Criminology CJ 220
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurelia Tromp on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 220 at Michigan State University taught by Cedric Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/207602/cj-220-michigan-state-university in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Outline for Chapter 7 I Socialization and Crime A Social Process Theories l Criminality is a function of individual socialization 2 People are in uenced by interactions with various organizations institutions and processes of society such as education employment and family life and peer relations 3 All people have the potential to become delinquents or criminals B Family Relations 1 Youth from homes with con ict and tension are more likely to become criminal 2 Lack of love can lead to criminality 3 Children with strong positive role models are less likely to become criminal 4 Parental efficacy supportive parents who effectively control their children are more likely to raise children who refrain from delinquency 5 Child abuse and crime C Educational experience 1 Children who do poorly in school lack educational motivation and feel alienated are more likely to engage in criminality 2 Schools label problem youth which contributes to criminality a The track system perpetuates stigmatization 3 More than 10 of Americans age 1624 have left school early national graduation rate is 68 4 Violence in school estimate of 15 million violent incidents in public elementary and secondary schools each year D Peer Relations 1 Peer groups in uence decision making and behavior choices 2 Cliques 3 Crowds 4 Adolescents feel pressure to conform to group values 5 Peer rejectionpeer acceptance a Peer rejection may increasesustain antisocial behaviors b Associating with prosocial friends and coworkers can lure adolescents away from delinquent peer networks 6 Peers and criminality a Delinquent friends may cause lawabiding youth to get into trouble b Deviant peers sustain and amplify delinquent careers c Antisocial friends help youths maintain delinquent careers and obstruct the aging out process d Troubled kids choose delinquent peers out of necessity E Institutional involvement and belief 1 Studies show that religious attendance helps one reject crime and antisocial behavior F Effects of socialization on crime 1 Anyone with a positive self image learned moral values support of their parents peers teachers and neighbors can resist inducement to crime 2 Social process approach an individual s socialization determines the likelihood of criminality a Social learning theory people lea1n the techniques and attitudes of crime from close and intimate relationships with criminal peers crime is a learned behavior b Social control theory everyone has the potential to become a criminal but that most people are controlled by their bonds to society c Social reaction theory people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such and some accept those labels as a personal identity 11 Social Learning Theory A Crime is a product of learning the norms values and behaviors associated with criminal activity B Differential Association Theory 1 Sutherland s 1939 Principles ofCriminality 2 Principles of Differential Association a Criminal behavior is learned b Learning is a byproduct of interaction c Learning occurs within intimate groups d Criminal techniques are learned e Perceptions of legal code in uence motives and drives f Differential associations may vary in frequency duration priority and intensity g The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms involved in any other learning process h Criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values but it is not excused by those general needs and values because noncriminal behavior is also an expression of those same needs an values 3 Testing differential association theory a Research generally indicates a correlation between having deviant friends holding deviant attitudes and committing deviant acts C Differential Reinforcement Theory another attempt to explain crime as a learned behavior 1 Akers and Burgess 1966 a version of social learning that uses both differential association concepts with elements of psychological learning theory 2 Also known as direct conditioning occurs when behavior is reinforced either by being rewarded or punished while interacting with others 3 When behavior is punished this is known as negative reinforcement 4 Testing Differential Reinforcement a Those who believed they would be rewarded for deviance by those they respect were the ones most likely to engage in deviance D Neutralization Theory 1 Matza and Sykes 2 Views the process of becoming a criminal as a learning experience in which potential delinquents and criminals master techniques that enable them to counterbalance or neutralize conventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior 3 Subterranean valuesiare morally tinged in uences that have become entrenched in the culture but are publicly condemned 4 Drift the movement from one extreme of behavior to another 5 Model based on these observations a Criminals sometimes voice a sense of guilt over their illegal acts b Offenders frequently respect and admire honest lawabiding persons c Criminals draw a line between those who they can victimize and those who they cannot d Criminals are not immune to the demands of conformity 6 Techniques of neutralization are a set of justifications for lawviolating behavior a Denial of responsibility claim acts not their fault b Denial of injury criminals are able to neutralize illegal behavior c Denial of victim criminals neutralize wrongdoing of crime by maintaining that the victim of crime had it coming d Condemnation of the condemners offender views the world as a corrupt place with a dogeatdog code e Appeal to higher loyalties novice criminals argue that they are caught in the dilemma of being loyal to their own peer group while at the same time attempting to abide by the rules of the larger society 7 Testing Neutralization Theory a Inconclusive evidence b Most adolescents generally disapprove of deviant behaviors 111 Social Control Theory A Maintains that all people have the potential to violate the law and that modern society presents many opportunities for illegal activity People obey the law because behavior and passions are being controlled by internal and external forces 1 Some have selfcontrol manifested through a strong moral sense 2 Others develop a commitment to conformityiadhered to because of a real present and logical reason to obey the rules of society B SelfConcept and Crime 1 Containment Theory Walter Reckless strong selfimage insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls of criminogenic in uences in the environment 2 SelfEnhancement Theory Howard Kaplan C Hirschi s Social Bond Theory 1 Links the onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society 2 Elements of the social bond a Attachment persons sensitivity to and interest in others b Commitment time energy and effort expended in conventional lines of action such as getting an education and saving money for the future c Involvement involvement in stuff leaves little time for illegal behavior d Belief people who live in the same social setting often share common moral beliefs 3 Testing Social Bond Theory a Youth strongly attached to family friends and school are less likely to get involved in a deviant peer group and less likely to engage in criminal activity IV Social Reaction Theory A Commonly called Labeling Theory B Explains how criminal careers form based on destructive social interactions and encounters C Roots found in symbolic interaction theoryipeople communicate via symbols gestures signs words or images that represent something else D Crime and Labeling Theory 1 Crime and deviance are defined by the social audience s reaction to people and their behavior and the effects of that reaction they are not defined by the moral content of the illegal act itself a Crime and criminal are labels 2 Moral entrepreneurs people who create rules E Differential Enforcement 1 The law is differentially applied bene ting those who hold economic and social power and penalizing the powerless a Police more likely to a1rest lower class minority males b Minorities and the poor are more likely to be prosecuted and to receive harsher sentences F Becoming labeled 1 The less personal power and fewer resources a person has the greater the chance he or she will become labeled G Consequences of labeling 1 Creation of stigma 2 Alienation leads to low self image 3 Differential social control a The process of labeling may produce a reevaluation of the self which re ects actual or perceived appraisals made by others b Re ective role taking 4 Joining deviant cliques
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