Criminology CJ 220
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurelia Tromp on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 220 at Michigan State University taught by Cedric Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see /class/207602/cj-220-michigan-state-university in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Outline for Chapter 11 1 Political Crime A The term political crime is used to signify illegal acts that are designed to undermine existing government and to threaten its survival 1 Can include both violent and nonviolent acts 2 Extremely subjective in nature B The Nature of Political Crimes 1 May stem from religious or ideological sources 2 Most political criminals do not consider themselves antisocial but instead patriotic and altruistic 3 Political criminals may believe that their acts are criminalized only because the group holding power fears them and wants to curtail their behavior C The Goals of Political Crime 1 Intimidation 2 Revolution 3 Pro t 4 Conviction 5 Pseudoconviction D Becoming a Political Criminal l Motivations varied and compleX 2 Some regularity in the way ideas are formed 7 cognitive stages a Stage 1 It s not right A dissatis ed individual identi es some type of undesirable event or condition b Stage 2 It s not fair The individual concludes that the undesirable condition is a product of injustice 7 that is it does not apply to everyone c Stage 3 It s your fault Someone of some group must be held accountable d Stage 4 You re evil Aggression becomes justi able when aimed against those identi ed as bad By casting a target as bad or evil it dehumanizes them and makes justifying aggression even eas1er 11 Types of Political Crimes A Election Fraud 1 Illegal interference with the process of an election altruistic goal or for pro t B Treason a intimidation b disruption c Misinformation d registration fraud e vote buying 1 An act of disloyalty to one s nation or state 2 There have been fewer than 40 prosecutions for treason in the entire history of the United States a to be guilty of treason an over act must be committed planning is not enough 3 Many nations apply the death penalty for treason 4 The only crime mentioned in the Constitution a in adhering to their Enemies giving them Aid and Comfort and requires testimony of two witnesses or a confession in open court for conviction 5 United States Criminal Code defines treason as whoever owing allegiance to the United States levies war against them or adheres to their enemies giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere is guilty of treason C Espionage 1 More commonly referred to as spying 7 is the practice of obtaining information about a government organization or society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information 2 Typically associated with spying on potential or actual enemies by a foreign agent who is working for his or her nation s intelligence service 3 Motivations ideology andor profit 4 Industrial Espionage a Spying involving corporations b Involves bribing employees to reveal trade secrets or product formulas c Traditional methods recruiting agents and inserting them into the target company or breaking into an office to steal equipment or information d Today also includes surveillance to determine new product lines or upcoming bids on contracts 5 Foreign Industrial Espionage a Corporate espionage carried out by foreign agents b Top Targets biotechnology aerospace telecommunications computer software transportation energy research defense and semiconductor companies c Facilitating factors Globalization and technology d Espionage by foreign governments i Targeting US firms for technology that would strengthen their foreign defense systems ii Posting personnel at US military bases to collect classified information bolster military modernization efforts iii Employing commercial firms in the US in a cover effort to target and acquire US technology iv Recruiting students professors scientists and researchers to engage in technology collection V Making direct requests for classi ed sensitive or exporting controlled information vi Forming ventures with US rms in hopes of placing collectors in proximity to sensitive technologies or else establishing foreign research 6 Legal Controls a prior to 1996 no federal statute b 1996 Congress enacted the Economic Espionage Act EEA that criminalized the theft of trade secrets Two provision i Penalizes domestic spying ii Penalizes foreign agents from stealing American trade secrets c Convictions under the EEA rare 7the first in 2001 D State Political Crime 1 Acts perpetrated by state authorities against the people they are supposed to serve state political crime arises from the efforts of the state to maintain government power or to uphold the race class and gender advantages of those who support the government 2 Five varieties of state political crime a Political corruption b Illegal domestic surveillance c Human Rights violations d State violence e Statecorporate crime E Using torture 1 Considered the most heinous of state political crimes 2 Issue is torture ever justifiable a The ticking bomb scenario b Opponents of torture believe that even imminent danger does not justify state violence i Such statesponsored violence would become calculated and premeditated ii Torturers would have to be trained ready and in place for the ticking bomb arguments to work c Little evidence suggesting torture provides any real benefits d Torture generates public sympathy for victims 3 Critics complain that government agencies such as the CIA use torture without legal authority 4 Legal scholars argue that torture violates international treaties and domestic statutes a case of Boumediene et al v Bush President of the United States b indefinite detention c terrorists eligible for habeas corpus 5 Waterboarding Controversy a What constitutes torture and what constitutes rm legal interrogation methods IV Terrorism A Dif cult to precisely de ne and to separate terrorist acts from interpersonal crimes of violence a Political crime carried out against government not common law offense b Usually force against innocent people c They were not tutored early in their careers by other criminals d US State Dept De nition premeditated politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets e International terrorism involving multiple countries B Terrorist groups amp cells 1 Subdivided af liates into terror cells for organization and security 2 Each cell provides emotional support loyalty and dedication 3 Only cell leader knows how to communicate with other cells 4 Urban focused but may in ltrate rural areas 5 Groups include at least 35 members C Terrorists and insurgents a Insurgent 7 a term created during Iraq war forced opposed to American involvement i covert groups campaigning for extreme violence ii Goal 7 force sharing political power with government iii Not always violent but when violent seeks to convert others to their cause and inspire support iv Different from terrorists because they require support of proportion of population V History of Terrorism 1 Religious roots A A conquered people used force and violence to maintain their right to worship in their own faith B Want to promote supremacy C Inspired by the requirement of beliefs 2 Political Roots A Way to attain power from rulers with absolute power b Term terrorist rst became popular during French Revolution VI Contemporary Forms of Terrorism 1 Revolutionary Terrorism a Use violence to frighten those in power and overthrow it replace it with a government that holds acceptable political or religious views 2 Political Terrorists a Directed at people or groups who oppose the terrorists political ideology or outsiders who they feel must be destroyed 3 Nationalism Terrorism a Oppressed ethnic or religious group who wish to carve its own independent homeland 4 Retributive Terrorism a Wish to impose their social and religious codes on others b Violence is used as in uence and intimidation 5 Statesponsored terrorism a Occurs when government is oppressive to its citizens and sti es their political power 6 Cult Terrorism a Openly endorse murder mass killings have godlike leader stockpile weapons and defense barricades 7 Criminal Terrorism a Involved in crimes such as drug dealing kidnapping weapons trade selling nuclear materials VII How are terrorist groups organized l Networked or hierarchal VIII Motivations l Psychological view a Emotionally disturbed individual act out psychoses through violent groups 2 Alienation View a Lack of economic opportunity b Regular individuals alienated from society c Many have been raised to hate their opponents d Estranged from fathers 3 SocializationFriendship View a Well educated b Upper middle class background c Family encourages terrorism 4 Religious Ideological View a Self sacrifice outweighs killing innocent people b Justi ed through commitment to God IX Response to Terrorism post 911 1 Director of National Intelligence was created a Coordinating data from nation s primary intelligence gathering agencies b Principle intelligence advisor to National Security Council 2 National Counterterrorism Center created a Primary org in US govt for analyzing and integrating all intelligence possessed or acquired by government pertaining to terrorism and counterterrorism with the exception of purely domestic counterterrorism info 3 Increased Federal Law Enforcement 4 Department of Home Security 5 Superagency
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