn with pride 4 Sutherland and Conwell view professional theft as an occupation with much the same internal organization as legitimate professions 5 Professional thieves have changed their behavior over time in response to crime control technology D The professional fence 1 Some experts have argued that Sutherland s view of the professional thief may be outdated because a Modern thieves often work alone b They are not part of a criminal subculture c They were not tutored early in their careers by other criminals 2 Research efforts show that the principles set down by Sutherland still have value a The fence s critical role in criminal transactions has been recognized since the eighteenth century b They act as middlemen who purchase stolen merchandise and resell it to merchants who market them to legitimate customers 3 According to Goodman to be successful a fence must meet the following criteria a Upfront cash b Knowledge of dealing c Connections with suppliers of stolen goods d Connections with buyers e Complicity with law enforcers 4 Fencing seems to contain many of the elements of professional theft as described by Sutherland E The nonprofessional fence 1 A significant portion of all fencing is performed by amateur or occasional criminals 2 One type of occasional fence is the part timer who unlike professional fences has other sources of income 3 Some merchants become actively involved in theft either by specifying the merchandise they want the burglars to steal or by fingering victims 4 Associational fences 5 Neighborhood hustlers 6 Amateur receivers IV Larceny Theft A Larceny today 1 Larceny is usually separated by state statute into a Petit petty larceny b Grand larceny value of the property taken is greater than that set for petit larceny B Shoplifting 1 Retail security measures add to the already high cost of this crime all of which is passed on to the consumer 2 Pro le of a shoplifter a Cameron found that about 10 percent of all shoplifters were professionals who derived the majority of their income from shoplifting b Cameron found that the majority of shoplifters are amateur pilferers c Criminologists view shoplifters as people who are likely to reform if apprehended 3 Controlling shoplifting a Many states encourage the arrest of shoplifters b Many states have passed merchant privilege laws designed to protect retailers and their employers from litigation from improper or false arrests of suspected shoplifters c Privilege laws require i That arrests be made on reasonable grounds or probable cause ii That detention be of short duration iii That store employees or security guards conduct themselves in a reasonable fashion 4 Prevention strategies a Target removal strategies b Target hardening strategies c Situational measures i Place the most valuable goods in the least vulnerable places ii Use warning signs to deter potential thieves iii Use closed circuit cameras C Bad checks 1 Lemert a Found that the majority of check forgers are amateurs who do not believe their actions will hurt anyone b Lemert calls them na39139ve check forgers 2 Na39139ve check forgers cash bad checks because of a nancial crisis that demands an immediate resolution 3 Na39139ve check forgers are often socially isolated people who have been unsuccessful in their personal relationships 4 They are risk prone when faced with a situation that is unusually stressful for them 5 Check fraud schemes and techniques 6 Lemert found that a few professional systematic forgers make a substantial living by passing bad checks D Credit card theft 1 Fraud has been responsible for a billiondollar loss in the credit card industry 2 Compounded by thieves who set up bogus internet sites 3 Congress passed a law in 1971 limiting a person s liability to 50 per stolen card E Auto theft 1 Motor vehicle theft is another common larceny offense 2 Detailed typologies developed by Charles McCaghy and his associates a Joyriding b Shortterm transportation c Longterm transportation d Pro t e Commission of another crime 3 Which cars are stolen the most a Car thieves show signs of rational choice in their target selections b Typically choose vehicles because of the high profit potential after stripping the component parts which are then sold on the black market c Car models that have been in production for a few years without many design changes stand the greatest risk of theft 4 Carjacking a Both victims and offenders in carjackings tend to be young black men b Weapons were used in about three quarters of all carjacking victimizations 5 Combating auto theft a One approach to theft deterrence increase the risks of apprehension b The Lojack system c Other prevention efforts involve making it more difficult to steal cars publicity campaigns closed circuit television and security systems in autos F False Pretenses or Fraud 1 False pretense differs from traditional larceny because the victims willingly give their possessions to the offender 2 Fraud may also occur when people conspire to cheat a third party or institution G Confidence games 1 Pigeon drop quotpigeonquot is convinced to give up a sum of money in order to secure the rights to a larger sum of money or more valuable object In reality the scammers make off with the money and the mark is left with nothing 2 Telemarketers 3 Pyramid schemes nonsustainable business model that involves the exchange of money primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme often without any product or service being delivered 4 Shady contractors H Embezzlement usually stealing money from a company 1 Embezzlement was first codified in law by the English Parliament during the sixteenth century 2 The number of people arrested for embezzlement has increased more than 40 since 1991 3 Rash of embezzlementtype crimes around the world V Burglary A The nature and extent of burglary 1 State jurisdictions have changed the legal requirements of burglary and most have discarded the necessity of forced entry 2 Many legal requirements now protect all structures not just dwelling houses B Residential burglary 1 Some burglars are crude thieves 2 Others plan out a strategy 3 Burglary has been a crime long associated with professional thieves who carefully learn their craft 4 Gender differences in burglary a Men typically become involved in burglary with male peers b Women are more often introduced to crime by their boyfriends c Men prefer to commit residential burglaries alone d Women commit residential burglaries with others C Commercial burglary 1 Some burglars prefer to victimize commercial property rather than private homes 2 Retail stores are burglars favorite targets 3 Establishments located within three blocks of heavily traveled thoroughfares have been found to be less vulnerable to burglary than those located farther away 4 Alarms a Have been found to be an effective deterrent to burglary b Are less effective in isolated areas c Burglary of nonalarmed properties is 457 times higher than that of similar property with alarms D Careers in burglary 1 Some criminals make burglary their career 2 They continually develop new and specialized skills to aid their profession 3 Characteristics of the good burglar a Technical competence b Maintenance of personal integrity c Specialization in burglary d Financial success e The ability to avoid prison sentences 4 Shover found that novices must develop four key requirements of the trade a The must learn the many skills needed to commit lucrative burglaries b The good burglar must be able to team up to form a criminal gang c The good burglar must have inside information d The good burglar must cultivate fences or buyers for stolen goods 5 The burglary career ladder a Begin as young novices b The journeyman stage c Become professional burglars 6 Repeat burglary a Research suggests that burglars may in fact return to the scene of the crime to repeat their offenses b Research shows that some burglars repeat their acts to steal these replacement goods VI Arson A There are several motives for arson 1 Adult arsonists may be motivated by sever emotional turmoil 2 Some psychologists view re starting as a function of a disturbed personality 3 It is alleged that arsonists often experience sexual pleasure from starting res 4 Fires are started by angry people looking for revenge against property owners 5 Fires are started by teenagers out to vandalize property
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